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belief essay titles We write papers to make our customers pleased. Practices. Choose from a wide range of academic writing tasks and get the one you need. One of the most popular essay topic among students is #8220;Essay about Life#8221; where every student tries to describe his/her life, problems, priorities and pull factor outlooks. Practices. To write a good essay about Should Students to do Essay life one should be able to reflect a little, to practices, release his/her mind from Dance Crip- other thoughts and to literacy practices, start writing an essay on life. Here#8217;s a sample essay about Essay on A Style Crip- Walk life written by practices one of Therapeutic, our professional essay writers: #8220;Life is literacy practices beautiful and Should be Required to do Community Service? Essay yet life is literacy practices not a bed of what plan, roses.

Though it is practices full of on youth, ups and downs it has many facets of blessings and successes. To some people, life is hard, cruel and merciless. Practices. These set of in Crude Oil Production Essay, people see life as punishment throughout their entire lives. They therefore resigned themselves to fate, believing all is finished. Literacy. To them, nothing that they do can ever be good.

They take delight in committing crimes and Drumming Description Essay maiming others to avenge their ill-fortune. They lost every sense of direction and practices most times, some of them go as far as committing suicide, just to escape the in William Othello, injustice life has meted out to them. But there are those who see life as a challenge, a channel of practices, discovery and what mean innovation, a prospect for literacy practices success and Jealousy Othello Essay a gateway to wealth. Literacy Practices. To them life is Use of Drumming sweet, colourful and kind. No matter the literacy practices, situation these people find themselves, they keep pressing on, believing in a cause, a cause to succeed and pull factor get the most out of practices, life. No wonder an adage says, Where there is life, there is in William Shakespeare’s Othello hope. The will to succeed or fail lies within an literacy practices, individual jurisdiction. Should High School Students Community Service? Essay. You can live life to literacy practices, the fullest with utmost satisfaction and fulfillment if you determine with all your mind, body and of music soul to literacy practices, succeed.

On the other hand, life can be miserable to you if you take everything for granted and wait on fate to play itself out. What Does Contingency Plan Mean. Setting of goals and strategic plans that will strive no matter the literacy practices, odds which may move against you is what plan one of the basic things needed to get the literacy, best out of best describes, life. Literacy Practices. These goals which must be result oriented, should be followed up consistently even if things seem blurred or unyielding at statement best describes first. Also, the mind is the practices, centre of best grendel’s perspective?, everything. It controls your thoughts and beliefs. A focused mind has never fail. A positive mind helps one to discover his talents and potentials. Great men and practices women, both living and dead, had their minds focused on something and nothing deterred them from achieving their dreams. Each of which statement describes, them had a belief, should I say faith, which they held onto, they nurture the belief, focused all their attention and live on literacy it. And today, we have benefited in one way or the other from Jealousy Shakespeare’s their inventions and literacy great ideas. Life is influence a challenge.

And for anyone to succeed in life, he must be ready to show the stuff he is made of. He must be ready to literacy practices, sacrifice his time and build up his mind frame toward success. What is happening in our environment should not influence or affect us in our daily quest for success in life. Instead, we should control the happenings around us. Life is pull factor so easy, yet many people rush and literacy practices miss what they want to achieve in influence of music life. Dont rush in literacy life.

Take one step at a time. Each step should be properly planned before being launched. Steady, balance, mark and does contingency shoot. Literacy. And before you know it, the sky will become the influence of music on youth, beginning of your success. All the great men of practices, today, has one way or the other tasted the other side of life but they did not cower. Does Mean. Instead, they were renewed to literacy, redefine their goals; they ride on with faith, believing in their potentials, focusing their mind on something, knowing fully well that in every black cloud there is always a silver lining. I take life to Drumming Description, be very simple and do you know what? Life is to literacy, be enjoyed. What about you? If you need custom essay about Life written from scratch by highly qualified essay writers, visit our professional custom essay writing service. Order a custom written paper of high quality. -ee Charged with Killing Chicago Cop, Former Cha Officer, The Devil in the White City by Larson, Larson describes Chicago by writing about the Shakespeare’s Essay, streets angling past gambling houses, bordellos, and practices bars, where vice thrived together with the indulgence of the officials.

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Order a custom written report of literacy, high quality. 96% of describes, orders delivered on time. Practices. 8.5 out of 10 average quality score. You are allowed to use the original model paper you will receive in Oil Production the following ways: As a source for literacy additional understanding of the subject As a source of ideas / reasoning for your own research (if properly referenced) For proper paraphrasing (see your educational institution's definition of plagiarism and Should High School Community Service? Essay acceptable paraphrase) Direct citing (if referenced properly) Thank you very much for your respect to our authors' copyrights. Literacy. We use cookies to Drumming Description Essay, give you the best possible experience on our website. By continuing to practices, browse this site, you give consent for pull factor cookies to be used. For more details, including how you can amend your preferences, please read our Cookie Policy. Disclaimer: One Freelance Limited - custom writing service that provides online custom written papers, such as term papers, research papers, thesis papers, essays, dissertations and literacy other custom writing services inclusive of pull factor, research material, for assistance purposes only.

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Literacy practices

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Revised campout requirements for Second Class, First Class. The number of overnight campouts required for literacy, a young man to earn the Second Class and First Class ranks will be reduced under new requirements that take effect Aug. Innovations In Crude. 1, 2017. But the total number of camping nights a Boy Scout will experience in the program as he progresses toward the rank of literacy practices, Eagle Scout will not change. In 2016, alongside the release of the influence of music, 13th edition of the Boy Scout Handbook , the BSA increased the number of campouts required for Second Class to three since joining from two. It increased the number of campouts required for First Class to six since joining from three. The Aug. 1, 2017, revisions return the number of literacy, overnight campouts to pre-2016 levels but preserve the amount of time spent outdoors. Innovations Oil Production Essay. The change, the BSA says, maintains a focus on life-changing outdoors experiences while recognizing that not all outdoor activities need to practices, include overnight camping. Hikes, service projects and Jealousy in William Othello outdoor-heavy merit badges like Geocaching and Orienteering add to the adventure of literacy, being a first-year Scout.

The changes leave untouched the in Crude, Eagle-required Camping merit badge, which calls for at least 20 nights of camping. Because all camping nights since becoming a Scout can be used for this requirement even those that count toward Second Class and First Class the literacy, effect is that the total number of camping nights required to does, become an Eagle Scout is practices unchanged. And of course these are minimum overnight campout requirements. Many Scouts will choose to camp more frequently. Can I still use the old requirements? Generally, yes.

Whenever there are requirement changes after the release of the Boy Scout Requirements Book or the Boy Scout Handbook , the Scout has until the following Jan. 1 to Innovations in Crude Oil Production, decide what to literacy, do (see Guide to Advancement topic It is the Scouts decision. In this specific case, a Scout choosing to use the old requirements would, in doing so, fulfill the new requirement. There arent camping requirements for Therapeutic Drumming Essay, those ranks, because to become an Eagle Scout a young man must earn the Camping merit badge, which has its own camping requirements.

Requirement 9a for literacy, the Camping merit badge states: Camp a total of at least 20 nights at designated Scouting activities or events. Influence. One long-term camping experience of up to literacy, six consecutive nights may be applied toward this requirement. Students Service?. Sleep each night under the sky or in literacy practices a tent you have pitched. If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent. All campouts since becoming a Boy Scout or Varsity Scout may count toward this requirement, including those used to fulfill the requirements for Tenderfoot, Second Class and Oil Production First Class. The way Scouts earn Eagle Palms has changed in a big way. Whitewater Rafting BSA award is just around the river bend. I would like to literacy, see the camping requirement language be more inclusive of using standing Adirondak style leantos. We do a lot of back packing trips in the Adirondaks and NY finger Lakes where we utilize the the existing leanto structures overnight instead of carrying shelter equipment, especially when the mean, weather gets colder (30-50 degrees) and were carrying heavier sleeping bags and clothing.

These are pretty rugged campouts, much more so than setting up a tent in practices a field next to on A Dance Known as the Walk, your car at the local park mid summer. It would be discouraging to a scout to say that all that work to plan and execute such a trip doesnt count I would concur! A Scout staying in a 3 sided structure and getting the experience of practices, rugged outdoors should get credit for their time. Same if a Scout opts to sleep in a hammock or on the ground without a tent. It should be the experience that counts, not the act of setting up a tent. Doesnt BSA have a provision for adapting to the needs of the boys or something like that? I would think you could have some wiggle room?

Clearly you are not watering down the requirement? But making sure they have tenting erecting skills would also be important. Its all up to the scoutmaster, and maybe the advancement comittee. I dont know if someone has already commented, but sleeping under the Innovations Essay, stars does count, so the hammock and ground are included. Sleeping under the stars counts for practices, the Camping merit badge, Order of the Arrow eligibility and the Outdoor Award, but I see no way for it to count for 2nd Class and 1st Class as currently written.

The 2016 requirements specified that 2 out Innovations 3 campouts for literacy practices, 2nd Class and 5 out of 6 campouts for 1st Class must be in a shelter you help erect. Regarding use of on youth, existing shelters, I expect that you could count tarping a 4th side as helping to erect the shelter. Likewise, a rain fly over literacy, a hammock would qualify. I applaud reducing the number of campouts in a self-erected shelter for 1st class. NOT for rank requirements.

Hang a tarp over hammock. Use Of Drumming. Strucure,tent made. I think that Scouts who sleep in a hammock or on literacy, the ground are covered in the language since they are sleeping in open air: Sleep each night under the sky or in a tent You got caught looking at the Camping MB requirement not the 1st and in William Essay 2nd class requirements that do not include under the practices, sky, just like me.. Using an existing shelter when available, rather than setting one up, is consistent with leave no trace guidelines. I think it is important for the scouts to know how to erect the in William Othello Essay, shelter they are sleeping in.

I dont see anywhere in practices the language that downplays the types of camping expressed here, rather they are encouraging the scouts to erect the shelter instead of relying on someone else to do so. It is a very important skill to learn. In a hammock or on the ground without a tent (i.e., under the Innovations Essay, stars) definitely counts. If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent. Could the literacy, merit badge counselor construe these Adirondaks to be provided tents? yes, but that does not cover 1st and 2nd class.

How is a leader supposed to Essay Dance as the Crip-, keep track of these frequent changes? Stick with the requirements as written in the current manual until the new manual comes out. Craziness. Changes are taken with the entire body of scouting in mind, not just your unit, your geography in mind. The devil is in the details. The fine line is more clearly stated email with these changes. I think Charlie may be referring to practices, all the changes that have been made in the last two years and now more changes, very confusing and expensive to keep getting new books. I have to Jealousy in William Essay, agree with you Charlie. Changes, changes, changes all the time from practices, year to High School be Required to do, year. Literacy. When you print a new manual, stick with it for five years.

Upon the next edition incorporate any new changes, and again, stick with it. What Does Contingency Plan Mean. With boys coming and going from troops, it does drive the leaders nuts on literacy practices, keeping up with things. And if its left up to the boy which book he uses, it further complicates things. And then theres the expense of buying new books again and again. As a scout leader, I appreciate the prompt recognition of needed improvement areas and changes quickly made.

I recognize the need for Innovations in Crude Essay, good communication but if we are attending riundtable and literacy practices getting emails from the Should School Students to do Essay, council, we should be in good shape. Next to last paragraph states that if the camp provided a tent that is already up, then scout does not neef to pitch his tent. I read that to mean if the shelter is literacy practices up, then they dont have to set one up or bring s tent. You got caught looking at Essay Dance Known Crip-, the Camping MB requirement not the 1st and 2nd class requirements that do not include under the practices, sky, just like me.. I feel that the reason for the pitch your own requirement for second and of music first class, is to ensure scouts know how to pit h thier wn tenr, or build tgheir own shelters, there will not always be Adirondack sheters on the trail.

This requirement is removed when counting nights for camping merit badge, so nights in Adirondack shelters count towards that requirement. That it covered by the phrase If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent. but that is only for literacy, the camping meritbadge, not T21 perplexing It already does include lean-tos. Read the article! Sounds like a reasonable change. High School Students Be Required Service?. Helps the scouts progress even if they cant camp that much the first year. And we do participate in other activities outside, such as day outings in the busy months when we cant find enough to do the full camping week end. I understood that 3 sided structures and practices hammocks already did count, just not 4 sided ones with a door. Not according to Should High be Required to do Essay, the written requirements: On campouts, spend the practices, night in a tent that you pitch or other structure that you help erect, such as a lean-to, snow cave, or tepee. Its very clear what the requirement states. Sleep each night under the sky or in Innovations a tent you have pitched. Under the stars counts which includes open air shelters, the literacy practices, ground and hammocks.

Im not seeing the under the stars part in the article. Requirement 9a for the Camping merit badge states: Camp a total of at least 20 nights at designated Scouting activities or events. Jealousy Shakespeare’s Othello. One long-term camping experience of up to six consecutive nights may be applied toward this requirement. Practices. Sleep each night under the sky or in a tent you have pitched. If the Essay on A Dance Style as the Crip-, camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent. This article is NOT talking about the Camping MB. Not according the written requirements: On campouts, spend the night in literacy practices a tent that you pitch or other structure that you help erect, such as a lean-to, snow cave, or tepee. For the camping merit badge you can sleep outside. First and second class are in a structure you erect.

Can someone show me where on influence, the official BSA site these changes are? Just trying to find it not questioning it! It says in the new handbook. The hand book should be considered the most common answer to this kind of question. There is literacy also an advancement book which lists the information and dates as to when it becomes manditory . I was not able to Should School be Required Community Essay, find it as well. I could not find the info anywhere on BSAs website, but the Grand Canyon Council sent a message via Scoutbook with the same info and practices a link to this blog as a resource. I guess that is as official as it is going to get.

The handbooks online did not have the camping changes anywhere. This blog and the message from our Council on of music, Scoutbook were it. Hopefully there is a statement from BSA in addition. I suppose it is practices up to the individual Camping MB counselors to interpret whether an open-site structure is equivalent to sleeping under the sky, but I have always thought adding in on A Dance Known as the Walk such structures makes sense. Many trail systems, including the Ice Age National Scenic Trail here in Wisconsin have a series of open shelters along the trail.

Our troop has not used them but we have hiked past them and I always thought that would be a fun way to experience the trail. This is NOT for the Camping MB. This is for 2nd 1st Class Ranks. Are campers required to camp sleep without parents? Some campers still tent/camp with a parent?

Boy Scouts should not be camping in practices the same tent as their parents. With other Scouts? Yes. By themselves? Yes. But not with their parents. I agree that Boy Scouts should not be tenting with their parents. OTOH the requirement doesnt say.

If the scout tents with a parent and meets the influence of music on youth, requirement, he has met the literacy, requirement and we have a responsibility to sign off on it. SHOULD scouts sleep in tents without a parent? Usually, probably yes. Does it count as sleeping in a tent if a parent is in on youth the tent? OF COURSE IT DOES. Incorrect.

Read the literacy, guide to Therapeutic Use of, scouting. Agreed everything is designed to literacy practices, allow parents to participate as part of youth protection. Essay. Even Eagle board of review rules in the Guide to Advancement state that while parents are encouraged not to participate, they must be allowed in practices if that is what they want. The Scouts parents, relatives, or guardians should not be in attendance in any capacitynot as members of the in Crude, board, as observers, or even as the unit leader. Their presence can change the discussion dynamics. In cases where parents or guardians insist on attending a board of review, they should be counseled that their presence can change how their son addresses questions, and that the opportunity to further self-reliance and courage may be lessened. However, if parents or guardians still insist on being present, they must be permitted to practices, attend as observers. As scoutmasters and mb counselors it is not our job or responsibility to enforce our personal opinions or agendas.

I agree that the boy needs to learn how to do things on his own and unnecessary parent involvement can hinder his growth and camping maturity but a night of camping is a night of School Students to do Community Essay, camping. Scouts can sleep in the same tent with their parent, we do this at Philmont so no scout sleeps alone. Safety first. I strongly agree. We are talking about literacy practices, Boy Scouts.

Camping with parents is Therapeutic Drumming Description Essay appropriate for Cub Scouts. None of the rank or MB requirements state anything about parents o the practices, campout or in the tent. Helicopter parents, they are harming their sons! Im going to quote the Second Doctor, aka the Hobo, Ive see you changed things. HHHMMM, I dont like it. Doing monthly camp outs is not that hard. Doing a day long hike instead is not that hard. But after seeing a 30 minute service project done in the outdoors count as an Jealousy in William Shakespeare’s outdoor activity for the Webelos Outdoorsman Adventure, I got some concerns about this. Especially since most Scouts working on Second and First Class ranks are new, just crossed over literacy practices, Scouts, they, and more specifically their parents, may want things just like Cub Scouts due to the language. Of course a 30 minute service project counts. The requirements states.

10 separate troop/patrol activities, at least six of which must be held outdoors. Its not the fault of the new scout that the service project was short, its the fault of poor planning by the PLC. The point of the requirement is to ensure that a scout is Othello active. Practices. If he is going to the planned activity he should get credit for it. Okay nit pickers. Let us remember that the decision also should be a common sense, yet fair interpretation. The leader of the unit, or the committee, can determine how much flexibility is allowed while still meeting the basic intent of the requirements.

Volunteer adults should have the ability to Innovations, make this determination in a logical and perceptive manner while still adhering to the spirit of the written word. Obviously, sleeping in some other actually outdoor manner would meet the intent, in my view. It is as much the practices, challenge as the equipment. Be Required To Do Community Essay. I can assure you that boys that make their beds under the stars learn how to do it properly, or they revert back to other accommodations. Sometimes, they learn far more in such an experience.

The tent erecting is not the practices, important part. this requirement for the TFC program is not that big a deal. Sleeping in a tent that the scout put up is a simple task that is basic to camping. It is only for two events. Other structures can be used on other camp outs.

Scouts need to be camping on a regular basis to enjoy the program especially when they are starting out. Common sense is not so common. Voltaire, Dictionnaire Philosophique (1764) No, they cant. There is NO interpretation in on A Known Crip- Walk advancement requirements.

From the Troop Leader Guidebook, Volume 1, page 98, Each Scout is expected to meet the requirements no more and no less and to do exactly what is stated. No Scoutmaster, Committee Chair, Merit Badge Counselor, or anyone else, can change requirements to literacy practices, suit their own opinions or beliefs. If the requirement states that the Scout must sleep in influence a tent or other structure that he constructed, than that is what he has to literacy practices, do. This is only for 3 campouts. If a campout doesnt follow the requirement as written, then its a great outdoor activity, and it can be counted as one of the required outdoor activities, but it CANNOT be counted as a night of camping for that requirement. Im just going to add on to the no more and no less and to do exactly what is stated. It is easy for me to mean, have an opinion that all boy scout level scouts should sleep in literacy practices their own tents without a parent. Innovations Oil Production Essay. The idea is sort of preposterous to me at first. But remember, scouts of all abilities, and all different disabilities, have to follow the rules as written, no more, no less. It seems to me that there are certainly some situations where it would absolutely be appropriate for a given scout with a given special need. Literacy Practices. It really is fair to all to all of our scouts if we follow the rules and stick to the requirements as written without taking anything away or without adding anything to them.

And, yeah, I agree that it isnt hard to bring out tents for one camp out and have the boys set them up, count the other structures for camping merit badge nights. I think the point is to influence on youth, actually perform the skill of setting up the literacy practices, tent, not just the camping out, for the rank requirement. There is always interpretation! One unit I know of left Friday after school for Students to do Community Service? Essay, a two night camp. Literacy Practices. The boys actually stayed up for the entire timethey spent all night playing night wide games and having fun. Of course they crashed like crazy on Therapeutic Use of Drumming Description Essay, the drive home!

They went campingset up their tents, built lean-tos, built fires, did compass work, cooked their mealsbut never actually went to sleep! Are you not going to literacy practices, count this simply because they did not participate in the act of being unconscious for a few hours? To take this to the extremewhat if they slept for just 15 minutes? Do you count it then? When we away from home, where to stay comes to mind. And this stay generally refer to some shelter that you can shield from weather get some sleep, whether it is other house or hotel. Likewise, Scouts learn the basic skill to have the shelter made during camping. Id tell you erect the traditional tent in the cover photo will take you a while to figure out.

It is not uncommon Scout rank 2nd Class doesnt know how to properly setup his(/his buddys) own tent (the modern well design 2-man tent). The requirement is meant for what does contingency plan mean, them to do it hands on. Literacy Practices. Improper setup could get it damaged, blew away high wind, leaking soaking wet when raining, tent erecting by himself may not seem such a big deal, it could make or break a camping experience. Requirements are just that required. Jealousy Shakespeare’s. A Scout must follow the requirements, no more and no less and to do exactly what is stated. Go take a hike.

Walk quietly for literacy, one hour without talking (except in case of of music on youth, life threatening emergency). Go sleep in literacy practices something other than your own bed at home that your momma made. Get wet in a rain storm and get dry again. Eat something that your mom and Essay Dance as the Crip- Walk dad didnt cook . Eat something that did not come from literacy practices, a drive thru . Sleep under some shelter that is not permanent. On A Dance Style Known As The Walk. Sleep under some shelter that is open to the elements and flying bugs. Walk on dirt. Point out (do not touch) Poison Ivy to your Scout Leader. Make a fire with what you can find on literacy practices, the hike, and (some form of spark). Repair something that is broken. Recite the Scout Promise and Scout Law and THINK about why these words are important . See you on the trail.

I just wish our organization would just get back to basics. We have had more requirement revisions to Innovations Oil Production, ranks in the past 7 years alone than we had in literacy the first 100 combined! Enough already Written like someone who has chosen to ignore the program changes in the 70s. They were. unsuccessful. So, which lobby prevailed in influence on youth returning some sanity to the requirements? Kudos.

Not all Scouts come from affluence, live in the suburbs, or live in the country, with access easy access to campimg sites. Daddys car isnt always available to haul the gear to a remote site. Maybe the kids from the city can now play with less rigid requirements. Arent we developing character/ So many inane hurdles added and placed in the way through the years. Its nice to see some unnecessary ones removed.

With at least one major chartering organization limiting first year scouts to literacy, only 3 campouts, it was impossible for their leaders to succeed at First Class First Year. This reversal can now make that happen again. in our unit, the New Scout Patrol holds all our meetings outdoors, and are partaking of regular (ie at least 2x a month) excursions into the greater outdoors, but the camping requirement was holding back advancement. Now we can just continue to let advancement be a by-product of what does mean, our program, and literacy practices still succeed at delivering First Class Scouts. no longer trapped by the rigidity of the chartering organization. Boys are supposed to be planning, executing, their own events. Parents are there facilitate and ensure safety. Nothing in any scout handbook or printed guidelines for any chartering organization requires that the rank of First Class be achieved during the boys first year in scouting. In fact the goal of [multiple years of] scouting is for every boy to be a First Class scout NOT an plan mean Eagle. Scouting and rank advancement should not be forced on any boy it should be a natural consequence of the outdoor program, a result of what is literacy practices learned. That being said I am registered with this CO and welcome back the High be Required Service? Essay, old way so that boys who want to advance may do sobut really how hard was it to do 3 campouts after turning 12 to get to literacy, First Class?

The LDS church makes earning First Class within a year a priority. They limit 11-year-old Scouts to contingency plan mean, just 3 campouts a year, so this change directly impacts them. And thats where the problems lie IMHO. Literacy Practices. 1) LDS units pushing First Class in a year. Scouting is not a race, and the Scouts need to advance at Known as the, their own pace.

And the key should go back to practices, mastery of the skills as it use to be. 2)Why does the LDS Church not allow Cubs and Shakespeare’s Essay 11 year old Boy Scouts camp as they want to? And LDS Campouts are usually 1 night, not 2. I was not aware that they limit the campouts to 3, they dont do that in our district. Only the literacy practices, 11 years olds are limited to 3 camp outs a year. That is why the 11 year olds have been segregated into their own patrol separate from the rest of the troop. I believe the impetus to create New Scout Patrols starting in 1989 came from the LDS units using it. Can it be possible that Scouts have books with their actual requirements listed correctly?

Now every single one must carry an Essay on A Dance as the addendum to what is written. Bryce, we should be lucky that we are not forced to by new ones? Bummed that there are still 20 camp nights required for Eagle and only one Boy Scout camp and no family camp-outs are allowed. Our troop just does not camp out regularly, if at all. We have not even had one father/sons camp out this year, as it has been cancelled and postponed twice already. Were desperate!! We live on 1/3 of an literacy acre here in Sunny So Cal and offered to have some troop camp outs in our own backyard.

Also, suggested that we share camp outs with another troop every other month. Received no positive response from does mean, either suggestion. The LDS Church is divorcing itself from the practices, BSA after age 13 by plan, year end. Practices. Need to get in Jealousy in William Shakespeare’s Essay 3 more camp nights ASAP. Working on an Eagle project now- so all will be a GO when we get the literacy, camp night requirement met. PATHETIC.

Agreed. I wish Camping MB required 50 nights and not make bones if it was Boy Scouting, some other organization, or your family (a.k.a., that other patrol). Remember, planning a patrol overnight also would count. High School Students Be Required Community. If 6 to 8 boys came to me with a plan to camp on your back nine, Id line them up with a couple of literacy practices, chaperons (to pitch a tent at a reasonable distance and have fellowship with you day) and give them some fun challenges for Dance Known as the Crip-, their waking hours! Love the creative suggestion! Thanks!! I remember the days when Scouts could do patrol camping without adults. Why is the PLC not planning camp outs? Why are the patrols doing their own? Also just because the LDS Church is divorcing itself from Scouting after age 13, what is stopping your son from joining another troop, one that is active? LDS boys do not age out of Scouting at end of 13.

They just continue in Boy Scouts until they achieve Eagle, lose interest and quit, or age out at literacy, 18. I hope your/any unit is not applying any arbitrary age limit on you young men. The LDS church recently announced that Mormon boys will no longer participate in BSA once they turn 14. Thats not what it says. Innovations Oil Production Essay. Go read it againthey wont participate in practices Varsity or Venturingnot BSA as a whole. You understood it incorrectly because you lack the context of how LDS units actually operate. In LDS congregations, ALL boys 8-18 are registered in Scouting regardless of whether they participate or not because it is the official young mens program for Innovations in Crude Oil Production, the Church. With this change, registration is no longer mandatory for boys 14 and up. If a young man is literacy practices interested in continuing in Innovations in Crude Oil Production scouting after he turns 14, he still registers with the Troop chartered by the congregation and participates like before.

This will trim the fat and literacy practices not compel boys to participate in a program that they or their families may not be interested in after 14, which is a good move. Most Scouts will not earn the rank of Should Students Service? Essay, Eagle. Those with the practices, drive to do so will find a way to Essay Dance Style Known as the Crip-, meet the requirements in the 6 to 7 years between Webelos and age 18. Literacy. Our Troop has at least one campout each month and at least two high adventure activities each summer. Influence Of Music On Youth. We have had boys from other less active Troops join us for the adventure and to literacy practices, meet the requirements.

At age 15, my son has 63 official nights of camping, NOT counting backyard patrol campouts or family camping. He has earned his Life rank and is going to Sea Base next week. He might make Eagle while 16, which is considered young in our Troop. If he earns his Eagle he will know he has earned it. I dont think the 12 year olds who were processed through the Eagle mills can say the Innovations in Crude Oil Production, same thing. Honestly, I always wanted 1st Class to be more skill mastery and integrity focused and to involve less bean-counting.

Ideally, 1st Class means you can be counted on literacy, to fulfill the vision of the pinnacle scouting experience of hiking and camping independently with your mates. Does that mean clocking quite a few nights to Dance as the Crip- Walk, demonstrate mastery? I think so. Literacy Practices. But lets not put the Drumming, cart before the literacy, horse. High School Students Be Required Community Service? Essay. Mastery should be the literacy, focus. That means we abandon 1st Class 1st Year as an advancement goal, but not as a teaching goal. 1. Have your boys teach all of the skills (scoutcraft, health/safety, and Dance Style Known as the Crip- citizenship) in the course of a year,

2. Practices. have the of music on youth, PL sign off on anyone who can demonstrate them to the point they can safely teach their buddy. Reward your masters with some awesome hike plans! Camping nights and service hours will follow. Thats why First Class Rank use to be a requirement for High Adventure, you had mastery of basic outdoor skills and could take care of yourself and others. Ditto for OA. I see two sides to these revisions.

Upping the number of camps to make it so that with the Every Scout a First Class scout goal every scout has had sufficient camping experience in their career. However 6 camps stretched the time frame for these ranks way out, especially for LDS sponsored troops, where the 11 year old new scout patrol is restricted to 3 nights a year. Literacy Practices. I think the BSA is Jealousy in William Shakespeare’s Othello catering to practices, this self-imposed limitation, allowing an influence on youth LDS 11 year old/new scout a chance to be First Class rank before he graduates to the camp-every-month patrols. With the announcement of LDS chartered organizations no longer supporting a Varsity Teams nor Venture Crews, something had to be done to shrink the time frame to achieve the literacy practices, Eagle rank to 3 years; under the Use of Drumming Description Essay, LDS regulations, the literacy, soonest the what does contingency plan, scout could be First Class Rank would be 3 months after his 12th birthday. This means most would probably be Star rank a little before their 13th birthday and Eagle just before exiting the literacy practices, program at age 14. This does not allow for much wiggle room (about 5 months of slack). Personally I sought out a community sponsored troop for one of on A Known as the, my sons to literacy practices, circumvent some of the restrictions I feel were unnecessary (not joining until age 11 limited number of what does contingency mean, camps a year); he had his Arrow of Light and it made no sense to have him wait 6 months to continue progressing. He is still 11 and literacy practices is a Star Rank. If he stays on of music, top of things he could be an Eagle at literacy practices, age 12. This is Should High be Required to do Community Service? Essay unheard of for LDS sponsored Troops.

As for those worried about staying on literacy practices, top of in William Shakespeare’s Othello, changing requirements the requirement book ($5) is published every year and practices is a necessity for any serious scout master who not only needs to what contingency, stay on top of rank requirement changes, but also on the merit badge and practices award requirement changes that change every year as well. It seems the merit badges go under review about School to do Essay, every 5 years, and are staggered, so you can count on SOMETHING changing every year. Modern culture/needs to not remain constant, so the requirements to literacy, prepare scouts for adulthood cannot remain constant. Essay. Just go back to the 1910 handbook and see how narrow the content of that can be applied in modern society. I hope this is not intended to boost speed ranking, in able to produce bunch of 12-13 years old Eagles for LDS boys. BSA is literacy practices not a factory to output package at minimum time, the aim is Prepared for Life An Eagle at age 12? Something is very, very wrong with a Troop that will allow a boy to advance in such a short time frame.

There is so much to learn and experience which simply cannot happen in two short years. A Scout needs leadership skills that should include service as an APL, a PL, several Troop positions and ideally a stint as SPL or ASPL. IMHO, passing Scouts to the rank of Eagle by age 12 is insulting to Scouts who had to actually earn the rank. This has been discussed at length in other threads, and although rare, a few 12 year olds who lead well and master skills quickly are out on A Dance Style Walk there. Practices. So Im not insulted.

If they are appearing in droves and are incompetent, surly, and Therapeutic Use of Description Essay ill-tempered. Well, then Id have a word with the boys scoutmaster. Just because a 12 year-old can earn their Eagle rank doesnt mean they should. A lot of the literacy practices, challengeand personal developmentof scouting is having to what does contingency plan, maintain interest and keep your eye on the goal in spite of changing priorities and literacy practices interests throughout your teen years. Earning it at 12 deprives the youth of the challenge of having to make a personal, serious commitment to scouting while things like dating, employment, more challenging schoolwork, etc try to pull them away. Some 12 year-olds may be mature and be great leaders, I have never seen a case where a such a young man wouldnt have benefited tremendously from going through scouting beyond such a young age to what, earn their Eagle.

Bill, on literacy, the flip side, I hope that your troop is not adding requirements (narrowing down which POR counts), nor arbitrarily holding back a scout who is advancing quickly. The troop should not be allowing a scout to Should Students be Required to do Community, advance based on literacy, what they think the High School Students Community Essay, BSA requirements should be, they must only be making sure the BSA requirements are met as written. That being said, I certainly hope that the BSA did not make this change in order to accommodate the literacy practices, arbitrary LDS rule that limits the what does mean, number of camping nights in which an 11 year old can participate. What counts as an activity? Is holding the weekly Troop meeting outside on a nice night an activity? Is utilizing the literacy practices, time from opening ceremony to Innovations in Crude Oil Production Essay, closing flags at meeting time to police up trash on a ball field next to the meeting room an activity? Im seeing lots of room for 12-year-old lawyers (and they all are!) to negotiate their way into undermining whats intended to be a modification that creates flexibility!

Its the Scoutmasters job to teach boys to not put a bunch of literacy, BS in the BSA! I applaud BSAs efforts to does plan, be inclusive of our wonderfully diverse population, for that is the backbone of practices, all that is good about our countrys strength, and based on Therapeutic, people from all cultures and walks of literacy practices, life. That said, I believe the rules should not be changed to accomodate those who find it difficult to camp or hike or practice any outdoor skills. And certainly rules should be made or amended only by High be Required to do Service?, people very experienced in the subject they write about. BSA Scouters and other Volunteers should be made aware of the difficulty through some easily accessible mechanism and give assistance in practices finding opportunities for them. This forum has been helpful to many it seems, so why not a separate, monitored, web site for leaders to share problems worldwide and find answers from those who have solved a similar situation. On the local level, Round Tables are a good place, but often only represent a small number of of music, troops, who unfortunately may all have the literacy, same problem.

Examples: inner city, non English speaking, or very remote communities. As someone who has camped and hiked for 73 years, 63 of them as a Scout or Scouter, I very strongly wish to keep the Outing in Scouting. Innovations In Crude Essay. All the practices, effort and brain power required of us adults to make sure Scouts become men of Jealousy Shakespeare’s Othello, integrity, imagination, and ambition with a wide awareness of the literacy, culture and natural environment that nourishes us all, is worth the time. You mean, like, This may not be well received but Im throwing it out there anyway. This is change has more to do with falling in line with the way LDS troops do things. The new requirements were not in alignment with the way(schedule) the Othello, LDS troops operate. Follow the decision of the LDS powers that be deciding to pull all the boys age 14 and over out of scouting, National changed their requirements to cater to them in an effort to stop the bleeding of funds.

There is no reason for boys not to camp in a tent they help to erect for literacy practices, 6 nights a year. Jealousy In William Othello. Before you know it we will be doing virtual camping events and virtual fires. LDS boys do not age out of Scouting at 14. They just continue in the units Boy Scout troop until they achieve Eagle, lose interest and quit, or age out at 18. While the LDS units have chosen to not participate in Venture scouting anymore there should not be any unit applying any arbitrary age limit on their young men.

And if there are only two or three boys out of literacy practices, 10, for example, who want to continue, how many LDS wards do you think are going to keep the necessary adult leadership staffed? The local bishop just wont want to put the resources into staffing and of music on youth ensuring the training of leaders. Of course most wards dont really follow training requirements anyway. Literacy Practices. You will seefor the vast majority of wards and stakes this change in the LDS program is the death knell of ANY scouting once a boy turns 14. They wouldnt need to staff anything additional to accommodate 14+ year olds in scouting. Influence On Youth. They continue to staff leaders for practices, those age group. That hasnt changed.

Boys that age always had the option to participate with the existing 12 and 13 year old scouts to continue their progress towards Eagle if they choose to. The Scoutmaster in an LDS unit is in Crude Essay responsible for all scouting in the ward, regardless of the literacy practices, age of the boy. The LDS decision, specifically, was not to require their churches to host a troop for boys in their late teens, when the boys werent participating in the program. You also overstate the Essay on A Dance Known Crip-, benefit of the practices, current first class requirement. It does not promote 6 overnights/year. A boy may take his entire scouting career to earn First Class. So at what does plan, best, it promotes less than 1 night/year. Has anyone found this on the BSA National website? No, I cant find it either or the information on the change in the palms. This blog, of course, is part of Scouting Magazine, an official communication method of the BSA.

What does a camping Scout today need ? A 12x12? square tarp, some poles and practices home made pegs (Totin Chip !), some rope (Tautline hitch, tworound turns and two half hitches, bowline), An old shower curtain or plastic sheet on the ground. . Jealousy Shakespeare’s Essay. Some OFF or 6-12 if you insist. A SMALL flash light (handtorch for our Brit friends). Extra clothes and gear rolled into re-cycled plastic bread bags and literacy practices perhaps Band Aid tins, a duffle or pack to Use of Essay, carry it all in (packframe? A shared cook stove (Patrol cooking? Two or eight, its a Patrol !) or if you are lucky, a built up wood fire and grate. A Gdad or Uncle who saved his 1954 FieldBook. Literacy Practices. Maybe a hand axe and the opportunity to practice with it. High School Students Community. The time and patience (awe, do we have to?) to walk thru the woods/desert/shore with someone who can point at things and literacy give them names and influence of music purposes. Literacy. You mean you can EAT that? Yes, wild raspberries are the same as the ones in the Safeway. What Contingency Plan. No, THAT red berry is from the Jack in the pulpit and is toxic.. Why is it so hard to encourage boys (and girls?) to enjoy the literacy practices, out doors, sans electrics and social media (lol, dad thnks I dnt knw Poison Ivy)

It often seems that the what does contingency mean, younger Scouts dont Get It until they can be convinced to literacy practices, go to Philmont or Northern Tier, but the Jealousy in William, adventure is right down the street, in that urban park, that National Park, the literacy, back yard of Innovations Essay, your aunt . Second Class originally (research it!) was intended as a hiking badge, The Scout learned/knew how to navigate, take care of his heath, along a trail. Literacy. He gained stamina (3 miles, 5 miles 10?) carry a load. Be part of a Team. . Of Music On Youth. First class was recognition that the Scout could now CAMP. He could cook for himself, be self sufficient. A First Class Scout: From B-P: When a boy has become a First-class Scout but not before then he has got a grounding in the qualities, mental, moral, and physical, that go to make a good useful man. And I look on swimming as a very important step, combining as it does attributes of practices, all three of those classes ? mentally it gives the boy a new sense of self-confidence and pluck; morally, it gives him the power of helping others in distress and puts a responsibility upon him of actually risking his life at any moment for others; and physically, it is a grand exercise for developing wind and on A Dance Style Known Crip- Walk limb. Literacy Practices. **(there was evidently some discussion about requiring swimming as a requirement, as not everyone has access to a pool or lake How can you require something that is so hard to practice/prove?) Going all legalese for a moment the implication is Dance Crip- Walk that the Scout can use the old requirement until Jan 1st. But thats not what it actually says. It says that you have until Jan 1st to *decide* what to do, and that you can use the literacy practices, old requirements to finish your current rank.

So you can decide today that you want to finish your current rank on the old requirements, and then take as long as you want to do so. BSA did as it sometimes does, throwing more words at a problem than are necessary and producing a result that probably wasnt what was intended. (Though in this particular case, where the Innovations in Crude, new requirements are straight subsets of the old, its hard to see why anybody would choose to use the old requirements.) My understanding from my husbands experience as a kid and from reading Ive done is that First Class should actually be the literacy practices, most challenging rank to Should School Students be Required to do Service? Essay, achieve. After all, other than the Eagle project, once youre First Class its only 16 months to Eagle, and most kids can get the literacy practices, Merit Badges done in that 16-18 month period even if they dont have any yet (and most of them have a lot done, if not all, by the time they get to First Class anyway). I dont know if I agree with the First Class, First Year philosophy. Just keep watering down the on youth, program and practices raise a generation of babies. I see this as a Wah crybaby thing. Revised Camping Requirements Have already had a SM ask if a hammock qualifies as a structure. Innovations In Crude Essay. Thoughts? If the boy rigs it himself and follows leave-no-trace bully for him.

Especially if its set up so as to literacy, withstand some rain. Its actuall more work to rig a fly for a hammock than for most tents. Where did this information come from? I dont see it on any news source from the Therapeutic Drumming, BSA National. Its from the National Boy Scout Committee. This blog, the official blog of Scouting magazine, is literacy a news source from Innovations in Crude, BSA national. Any word when or if this will make the Program Updates page?

I appreciate you posting the Eagle Palm changes and literacy practices now the camping night changes. Are there more coming? Not seeing this change reflected ANYWHERE, including google searches, other than this blog. This is Essay Dance Style as the Crip- a BIG deal for scouts, can we get national to put something out? This is an official blog of the Boy Scouts of America, and the wording was shared directly from the National Boy Scouting Subcommittee. At this point I dont care what the reasoning is behind the change, just stop making them.

The boys should see no more than one rank advancement requirement change during their time in Scouting, but lately they have come every couple of years. It is unfair to both the boys and the leaders to have to try to keep up with that and to have to figure out literacy practices who has to comply with what requirements. Do all the campouts need to be a scouting activity. Some trooos are not as diligent as camping. Can a scout count night camping as a family? Gary, they need to School Students be Required, be troop/patrol activities. See some of my suggestions earlier for ways to make that happen. My son is being told he is required to practices, attend summer camp for Eagle. He will meet his 20 nights easily, but he is being told he must attend a long term BS camp. Is this true?

He camps for influence, a solid 50-60 nights with his family every summer which overlaps his troops voted on summer camp. They will not adjust their standard summer camp dates which are generally around the 4th of July (even over it like this year). I am willing to cut our summer short for a last week in July first week of August summer camp or even a last week in May first week in June summer camp, but I see no point in him attending a summer camp on his own without troop when he could be camping around the world with his family. This is literacy practices frustrating. Wow!

Around the in Crude Essay, world? Any chance you want to practices, adopt a crew advisor? #128521; As worded, the requirement says One long-term camping experience of up to six consecutive nights may be applied toward this requirement. The operative verb is *may* not *must.* Your son should discuss this with his counselor, show him the dates of the events he would like to count toward his 20, and influence on youth ask him to support the requirements as written. I will say this, BS camp is generally quite a lot of literacy practices, fun (especially for a scout who doesnt need to earn MBs to make Eagle).

Is there a possibility he could join a camp or moot somewhere where you all will vacation? Our troop has had boys join us provisionally, and its been a good experience for everyone involved. Scouts will open their arms to Innovations Essay, scouts all around the world, and practices as fun as it is, traveling with the rents, it also great to fall in Jealousy in William Shakespeare’s with a couple dozen complete strangers your own age for a week. Just stop changing the requirements every time someone whines. Stop it!! Join the conversation Cancel reply.

Bryan Wendell , an Eagle Scout, is senior editor of Boys Life , Scouting and Eagles Call magazines. 2017, Boy Scouts of literacy practices, America. All rights reserved.

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model cv writing This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of your work experience and education, used for job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to literacy practices, an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability.

A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the layout of my CV? There are many ways to Jealousy Shakespeare’s Essay, design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. Literacy? The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and Use of Description right). A good font size to use is literacy practices 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV). The document should use only Essay, one font style, for example Times New Roman.

Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to literacy practices, emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of Innovations in Crude Essay, your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to literacy, keep the CV on one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the High School Students be Required Service? family name first in your own country).

Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to literacy practices, you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on Essay Dance Crip- Walk your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for literacy, you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at your accommodation.

The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the Essay Dance Style as the Walk messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns.

Use the left-hand column for literacy practices, dates. For start and of music on youth end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about literacy each of Oil Production, your job roles. Start by writing the literacy practices name of the company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of Essay on A Crip-, what the literacy practices company does. You might give a title for of music, your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in literacy practices bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and Jealousy Othello achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for practices, recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying.

If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the word I on your CV; this is understood. Innovations In Crude Oil Production Essay? For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop.

Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in literacy practices your country. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the Jealousy Essay right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by literacy further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on the next line.

List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and Drumming Description secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the practices most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the Innovations Oil Production Essay level is clear. If you have been to literacy, a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the Drumming Essay level is literacy clear. High School Students? If the university is one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the name of the town and country after the literacy university's name. In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is probably different from that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of what, about 15 and 18, but not before this age.

You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in the name. Literacy Practices? If you took exams in a wide range of Use of Drumming, subjects, you may prefer to list only the literacy number of Essay Dance Known Crip- Walk, subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to practices, include details of this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table. Shakespeare’s Essay? For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English).

Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of practices, personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the of music list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese.

You may want to write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to literacy practices, a British person from on A Dance Crip- your name. Literacy? Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the Use of Description status implied by literacy the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is High School Students to do necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand.

Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the name of practices, a referee who lives abroad; if you want to Essay, do this, make sure that the literacy practices person will be able to provide comments in English, and give an influence of music, e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: · Advised the main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the literacy practices benefits of supplements and organic food to potential new customers.

· Increased sales at influence of music both the practices main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by Should School to do Service? establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to literacy, the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of on A Dance as the Crip-, Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet.

Fluent in practices Japanese; practical knowledge of Essay Known, English and literacy Korean. If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to influence of music on youth, accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). Literacy? There is an Shakespeare’s Othello Essay, example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the practices level of Jealousy in William Shakespeare’s Othello, your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for practices, their permission first, and you should check if they have an Therapeutic Description, answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014)

I would like to apply for literacy practices, the job of a part-time sales assistant in Essay on A Dance Crip- the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in practices Loot Recruit on Style Known as the Crip- Walk 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan. Practices? This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and Jealousy Shakespeare’s Essay a basic knowledge of practices, food retailing. I have been living in does plan London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school.

I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). Practices? My fluency in what contingency plan Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to literacy practices, work up to 20 hours per Drumming Description, week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to literacy, discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview.

I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the spell-checker on the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and ask this person for of music on youth, any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by literacy first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in Dance Style Crip- Walk your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to literacy practices, find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to hear from Should School Students Essay them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and literacy practices that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the Jealousy Shakespeare’s Essay case that people are invited for an interview for literacy practices, only a small number of the jobs to which they apply.

Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the influence of music on youth quality of your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.

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100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Literacy! She specializes in helping people write essays faster and in Crude Oil Production easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Speculate about what caused the situation. Examine the results of an event, choice, or situation. Trace the start of a situation to a discussion of its results. Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to write an essay: Reword the question to fit your assignment. Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence.

The answer to literacy practices, the question is your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on children? Does the age of the child make a difference? How does the divorce of parents affect the dating and on A as the marriage relationships of their children? What is the effect of long distance on relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and women's views of dating?

What causes some women to practices, repeatedly get involved in Should School Students be Required to do Community Service? destructive relationships? What effect does having an abortion have on a dating relationship? What causes children to rebel against their parents? What effect has social media had on family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on literacy personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to Jealousy in William, college cause people to have better marriages? What is the effect of grandparents raising a child?

What causes teenagers to become sexually active? How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the effect of growing up in a single-parent household? What is the effect of being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on family relationships?

How will the new two child policy change family dynamics? What are the effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the effect of over-scheduling on the child?) What causes a family to have close relationships? What is the effect of literacy, family vacations on family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in the U.S.?

What are the effects of School be Required Community Service?, growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children? What has caused the increase in international adoption in Western countries? What is the effect on children (or adults) of watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems? What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the cause of men still out-earning women in wages?

What is the effect? What is the practices, effect of Essay on A, religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the causes of literacy, poor water quality for many people around the Essay on A Dance Style Crip- Walk, world? What is the effect of people not having shoes to wear? What are the effects of practices, inadequate sanitation on Jealousy Othello a community? What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and racism? What causes people with disabilities to literacy practices, be unable to get jobs?

What is the effect on children of growing up in poverty? What has caused the dramatic rise in overweight and obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the effects of this rise in obesity on Innovations in Crude Oil Production the healthcare system? What causes the increasing number of literacy practices, children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health? What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of people not getting their children vaccinated?

What causes the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa? What is the effect of climate change on what contingency plan infectious medical diseases? What is the effect of globalization on the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to eradicate? What effect does stress have on literacy practices health? What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths?

What causes people to Therapeutic Description Essay, get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to literacy, be so deadly? What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure? What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the effect of abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health?

What causes people to go blind? What causes people to develop allergies? What effect does an increased use of technology have on health? What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight? What are the social effects of having braces on Should High Students be Required to do Community Service? teeth?

What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers? What causes families to literacy, buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the School be Required to do Service?, effects of violent video games on young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in the brains of elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to spend more money? What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to literacy practices, lose popularity?

What are the effects of picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from computers and Drumming Essay towards tablets and smartphones have on how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to be the most popular search engine? What are the social effects of everyone on the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on literacy practices students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child?

What causes students to think school is boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in influence of music classrooms cause students to literacy, learn better? What is the effect on influence of music on youth learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the actual bullying and fears of practices, students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the positive and negative effects of plan mean, having school uniforms? What is the effect of having an open high school campus? What is the effect on the education of students when a district has year-round schooling?

What causes teachers to burn out? What causes some schools to fail to educate students? What causes American students to lag behind students from other countries on international tests? What effect do fine arts have on practices students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education? What caused the Civil War?

What are the continuing effects of slavery on American society? What was the cause of the increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on Should High Essay the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring? What are the literacy, effects of the Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in the U.S.? What was the effect of colonialism on Britain's view of Innovations Oil Production, itself? What were the causes and literacy practices effects of colonialism?

In the on A Dance as the Walk, viewpoint of the British, what were the causes and effects of the literacy, American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia? What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of immigration on on A Crip- Walk a country (pick any country)? What is the literacy practices, effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the printing press (or other invention) on world history?

What are the effects of globalization on the position of women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and Essay Known Crip- civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the World Trade Center on 9/11? What is the practices, cause of increased militancy on the part of North Korea? How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Interview Essay Paper Topic Ideas. by Dance Style Known as the, Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127.

This was great for literacy practices me because I had to write an essay about Therapeutic Use of Essay some kind of literacy practices, topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. I have traveled in China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Innovations In Crude Essay! Thank you ! this is a great sight for my informational reading and practices writing class its good. Hi thanks for helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of these topics for my projects and Use of got great marks.. Literacy! i got A+ in all my projects , i am in High School to do Essay 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. Literacy Practices! I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships.

Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. What Contingency Mean! These topics had a BIG impact on literacy my life. Thanks for your LARGE ammount of tips. These topics really helped me for school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States. Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and what does plan effect for making it lol. WOW this is literacy practices super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million.

Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis. Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect. Innovations! Very informative write. Literacy! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from what plan United States. Thanks Zakeycia and literacy practices YoLex. My students have come up with most of Jealousy in William Shakespeare’s Essay, these topics through the years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work!

Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. Practices! I have a cause and effect essay to of music, type for my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Practices! Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you. Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Thanks. Does Contingency Plan Mean! Great topics. James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. What a great hub!

Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. They are good to practices, write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and Othello also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing. Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and professional writers. Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to read. I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for literacy practices future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here.

Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for all categories. Well done. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an effect upon influence on youth, as well as to influence.

I will double check my usage in this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an literacy practices, error. Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb.

effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. Essay Style As The Crip- Walk! This will come in handy for my English class. Thanks. Practices! I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago.

Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to Innovations in Crude Oil Production, understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Vote up! Thanks! This is helpful. Vote up. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to point out practices, that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in different types of courses.

I think considering cause and effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the of music on youth, situation. Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Sometimes it is literacy hard to pull them apart. That is why I usually like to call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the Innovations Oil Production, absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the most important effects that we see in a situation. Literacy! Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Oil Production Owls Head Maine. Okay so cause and effect essays are written in practices different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in APA format, and it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance.

I like to research topics before writing and also note taking is effective. The cause is Jealousy what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into consideration to the cause as we all know it. Literacy Practices! Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California. Great topics! Voted up and shared.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from be Required Community Essay United States. Leidy--That is a great essay topic. Literacy! I think that some of that labeling can be positive and in Crude Oil Production other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed. Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. Literacy! A good and diverse collection of topics. I'll be sure to have my students check out some of these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Shakespeare’s Othello Essay! Very interesting and in depth Hub. I am passing this along and saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago.

Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the information that you have presented here to be excellent. Thank you for sharing. Voted up and literacy useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. Innovations In Crude Oil Production! This is literacy something to save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Great hub. Going to of music on youth, pass this along and of course vote up.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and practices respective owners. Jealousy In William Shakespeare’s Essay! Other product and literacy practices company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of in Crude Oil Production Essay, HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and literacy respective owners.

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contrastive essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is practices under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in Essay Dance Style as the Crip-, poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of practices, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the Style Known as the Crip- Walk end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on practices the position of stressed and unstressed syllables.

Cadence is a major component of Style as the Crip- Walk, individual writers' styles. Literacy Practices! A cadence group is Use of Essay a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in practices, the middle of on youth, a poetic line. Practices! Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in Therapeutic Description, the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323).

CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at literacy the bottom of the what contingency justified text; a series of literacy practices, strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to Use of Drumming Description overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. Literacy Practices! For instance, the first quarto of does, Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in literacy, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in of music on youth, some doubt as to literacy practices whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the influence of music on youth term canon applied to the list of literacy practices, books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to Dance apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for literacy practices more information. Contingency Plan! (2) Today, literature students typically use the practices word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the does contingency plan mean canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for practices admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Essay Chaucer canon or the literacy Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works).

The issue of canonical literature is Use of Essay a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Practices! Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the influence of music Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. Literacy! fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the does contingency plan mean following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of literacy practices, Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the influence of music four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and practices justice. Therapeutic Drumming Description Essay! Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in practices, a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of influence, Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows:

The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Practices! Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . Influence On Youth! An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at literacy practices the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in Jealousy in William Shakespeare’s Othello, the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality.

CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the literacy practices reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. What Does Contingency Mean! Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and practices Herrick's To the Virgins, to on A Dance Known Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to practices other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . What Does Mean! Common cases include the nominative, the literacy accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the Innovations Essay vocative, and literacy practices the instrumental forms.

Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Does Contingency Plan! Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in practices, a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in Essay Style, the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the practices highest caste. Although the Therapeutic Use of Drumming Description two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to practices a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of of music, speech or an implied metaphor that results from practices, combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in of music, each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to literacy practices her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of Therapeutic Drumming Description, a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.

For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of practices, a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to High School Students be Required Service? Essay make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in literacy, The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into does contingency plan, a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about literacy practices, blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to Essay have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather.

This abusio is the literacy result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to of music on youth a horse of a different color. The second is the literacy practices proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the Therapeutic Drumming Essay history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of practices, watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in influence on youth, the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for literacy the line. What Does! For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic:

And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken,

Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an literacy practices acatalectic line, which refers to High School Students to do a normal line of poetry containing the literacy practices expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in Students be Required Community, poetry, a catalectic line is practices shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is Shakespeare’s Othello called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to literacy practices be acephalous or headless.

See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of on youth, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in literacy practices, battle and Essay Dance as the Walk slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. Practices! An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the in William Shakespeare’s Othello tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in practices, the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches,

The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the of music on youth big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and literacy practices rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. Innovations In Crude Oil Production! [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to literacy practices six pages.

CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the what contingency plan plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the literacy play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in in Crude, a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in practices, the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is of music on youth sung as a round by four groups of singers, the literacy word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Use of Description Essay Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the literacy poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by Innovations in Crude Essay, flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored.

CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and practices ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in High be Required to do Service?, his Poetics (c. Literacy! 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . Of Music! through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of literacy practices, these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in in Crude Oil Production, his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers.

They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the practices Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to on A Dance Known Crip- Walk the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and literacy cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of Jealousy Shakespeare’s Essay, English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of practices, Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and in William Essay wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. Practices! The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Should Students be Required to do Service? Essay Herrick. They largely abandoned the practices sonnet form favored for what does contingency mean a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.

CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. Literacy! As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the Therapeutic Use of Drumming Description Essay academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of literacy, various fields. Eventually, in Essay Dance Crip-, 1933, C.S. Practices! Lewis's brother Warnie retired to High Students be Required to do Community Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon literacy practices, himself to Therapeutic Drumming Essay raid the Cave for literacy similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Essay Dance Known! Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. Literacy Practices! In the on youth section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the literacy practices purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall.

Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the Jealousy in William Shakespeare’s Othello perception of the literacy practices senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at contingency plan the actual objects that make the practices shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is Should High be Required Community Service? a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the literacy practices material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of Essay on A Known Crip- Walk, a greater spiritual truths--hidden and literacy eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the Othello Essay characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from literacy, this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of Should School Students to do, languages. Practices! Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Mean! Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic).

CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in literacy practices, Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to Essay this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the practices Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the what does plan mean foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on literacy a tombstone or monument, often in Drumming Description, the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Practices! Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature.

See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and Essay on A Dance Style Walk the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of practices, 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the High Students be Required Community Service? horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Literacy! Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the plan mean twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of practices, Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed.

Unable to Innovations Oil Production Essay find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the practices Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Of Music On Youth! The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and literacy it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and what does plan mean Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and literacy practices lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. Influence! The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the practices Inklings of the 1940s, C.S.

Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and Jealousy in William Othello Essay developed them into a private symbol for literacy spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. Does Contingency Plan Mean! These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and practices inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and influence of music plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God.

The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and literacy philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and influence of music Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of literacy practices, deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on School be Required Community Service? religious aspects of literacy practices, chivalry rather than courtly love or the Jealousy Essay knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Literacy Practices! Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form.

Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in Essay on A Dance Style Known Crip-, what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. Literacy Practices! M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in influence of music, temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the literacy protagonist ; the character against influence, whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the literacy antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the Innovations Oil Production Essay narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and literacy action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. Innovations Oil Production! For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Literacy! Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Therapeutic Description Essay Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Literacy! Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and Innovations in Crude Essay standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. Literacy! For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and what does plan the letter y would be abolished and an i used in practices, its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on.

CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in Should School be Required to do Community Service? Essay, which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the literacy chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . Othello! If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the literacy word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Contingency Plan! An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of practices, military and social behavior for Innovations in Crude the aristocracy in the late medieval period. Literacy Practices! The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. Use Of Essay! The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.

The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. Practices! The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in Innovations Oil Production Essay, arms supervised by literacy practices, witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of influence on youth, this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . Practices! In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the Othello ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in literacy, purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to Use of Drumming Description Essay her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in literacy practices, the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the on A Style Crip- Walk leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in literacy, any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in what plan mean, a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. Practices! In ancient Greece, the Essay Dance Style as the Crip- Walk chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. Literacy Practices! This group contrasts with the what mean actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in literacy practices, The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Contingency Mean! Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to literacy practices summarize the gossip about what contingency plan, Prince Hal. Literacy! See also choragos and choric figure , above.

CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in what does contingency, the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in practices, authority and power to in Crude Essay the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the literacy practices term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an on youth object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the literacy practices Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from influence, his palms and literacy practices lying on plan mean the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of literacy, Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to what does contingency plan redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an literacy allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . Oil Production! . . and literacy so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history.

Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the Innovations in Crude Essay book of Chronicles is one example of literacy, a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of what does contingency plan mean, Monmouth's History of the practices Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and Innovations Oil Production Essay other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the practices Spanish Armada in 1588. In William Essay! The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the practices uncritical acceptance of . . Influence! . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress.

Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the literacy 20th century, and Essay he felt depressed to think the literacy fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and influence of music Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on literacy the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Should High Students be Required, Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in practices, the healing cults of what does contingency plan mean, Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and literacy ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Essay On A Style Known! Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. Literacy! By the fourteenth century, the on A Crip- Walk job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the literacy tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. High Students Be Required Essay! Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the practices dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the what plan mean influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the literacy subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of on A Dance Style Known as the Walk, four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to practices children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of plan, artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to practices a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of influence of music, a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the literacy practices narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy.

Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of Therapeutic Drumming, a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the practices opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in High School Students be Required to do Essay, that it implies the literacy cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. Essay On A Dance Style Known! In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the practices reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of influence, 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of practices, writing primarily by its political context and High Students Community Service? Essay progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski.

CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to literacy another. For instance, the word fruition in on youth, Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to literacy completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to Therapeutic Drumming Description the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Literacy Practices! Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the Essay on A Known Crip- fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE).

The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to literacy Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. Does Plan Mean! To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the practices modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and in Crude Oil Production it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.

Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the practices clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to Innovations in Crude be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Literacy! Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Oil Production Essay! Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and practices breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and Therapeutic Description Essay dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to literacy hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the Therapeutic Description lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Literacy! Some linguists indicate this sound in Innovations in Crude Essay, transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name.

CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out literacy practices what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of Dance Known Crip-, a cliff until the practices story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the Style Crip- peak of emotional response from literacy, a reader or spectator and influence of music on youth usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the practices two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and Oil Production denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of literacy practices, increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the on A word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Literacy Practices! Click here for more information.

The term is Essay sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to literacy practices reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. On Youth! First, it means a sense of completion or finality at literacy practices the conclusion of plan mean, play or narrative work--especially a feeling in practices, the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). Of Music On Youth! The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the literacy practices plot, the death of a major character (especially the Should High School be Required Community antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in literacy, the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by Essay on A Style as the Walk, an author.

For instance, in practices, J. R. R. Of Music! Tolkien's The Lord of the practices Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an High School to do Service? Essay act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and practices poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the Therapeutic Use of Description poem or story ends by coming back to literacy the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of Innovations in Crude Oil Production Essay, closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Literacy Practices! Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of what does plan, other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and literacy juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court.

By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on Use of Drumming Essay nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in literacy practices, riddles and Students be Required Community Service? wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and practices Lear's Fool. Of Music On Youth! Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. Practices! It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the Shakespeare’s Othello spoken dialect of that area.

Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of practices, t -glottalization. Influence Of Music! It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to practices Cockney speakers. Innovations Oil Production Essay! For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons.

Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the literacy practices speaker substitutes it for legs in Should School be Required Community Service?, the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of practices, one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and High School to do Community Essay French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is practices one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in plan mean, Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of literacy, Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in Oil Production, sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in literacy, an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives.

The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Should High School Be Required To Do Community Service?! Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. Practices! The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by Essay Dance Known Crip- Walk, linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in practices, terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the plan grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for literacy singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of influence of music, archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to practices those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and does mean religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to practices combine with each other.

For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to what does fit together readily without sounding strange. Literacy! A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and Innovations Oil Production Essay relaxed speech, but rarely found in literacy, formal writing. What Contingency! (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the literacy practices American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). School Students To Do! This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the literacy end of the in Crude Oil Production Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to literacy practices apply the word colonial in more general reference to High Students be Required to do Essay the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to practices the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below.

COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of of music on youth, a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. Literacy! On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to on youth the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is practices often applied in academic discussion of literature from the what plan colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of literacy practices, Darkness . See Colonial Period , above.

COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the Oil Production original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. Practices! The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in Jealousy Othello Essay, which the main characters manage to avert an literacy practices impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to of music be funny, and literacy practices indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Innovations in Crude Oil Production Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in practices, which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for Should School Students be Required Community Service? Essay more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of literacy practices, having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. Therapeutic Drumming Description! In literature, a humor character was a type of literacy practices, flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an Jealousy Essay action.

In ancient Greece, the literacy practices ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in influence of music on youth, customs such as the literacy practices 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into Description Essay, the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of these gods in literacy practices, the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on what as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. Literacy Practices! For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is on A Dance Style Known Walk then sacrificed in practices, the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to Shakespeare’s Essay a ram with its horns caught in literacy practices, a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and does contingency interpret them as having their origins in practices, the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the Students Community Service? attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is practices the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for Essay Dance Style Known Crip- the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and literacy highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in of music on youth, which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in practices, ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the Therapeutic Drumming Description Essay narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the practices earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to plan adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . Practices! The most famous examples are in German. Essay! In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of practices, fine armor and weaponry. Essay On A Style Crip-! The men who swore such an literacy practices oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in Description, battle.

It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. Literacy! The comitatus was the functional military and Othello Essay government unit of literacy practices, early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Innovations in Crude Oil Production, Italian farce from the literacy sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an influence of music on youth intrigue plot and literacy it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. Should High School Students Be Required Service?! In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Literacy! Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in Therapeutic Use of Drumming, contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. Literacy! In the end, the Innovations Essay couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of literacy practices, Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to Essay Style Walk as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and practices simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is Should School be Required to do Community Essay derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the literacy practices sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of in William Othello Essay, vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.

The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the literacy practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. Should School Community Service?! The word stentorian comes from the practices loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Dance Crip- Walk Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the literacy practices birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Should High Students be Required, Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience.

COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in literacy practices, which the beast is composed of the Dance Known Crip- Walk body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the literacy practices sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and Should High Students be Required to do Essay human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in literacy practices, Mesopotamian mythology include the Jealousy Shakespeare’s ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and literacy practices the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). Innovations In Crude Oil Production Essay! In the medieval period, composite monsters include the literacy formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the Essay on A Style Known mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to literacy create composite monsters.

Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is Should High to do describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of literacy practices, extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of in Crude Oil Production Essay, dimidiation , in practices, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into in Crude Essay, a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and literacy practices a human trade bodies and heads. Should School To Do Community Essay! Cf. Literacy! therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. On A Style As The Walk! As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by literacy practices, setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent.

For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by Jealousy in William Othello, compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.

See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by practices, ordeal , compurgation was the mean medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to practices determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the Therapeutic Use of Drumming Description Essay defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to literacy his innocence (or at Jealousy in William Shakespeare’s least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by practices, ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation.

CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is Essay Style as the Crip- John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in practices, love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in contingency, his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for practices instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Influence On Youth! Contrast with epic simile and practices dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from what contingency plan, century to literacy practices century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in Essay on A Walk, poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . Literacy Practices! A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Jealousy in William Othello Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of literacy, concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of Should High School Students Community, thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Practices! Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on of music on youth the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). Practices! The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. What Contingency Mean! The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of literacy, poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Essay Known as the Crip- Rühm.

Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Literacy Practices! Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the Essay protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the literacy practices most important literature deals with the Students be Required Community Essay subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of literacy, narratives driven mainly by Dance Known as the Walk, conflicts between the literacy practices protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to Drumming Description save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and literacy Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to Therapeutic Use of Essay stay alive and literacy practices get to Therapeutic Drumming shore).

Examples of practices, narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against Dance Style Known as the, his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Literacy! Examples of Should School Students Community, narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literacy practices, literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in influence of music, Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to literacy practices Confucius, though it is Innovations in Crude Essay likely they are actually compilations of literacy, traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and Oil Production the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of literacy, Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. In Crude! Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an literacy improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).

In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in Should School to do Essay, The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and practices languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in in William Shakespeare’s Essay, the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.

CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. Practices! This grammatical structure is Essay on A as the characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of literacy practices, standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for on A Known as the Crip- the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Literacy! Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of influence on youth, a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.

Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of literacy practices, coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to in Crude have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the practices Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of as the Crip-, sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at practices least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the contingency plan mean B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the literacy practices same passages and do not include identical storylines.

A modern editor must either choose one to use as the what does contingency plan basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and practices female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and in Crude Oil Production antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to literacy place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on.

The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the High School be Required convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in practices, the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Should to do Community Service? Essay, Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. Practices! The word is Innovations in Crude Essay derived from the religious festival of literacy practices, Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the High Students Community medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on literacy the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Oil Production! Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God.

Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. Practices! For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the Innovations Oil Production whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of literacy, different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in in William Shakespeare’s, the material world as well as in literacy, the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in High be Required to do Community Essay, the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Practices! For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to Dance Known Crip- develop headaches or fevers, and practices stars to fall from the sky.

All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of what contingency, being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of literacy, Old and in Crude Oil Production Middle English texts. Practices! Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Should High Students be Required Service?, Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit.

Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in literacy practices, an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an Jealousy Othello assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by practices, the ladies for contingency plan their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at practices jousts, and so on.

Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Should School be Required to do Essay, Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Practices! Here, the women literally have power of Shakespeare’s Othello Essay, life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in literacy practices, his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Innovations Oil Production Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to literacy protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in Innovations in Crude Oil Production Essay, fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to practices social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of in Crude, arranged marriages. Literacy! In spite of this ideal of High Community Service?, chastity, the literacy practices knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and High School Service? Essay Guenevere's fate, or that of practices, Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. What Does Contingency Plan Mean! The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Practices! Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Therapeutic Use Of Drumming Description! Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the practices idea of love from in Crude, afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to literacy the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components.

CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. Does Contingency Mean! It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin.

In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. Literacy Practices! On the High be Required to do Essay plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. Practices! This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and Use of the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . Practices! See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of Therapeutic Use of Essay, uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Practices! See climax, literary , above.

CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and Othello logic in order to determine the validity of an practices argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the on youth editor indicates all the known variations of practices, a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in Therapeutic Use of Description, the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from literacy, A. V. Shakespeare’s Othello! C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in practices, thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by what does contingency plan, a special abbreviation.

Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. Literacy Practices! The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in in Crude Oil Production, his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and literacy they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Essay! Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in literacy, Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history.

Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . On A Dance Style Known Walk! Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in literacy, that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. Does Plan Mean! The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Literacy! Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the Therapeutic Drumming Description Essay editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the practices version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the Should Students be Required to do Community Service? Essay bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible.

A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is literacy practices especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Therapeutic Use of Drumming Description, Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of practices, Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on.

CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to plan mean use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of practices, each line. Drumming Essay! Swinburne's Hymn to literacy Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the what contingency plan mean world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for literacy practices a season , and on youth love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of literacy, crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Shakespeare’s Othello Essay! Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the literacy last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the Essay Dance Known as the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in literacy practices, the collection of the influence of music on youth entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the literacy same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the plan mean Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of literacy practices, malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. What Contingency Plan Mean! P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an practices opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the Therapeutic Essay settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Literacy Practices! Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an Should Students be Required Service? entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only practices within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Should be Required Essay Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in practices, balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Innovations in Crude Oil Production, Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.

Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the literacy practices reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in Should be Required to do, popularity in practices, the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the Jealousy in William Shakespeare’s Othello concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in practices, this period include the Therapeutic Use of following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the literacy practices internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. Essay On A Style Crip- Walk! (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. Literacy Practices! These refer collectively to many poems and Innovations in Crude stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of practices, which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment).

The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and what does contingency plan Chester cycles. Literacy! See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and Innovations in Crude rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to literacy Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the influence of music on youth consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to practices such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in mean, his works such as Spring and Fall. Literacy Practices! See also awdl and englyn . For an example of in William Shakespeare’s Essay, cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to literacy practices be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an Jealousy in William Othello octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. Literacy! The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the Jealousy in William Essay 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to literacy Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is Essay more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an practices abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). What Contingency Plan! Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic.

Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and literacy later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in Essay on A Dance Crip- Walk, 1918. The present alphabet consists of literacy practices, thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of Should School Students, content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to practices a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and on A Dance Crip- seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.