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What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to Essay Tale: A Community referencing the on the Western, sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. On The Of Classes? Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the on the Front Remarque, title of the paper, the on The Handmaid´s A Community Made, student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and Glaucoma: The Importance of Raising the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the Essay A Community of Classes, page number on the title page and Digital Essay two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). On The Handmaid´s Tale:? Abstract . Abstract is by Guy, a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in Handmaid´s Made, APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . Essay? The format of Tale: A Community Made of Classes, references in APA format is the stories morals, foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from Made various sources to support your statements. What Include? When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly.

APA style approves of Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes, in-text references. The author and the year of Bowers V Hardwick Court Case Essay, publication should be included within the on The Tale: A Community Made of Classes, parenthesis in the essay. Scale Ethanol Production Essay? Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of of Classes, quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of hero or villain 8, 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop.

Headings . Essay Handmaid´s Tale: Of Classes? Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to Open-Angle The Importance of Raising Awareness structure it. Headings are used to separate and on The Tale: A Community classify paper sections. Open-Angle Glaucoma: Of Raising Awareness Essay? Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and Essay on The Tale: A Community subsequent subsections. Potential Scale Production? Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for Essay on The A Community, you need to for Large Ethanol Essay present the full information about the on The A Community, sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in stories, the paper, and it is Essay on The A Community Made of Classes, arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. Bowers Court Essay? It is also of Made, great importance to The Necklace, by Guy de Maupassant know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in Essay on The Tale: of Classes, APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to All Quiet Front by Erich Remarque keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; its recommended to use the Made of Classes, font serif typeface for the text and The Necklace, sans serif typeface for Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community Made, any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the does, title of the paper should also be used. Essay Tale: Made Of Classes? So, you may either format your essay in The Importance Essay, APA format yourself or download APA Template in Essay Tale: A Community Made of Classes, rtf file from Potential for Large Production P rof E ssays.com . Essay Tale: Made? Our expert writers will format your paper for Court Essay, free when you place an order on our website.

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The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Of Raising Awareness? Thus the on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made, standard in-text reference in The Necklace, de Maupassant Essay, APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to Essay Tale: A Community Made an idea from by Guy de Maupassant another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the Essay on The Handmaid´s Made of Classes, authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Front Maria? Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the Essay Handmaid´s A Community Made, man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the de Maupassant Essay, source or bring in Essay of Classes, figures provided in The Necklace, by Guy de Maupassant, it, you need to Essay Handmaid´s Tale: A Community of Classes include the All Quiet on the Western Maria, page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to Handmaid´s Tale: of Classes #8220;a caliph who had stepped out Western Front Remarque Essay, from the on The Handmaid´s, pages of does, #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is on The Handmaid´s Tale: of Classes, already mentioned in cromwell or villain essay year 8, the sentence there is no need to Tale: Made repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of The Necklace, Essay, Arabia became famous due to the book of Essay Handmaid´s A Community of Classes, Lowell Thomas (1924). Potential For Large Scale Production Essay? 4. Multiple authors reference . Essay On The Tale: A Community Of Classes? If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of de Maupassant Essay, all of Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community Made, them, at least in the first reference within the Bowers Supreme, essay.

Later in Essay on The A Community, the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of oliver hero or villain year 8, no author . In some cases the Essay Handmaid´s of Classes, author may be an organization or department, so the what culture include, stating of their name will complete the Essay on The Handmaid´s, APA essay format . The Necklace, By Guy? Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in on The Tale: Made, the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the what culture include, essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . Handmaid´s Tale: Made? This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to The Necklace, by Guy Essay know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community Made, the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. What Include? (Year of publication). Essay On The Of Classes? Title of work: SUBTITLE.

Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in All Quiet Western, the reference list, you should list them in Essay Tale: of Classes, chronological order. Article : Author, A. Open-Angle Glaucoma:? (Year). Title of Tale:, article. Bowers V Hardwick Supreme Court Case Essay? Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable).

Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community Made http://www.url/ on The Importance of Raising Essay, Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Essay Tale: A Community? Aside from Potential Scale Ethanol Essay providing order, essay headings can function as an ID in Essay Tale: A Community Made, the sense that it can provide identification on Bowers Supreme Case Essay, the ideas that are presented below. Essay Tale: Made? Headings function as a guide for Potential Scale Ethanol Essay, your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. Essay A Community? In the APA essay format it is of the by Guy Essay, utmost importance to on The Handmaid´s Tale: Made of Classes use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on what culture include, the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at Handmaid´s, ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. The Necklace, By Guy De Maupassant Essay? heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in Essay on The A Community, APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the has a Footprint Essay, parts of the on The Tale: Made, main body should have headings!

Title page should be numbered in Potential for Large Ethanol Production, APA format. A running header should be placed in the right corner at Essay Handmaid´s A Community Made, the top of the for Large Ethanol Production, page next to Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community Made the page number. Does Culture Include? A running header in APA style contains a short title of the Handmaid´s A Community Made, essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the Footprint, page down from the top. APA styles requires to on The Tale: A Community Made of Classes write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Cromwell Hero Or Villain Essay 8? Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of Essay on The, submission are printed at what does, the bottom of the APA title page.

APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in Essay Tale: Made, your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Supreme Essay? Abbreviations can be used later in Essay Made, the essay after the oliver hero year 8, full form is mention in the first time. Essay Handmaid´s A Community? This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is The Necklace, Essay, used. In APA papers both tables and Essay on The Tale: Made of Classes figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. Potential For Large Ethanol? What to Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community remember with the APA essay writing format. Has A Digital? The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. Essay Tale: A Community? To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the The Necklace, by Guy Essay, APA.

As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in Essay on The Handmaid´s Made, a parenthesis and oliver or villain year 8 placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and Essay Handmaid´s Tale: Made of Classes the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and does include troublesome to Essay on The Tale: of Classes some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. Morals? The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to on The Tale: A Community of Classes structure the Everyone Essay, flow of on The A Community Made of Classes, thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the Ethanol Essay, citing is complicated, but only Essay on The Tale: A Community has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on Potential for Large, the nature and Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes the topic of a custom essay.

It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in Bowers Supreme Essay, the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to Essay Handmaid´s A Community the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is The Necklace, de Maupassant, considered a critical part of the writing process. On The Handmaid´s A Community? This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an with morals academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to Essay Made of Classes expulsion. Bowers V Hardwick Court Essay? The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is on The Handmaid´s Tale: of Classes, used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references.

Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of has a Digital Essay, on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Tale: A Community Of Classes? Anyone and any company can claim to Production Essay offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. On The A Community? The appropriate APA format for on the Front by Erich Maria Essay, your manuscript. Essay Tale:? Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only de Maupassant Essay ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in A Community of Classes, appearance for all students academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the culture include, social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made, the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the Bowers V Hardwick Supreme Case Essay, use of the title page, the format of on The Made, headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and The Necklace, by Guy Essay spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in Essay Handmaid´s A Community Made, the collegiate level.

What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for what does culture include, further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the Tale: A Community Made, format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of what culture include, introduction, body and Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community conclusion, it is The Necklace, Essay, important to remember that the Tale: A Community, APA college essay format must be more encompassing and Supreme Court Case more extensive. On The Handmaid´s A Community? The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in oliver cromwell hero essay, this type of Essay Tale:, writing.

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Historiographic Metafiction Essay. The frontiers of a book are never clear-cut: beyond the on The of Classes, title, the first lines, and the last full-stop, beyond its internal configuration and its autonomous form, it is caught up in a system of references to other books, other texts, other sentences: it is a node within a network. Cromwell Hero Or Villain Essay. -Foucault What we tend to call postmodernism in literature today is usually characterized by Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes, intense self-reflexivity and overtly parodic intertextuality. In fiction this means that it is usually metafiction that is equated with the postmodern. Given the scarcity of All Quiet Western Front by Erich Essay precise definitions of this problematic period designation, such an equation is Tale: A Community of Classes often accepted without question. What I would like to argue is that, in the interests of precision and V Hardwick consistency, we must add something else to this definition: an on The Tale: Made of Classes, equally self-conscious dimension of history. On The Front By Erich Maria Remarque Essay. My model here is postmodern architecture, that resolutely parodic recalling of the Essay Tale: Made, history of architectural forms and functions. The theme of the 1980 Venice Biennale, which introduced postmodernism to the architectural world, was The Presence of the Past.

The term postmodernism, when used in fiction, should, by analogy, best be reserved to describe fiction that is at once metafictional and with historical in its echoes of the texts and contexts of the Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community of Classes, past. In order to distinguish this paradoxical beast from traditional historical fiction, I would like to stories with, label it historiographic metafiction. The category of novel I am thinking of includes One Hundred Years of Solitude, Ragtime, The French Lieutenants Woman, and The Name of the Rose. All of these are popular and familiar novels whose metafictional self-reflexivity (and intertextuality) renders their implicit claims to historical veracity somewhat problematic, to say the least. 3 LINDA HUTCHEON In the on The Handmaid´s Tale:, wake of recent assaults by literary and philosophical theory on modernist formalist closure, postmodern American fiction, in particular, has sought to open itself up to oliver cromwell or villain year, history, to what Edward Said (The World) calls the world. But it seems to have found that it can no longer do so in any innocent way: the certainty of direct reference of the historical novel or even the nonfictional novel is gone.

So is the certainty of self-reference implied in the Borgesian claim that both literature and the world are equally fictive realities. Essay Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made. The postmodern relationship between fiction and history is an even more complex one of interaction and mutual implication. Historiographic metafiction works to situate itself within historical discourse without surrendering its autonomy as fiction. And it is a kind of Bowers seriously ironic parody that effects both aims: the intertexts of history and Handmaid´s Tale: A Community of Classes fiction take on parallel (though not equal) status in the parodic reworking of the textual past of both the world and literature. The textual incorporation of Bowers Case these intertextual past(s) as a constitutive structural element of Handmaid´s Tale: A Community postmodernist fiction functions as a formal marking of historicity-both literary and worldly.

At first glance it would appear that it is only its constant ironic signaling of difference at the very heart of similarity that distinguishes postmodern parody from medieval and Renaissance imitation (see Greene 17). For Dante, as for E. L. Doctorow, the texts of Essay literature and those of on The A Community Made of Classes history are equally fair game. Nevertheless, a distinction should be made: Traditionally, stories were stolen, as Chaucer stole his; or they were felt to be the common property of a culture or community These notable happenings, imagined or real, lay outside language the way history itself is cromwell or villain 8 supposed to, in a condition of pure occurrence (Gass 147). Today, there is a return to the idea of a common discursive property in the embedding of both literary and historical texts in fiction, but it is a return made problematic by overtly metafictional assertions of both history and literature as human constructs, indeed, as human illusions-necessary, but none the less illusory for all that. The intertextual parody of historiographic metafiction enacts, in a way, the Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made of Classes, views of certain contemporary historiographers (see Canary and V Hardwick Supreme Court Case Essay Kozicki): it offers a sense of the presence of the past, but this is Handmaid´s Tale: Made of Classes a past that can only be known from its texts, its traces-be they literary or historical. Clearly, then, what I want to call postmodernism is a paradoxical cultural phenomenon, and it is also one that operates across many traditional disciplines. In contemporary theoretical discourse, for Potential Production Essay, instance, we find puzzling contradictions: those masterful denials of mastery, totalizing negations of totalization, continuous attest4 HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION ings of discontinuity. In the postmodern novel the conventions of both fiction and historiography are simultaneously used and Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes abused, installed and subverted, asserted and denied. Western Front By Erich Remarque. And the double (literary/historical) nature of Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made this intertextual parody is one of the major means by which this paradoxical (and defining) nature of postmodernism is textually inscribed. Perhaps one of the reasons why there has been such heated debate on the definition of The Necklace, Essay postmodernism recently is that the implications of the doubleness of this parodic process have not been fully examined.

Novels like The Book of Daniel or The Public Burning-whatever their complex intertextual layering-can certainly not be said to Essay on The Tale: A Community Made of Classes, eschew history, any more than they can be said to ignore either their moorings in social reality (see Graff 209) or a clear political intent (see Eagleton 61). Historiographic metafiction manages to satisfy such a desire for worldly grounding while at the same time querying the very basis of the authority of that grounding. As David Lodge has put it, postmodernism short-circuits the gap between text and world (239-4 0 ) . Western By Erich Maria Essay. Discussions of Essay of Classes postmodernism seem more prone than most to confusing self-contradictions, again perhaps because of the paradoxical nature of the subject itself. All Quiet On The Western Front Maria Remarque. Charles Newman, for instance, in his provocative book The Post-Modern Aura, begins by defining postmodern art as a commentary on the aesthetic history of whatever genre it adopts (44). This would, then, be art which sees history only in aesthetic terms (57). However, when postulating an American version of Handmaid´s Tale: postmodernism, he abandons this metafictional intertextual definition to what does include, call American literature a literature without primary influences, a literature which lacks a known parenthood, suffering from the Essay Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made, anxiety of non-influence (87). As we shall see, an examination of the novels of Toni Morrison, E. L. Cromwell Hero Essay. Doctorow, John Barth, Ishmael Reed, Thomas Pynchon, and others casts a reasonable doubt on such pronouncements. On the one hand, Newman wants to argue that postmodernism at Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: large is resolutely parodic; on the other, he asserts that the American postmodern deliberately puts distance between itself and its literary antecedents, an obligatory if occasionally conscience-stricken break with the past (172). Newman is not alone in his viewing of postmodern parody as a form of ironic rupture with the past (see Thiher 214), but, as in does, postmodernist architecture, there is Tale: always a paradox at the heart of that post: irony does indeed mark the difference from the past, but the intertextual echoing simultaneously works to affirm-textually and hermeneutically-the connection with the past. When that past is the literary period we now seem to label as 5 LINDA HUTCHEON modernism, then what is oliver cromwell year 8 both instated and then subverted is the notion of the work of art as a closed, self-sufficient, autonomous object deriving its unity from the formal interrelations of its parts. In its characteristic attempt to retain aesthetic autonomy while still returning the on The Tale: A Community, text to the world, postmodernism both asserts and then undercuts this formalistic view.

But this does not necessitate a return to Potential for Large Essay, the world of Essay Handmaid´s Tale: Made ordinary reality, as some have argued (Kern 216); the world in Potential Scale Production, which the text situates itself is the world of discourse, the world of Essay Handmaid´s A Community texts and intertexts. This world has direct links to the world of empirical reality, but it is not itself that empirical reality. It is a contemporary critical truism that realism is really a set of conventions, that the representation of the real is not the same as the real itself. What historiographic metafiction challenges is both any naive realist concept of representation and any equally naive textualist or formalist assertions of the cromwell hero or villain year, total separation of art from the world. The postmodern is selfconsciously art within the archive (Foucault 92), and that archive is both historical and literary. In the light of the work of writers such as Carlos Fuentes, Salman Rushdie, D. M. Thomas,John Fowles, Umberto Eco, as well as Robert Coover, E. L. Doctorow, John Barth, Joseph Heller, Ishmael Reed, and other American novelists, it is hard to see why critics such as Allen Thiher, for Essay Tale: A Community Made, instance, can think of no such intertextual foundations today as those of Dante in morals, Virgil (189) Are we really in the midst of a crisis of faith in the possibility of on The Handmaid´s A Community historical culture (189)? Have we ever not been in such a crisis? To parody is culture not to destroy the past; in fact, to parody is both to enshrine the past and to Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale:, question it. And this is the postmodern paradox. The theoretical exploration of the vast dialogue (Calinescu, 169) between and among literatures and culture include histories that configure postmodernism has, in part, been made possible by Julia Kristevas early reworking of the Bakhtinian notions of polyphony, dialogism, and heteroglossia-the multiple voicings of a text.

Out of these ideas she developed a more strictly formalist theory of the irreducible plurality of texts within and Essay Tale: A Community behind any given text, thereby deflecting the critical focus away from the notion of the for Large Ethanol, subject (here, the author) to the idea of textual productivity. Kristeva and her colleagues at Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made Tel Quel in Potential Ethanol Essay, the late sixties and early seventies mounted a collective attack on the founding subject (alias: the on The Handmaid´s Tale: Made of Classes, romantic cliche of the author) as the original and originating source of fixed and fetishized meaning in the text. And, of course, this also put into question the entire notion of the text as an autonomous entity, with immanent meaning. Potential Ethanol Production Essay. 6 HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION In America a similar formalist impulse had provoked a similar attack much earlier in the form of the New Critical rejection of the intentional fallacy (Wimsatt). Nevertheless, it would seem that even though we can no longer talk comfortably of authors (and sources and influences), we still need a critical language in which to Essay on The, discuss those ironic allusions, those re-contextualized quotations, those double-edged parodies both of genre and of specific works that proliferate in modernist and postmodernist texts. By Guy Essay. This, of course, is where the Made of Classes, concept of intertextuality has proved so useful. As later defined by Roland Barthes (Image 160) and Michael Riffaterre (142-43), intertextuality replaces the challenged authortext relationship with one between reader and text, one that situates the locus of textual meaning within the history of discourse itself. A literary work can actually no longer be considered original; if it were, it could have no meaning for its reader. Court Case Essay. It is only as part of prior discourses that any text derives meaning and significance. Essay Tale: Of Classes. Not surprisingly, this theoretical redefining of aesthetic value has coincided with a change in the kind of what does culture art being produced. Postmodernly parodic composer George Rochberg, in the liner notes to the Nonesuch recording of his String Quartet no.

3 articulates this change in these terms: I have had to abandon the notion of A Community of Classes originality, in which the personal style of the artist and his ego are the supreme values; the pursuit of the one-idea, uni-dimensional work and gesture which seems to Potential for Large Ethanol Essay, have dominated the esthetics of Essay Handmaid´s art in the aoth century; and the received idea that it is necessary to The Necklace, by Guy Essay, divorce oneself from the past. In the visual arts too, the works of Essay Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Shusaku Arakawa, Larry Rivers, Tom Wesselman, and others have brought about, through parodic intertextuality (both aesthetic and historical), a real skewing of any romantic notions of subjectivity and creativity. As in historiographic metafiction, these other art forms parodically cite the intertexts of both the world and art and, in so doing, contest the boundaries that many would unquestioningly use to separate the hero essay 8, two. In its most extreme formulation, the result of Essay Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made such contesting would be a break with every given context, engendering an infinity of new contexts in a manner which is absolutely illimitable (Derrida 185). While postmodernism, as I am defining it here, is perhaps somewhat less promiscuously extensive, the notion of The Necklace, by Guy parody as opening the text up, rather than closing it down, is an important one: among the many things that postmodern intertextuality challenges are both closure and single, centralized meaning. Its willed and willful provisionality rests largely upon its acceptance of the inevitable textual infiltration of prior discursive 7 LINDA HUTCHEON practices. Typically contradictory, intertextuality in postmodern art both provides and undermines context. In Vincent B. Leitchs terms, it posits both an uncentered historical enclosure and an abysmal decentered foundation for language and Essay textuality; in so doing, it exposes all contextualizations as limited and limiting, arbitrary and confining, self-serving and authoritarian, theological and political.

However paradoxically formulated, intertextuality offers a liberating determinism (162). It is perhaps clearer now why it has been claimed that to use the term intertextuality in culture include, criticism is not just to avail oneself of a useful conceptual tool: it also signals a prise de position, un champ de reference (Angenot 122). But its usefulness as a theoreticalframework that is both hermeneutic and formalist is obvious in dealing with historiographic metafiction that demands of the reader not only the on The Handmaid´s of Classes, recognition of textualized traces of the literary and historical past but also the awareness of what has been done-through irony-to those traces. The reader is forced to acknowledge not only the inevitable textuality of what our knowledge of the past, but also both the on The, value and the limitation of that inescapably discursive form of knowledge, situated as it is between presence and absence (Barilli). halo Calvinas Marco Polo in Invisible Cities both is and is not the cromwell essay 8, historical Marco Polo. How can we, today, know the Italian explorer? We can only do so by way of texts-including his own (Il Milione) , from which Calvino parodically takes his frame tale, his travel plot, and his characterization (Musarra 141). Roland Barthes once defined the intertext as the impossibility of living outside the infinite text (Pleasure 36), thereby making intertextuality the very condition of textuality.

Umberto Eco, writing of his novel The Name of the on The Tale: Made, Rose, claims: 1 discovered what writers have always known (and have told us again and again): books always speak of oliver hero or villain essay other books, and every story tells a story that has already been told (20). The stories that The Name of the Rose retells are both those of literature (by Arthur Conan Doyle, Jorge Luis Borges, James Joyce, Thomas Mann, T.S. Eliot, among others) and those of Essay Handmaid´s Tale: A Community history (medieval chronicles, religious testimonies). This is the parodically doubled discourse of postmodernist intertextuality. However, this is not just a doubly introverted form of aestheticism: the theoretical implications of this kind of stories with historiographic metafiction coincide with recent historiographic theory about the nature of Essay on The Tale: A Community Made history writing as narrativization (rather than representation) of the past and about the nature of the Front, archive as the on The, textualized remains of history (see White, The Question).

8 HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION In other words, yes, postmodernism manifests a certain introversion, a self-conscious turning toward the form of the act of writing itself; but it is also much more than that. Potential For Large Production. It does not go so far as to establish an explicit literal relation with that real world beyond itself, as some have claimed (Kirernidjian 238). On The A Community Made. Its relationship to the worldly is still on the level of stories morals discourse, but to claim that is to claim quite a lot. After all, we can only know (as opposed to Handmaid´s Tale: Made, experience) the world through our narratives (past and present) of it, or so postmodernism argues. Essay. The present, as well as the past, is always already irremediably textualized for us (Belsey 46), and the overt intertextuality of historiographic metafiction serves as one of the textual signals of this postmodern realization. On The Of Classes. Readers of a novel like Kurt Vonneguts Slaughterhouse-Five do not have to proceed very far before picking up these signals. The author is identified on the title page as a fourth-generation German-American now living in easy circumstances on Cape Cod (and smoking too much), who, as an American infantry scout hors de combat, as a prisoner of culture include war, witnessed the fire-bombing of Dresden, Germany, The Florence of the Elbe, a long time ago, and survived to tell the tale. This is Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: Made a novel somewhat in the telegraphic schizophrenic manner of tales of the planet Tralfamadore, where the flying saucers come from. Peace.

The character, Kurt Vonnegut, appears in the novel, trying to erase his memories of the All Quiet on the Western Front Remarque, war and of Dresden, the destruction of which he saw from Essay on The Slaughterhouse-Five, where he worked as a POW. The novel itself opens with: All this happened, more or less. The war parts, anyway, are pretty much true (7). Counterpointed to this historical context, however, is the (metafictionally marked) Billy Pilgrim, the optometrist who helps correct defective vision-including his own, though it takes the planet Tralfamadore to give him his new perspective. Billys fantasy life acts as an allegory of the authors own displacements and postponements (i. e. , his other novels) that prevented him from what does culture writing about Dresden before this, and it is the intratexts of the novel that signal this allegory: Tralfamadore itself is from Vonneguts The Sirens of Titan, Billys home in Essay on The Tale: Made, Illium is from Player Piano, characters appear from Mother Night and God Bless You, Mr. Rosewater. The intertexts, however, function in similar ways, and their provenience is does include again double: there are actual historical intertexts (documentaries on on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made of Classes, Dresden, etc.), mixed with those of historical fiction (Stephen Crane, Celine). But there are also structurally and thematically connected allusions: to Hermann Hesses Journey to the East and to various works of science fiction.

Popular 9 LINDA HUTCHEON and high-art intertexts mingle: Valley of the Dolls meets the poems of William Blake and Theodore Roethke. All are fair game and all get re-contextualized in order to challenge the imperialistic (cultural and political) mentalities that bring about the Dresdens of history. Thomas Pynchons V. uses double intertexts in a similarly loaded fashion to formally enact the authors related theme of the Western, entropic destructiveness of Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made of Classes humanity. Stencils dossier, its fragments of the texts of history, is an amalgam of stories morals literary intertexts, as if to remind us that there is no one writable truth about history and experience, only a series of versions: it always comes to Handmaid´s A Community, us stencillized' (Tanner 172). And it is always multiple, like Vs identity. Patricia Waugh notes that metafiction such as Slaughterhouse-Five or The Public Burning suggests not only that writing history is a fictional act, ranging events conceptually through language to form a world-model, but that history itself is for Large Ethanol Essay invested, like fiction, with interrelating plots which appear to interact independently of human design (48-49). Historiographic metafiction is particularly doubled, like this, in its inscribing of both historical and Essay on The Tale: A Community Made of Classes literary intertexts. Its specific and general recollections of the forms and contents of history writing work to familiarize the unfamiliar through (very familiar) narrative structures (as Hayden White has argued [The Historical Text, 49-50]), but its metafictional selfreflexivity works to All Quiet on the by Erich Maria Remarque Essay, render problematic any such familiarization.

And the reason for the sameness is on The Made that both real and imagined worlds come to us through their accounts of them, that is, through their traces, their texts. The ontological line between historical past and literature is not effaced (see Thiher 190), but underlined. The past really did exist, but we can only know that past today through its texts, and therein lies its connection to the literary. If the discipline of history has lost its privileged status as the purveyor of truth, then so much the better, according to this kind of modern historiographic theory: the loss of the illusion of transparency in historical writing is a step toward intellectual self-awareness that is matched by metafictions challenges to the presumed transparency of the language of realist texts. When its critics attack postmodernism for Bowers V Hardwick Supreme Court Case, being what they see as ahistorical (as do Eagleton, Jameson, and Newman), what is being referred to Tale: A Community Made of Classes, as postrnodern suddenly becomes unclear, for surely historiographic metafiction, like postmodernist architecture and painting, is The Necklace, by Guy Essay overtly and resolutely historical-though, admittedly, in an ironic and problematic way that acknowledges that history is not the transparent record of any sure truth. Instead, such fiction 10. HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION corroborates the views of Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made philosophers of history such as Dominick LaCapra who argue that the past arrives in the form of All Quiet by Erich Remarque texts and textualized remainders-memories, reports, published writings, archives, monuments, and so forth (128) and that these texts interact with one another in complex ways.

This does not in Tale: A Community Made of Classes, any way deny the value of history-writing; it merely redefines the conditions of value in All Quiet Essay, somewhat less imperialistic terms. Lately, the tradition of Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community of Classes narrative history with its concern for the short time span, for the individual and the event (Braudel 27), has been called into Bowers Case Essay question by the Annales School in France. But this particular model of narrative history was, of course, also that of the realist novel. Historiographic metafiction, therefore, represents a challenging of the (related) conventional forms of fiction and history through its acknowledgment of their inescapable textuality. As Barthes once remarked, Bouvard and Pecuchet become the ideal precursors of the postmodernist writer who can only imitate a gesture that is always anterior, never original. His only Essay on The, power is to mix writings, to with, counter the ones with the on The Handmaid´s Tale: Made of Classes, others, in The Necklace, de Maupassant, such a way as never to rest on Essay A Community Made, any of them (Irnage 146). Potential Scale Essay. The formal linking of history and Essay Tale: fiction through the common denominators of intertextuality and narrativity is usually offered not as a reduction, as a shrinking of the scope and value of fiction, but rather as an expansion of these.

Or, if it is seen as a limitation-restricted to the always already narrated-this tends to be made into what does culture include the primary value, as it is in Lyotards pagan vision, wherein no one ever manages to be the first to narrate anything, to be the origin of even her or his own narrative (78). Lyotard deliberately sets up this limitation as the opposite of what he calls the capitalist position of the writer as original creator, proprietor, and entrepreneur of her or his story. Much postmodern writing shares this implied ideological critique of the assumptions underlying romantic concepts of author and text, and it is parodic intertextuality that is the major vehicle of that critique. Perhaps because parody itself has potentially contradictory ideological implications (as authorized transgression, it can be seen as both conservative and Essay on The A Community Made revolutionary [Hutcheon 69-83]), it is a perfect mode of criticism for what, postmodernism, itself paradoxical in its conservative installing and then radical contesting of conventions. Historiographic metafictions, like Gabriel Garcia Marquezs One Hundred Years of Solitude, Gunter Grasss The Tin Drurn, or Salman Rushdies Midnights Children (which uses both of the Essay on The Tale: of Classes, former as intertexts), employ parody not only to restore history and memory in the face of the distortions of the history of forgetting (Thiher 11 LINDA HUTCHEON 202), but also, at the same time, to put into question the authority of any act of writing by locating the discourses of both history and fiction within an ever-expanding intertextual network that mocks any notion of oliver cromwell hero or villain either single origin or simple causality. When linked with satire, as in the work of Vonnegut, V. Vampilov, Christa Wolf, or Coover, parody can certainly take on more precisely ideological dimensions. Here, too, however, there is no direct intervention in the world: this is writing working through other writing, other textualizations of experience (Said Beginnings 237). In many cases intertextuality may well be too limited a term to describe this process; interdiscursivity would perhaps be a more accurate term for the collective modes of discourse from which the postmodern parodically draws: literature, visual arts, history, biography, theory, philosophy, psychoanalysis, sociology, and the list could go on. One of the effects of Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes this discursive pluralizing is oliver cromwell hero year that the (perhaps illusory but once firm and single) center of both historical and fictive narrative is dispersed. Margins and on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community edges gain new value.

The ex-centric-as both off-center and de-centeredgets attention. That which is different is valorized in opposition both to elitist, alienated otherness and also to the uniformizing impulse of mass culture. Bowers Supreme Court Case. And in American postmodernism, the different comes to on The Handmaid´s Tale: of Classes, be defined in culture include, particularizing terms such as those of nationality, ethnicity, gender, race, and sexual orientation. Intertextual parody of canonical classics is one mode of reappropriating and reformulating-with significant changes-the dominant white, male, middle-class, European culture. It does not reject it, for it cannot. It signals its dependence by its use of the canon, but asserts its rebellion through ironic abuse of it. As Edward Said has been arguing recently (Culture), there is Essay on The of Classes a relationship of mutual interdependence between the histories of the oliver cromwell or villain, dominators and the dominated. American fiction since the sixties has been, as described by on The Handmaid´s A Community of Classes, Malcolm Bradbury (186), particularly obsessed with its own pastliterary, social, and historical. Perhaps this preoccupation is (or was) tied in part to a need to fmd a particularly American voice within a culturally dominant Eurocentric tradition (Dhaen 216). The United States (like the rest of North and South America) is morals a land of on The Handmaid´s Made of Classes immigration.

In E. L. Doctorows words, We derive enormously, of course, from Europe, and thats part of what Ragtime is about: the means by which we began literally, physically to The Necklace, by Guy, lift European art and architecture and bring it over Essay Handmaid´s Tale: of Classes here (in Trenner 58). This is stories morals also part of Essay Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes what American historiographic metafiction in general is about. Critics have discussed at on the by Erich Maria Remarque length the parodic 12 HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION intertexts of the on The Tale: Made, work of Thomas Pynchon, including Conrads Heart ofDarkness (McHale 88) and Prousts first-person confessional form (Patteson 37-38) in V. In particular, The Crying of Lot 49 has been seen as directly linking the literary parody ofJacobean drama with the selectivity and subjectivity of what we deem historical fact (Bennett). Here the postmodern parody operates in much the same way as it did in the literature of the seventeenth century, and in both Pynchons novel and the plays he parodies (John Fords Tis Pity Shes a Whore, John Websters The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi, and Cyril Tourneurs The Revengers Tragedy, among others), the Bowers Court, intertextual received discourse is firmly embedded in a social commentary about the loss of relevance of traditional values in contemporary life (Bennett). Just as powerful and even more outrageous, perhaps, is the parody of Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol in Ishmael Reeds The Terrible Twos, where political satire and parody meet to attack white Euro-centered ideologies of domination. Essay Tale: A Community Made. Its structure of A Past Christmas and A Future Christmas prepares us for its initial Dickensian invocations-first through metaphor (Money is as tight as Scrooge [4]) and then directly: Ebenezer Scrooge towers above the Washington skyline, rubbing his hands and All Quiet Front by Erich Remarque greedily peering over his spectacles (4).

Scrooge is Tale: not a character, but a guiding spirit of oliver or villain 1980 America, one that attends the inauguration of the president that year. The novel proceeds to Essay on The Made of Classes, update Dickens tale. Bowers Supreme Case Essay. However, the rich are still cozy and comfortable (Regardless of how high inflation remains, the wealthy will have any kind of Christmas they desire, a spokesman for Neiman-Marcus announces [5]); the poor are not. This is the 1980 replay of Scrooges winter, as mean as ajunkyard dog (32). The Future Christmas takes place after monopoly capitalism has literally captured Christmas following a court decision which has granted exclusive rights to Santa Claus to Essay on The A Community, one person and Supreme one company. Essay Tale: Made. One strand of the complex plot continues the Dickensian intertext: the American president-a vacuous, alcoholic, ex-(male) model-is reformed by a visit from St.

Nicholas, who takes him on a trip through hell, playing Virgil to his Dante. There he meets past presidents and Scale Essay other politicians, whose punishments (as in the Inferno) conform to their crimes. Made a new man from this experience, the president spends Christmas Day with his black butler, John, and JohnS crippled grandson. Though unnamed, this Tiny Tim ironically outsentimentalizes Dickens: he has a leg amputated; he is black; his parents died in Tale: A Community Made, a car accident. In an attempt to save the nation, the president goes on televi13 LINDA HUTCHEON sian to announce: The problems of American society will not go away by invoking Scroogelike attitudes against the poor or saying humbug to what, the old and to the underprivileged (158). But the final echoes of the Dickens intertext are ultimately ironic: the president is declared unfit to serve (because of Essay Tale: A Community Made of Classes his televised message) and is hospitalized by the business interests which really run the government. None of Dickens optimism remains in stories morals, this bleak satiric vision of the Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made of Classes, future. Western Front By Erich Maria Remarque. Similarly, in Essay on The Tale:, Yellow Back Radio Broke-Down, Reed parodically inverts Dostoevskys Grand Inquisitor in order to subvert the authority of oliver year social, moral, and literary order.

No work of the Western humanist tradition seems safe from postmodern intertextual citation and contestation today: in Hellers God Knows even the sacred texts of the Bible are subject to both validation and demystification. On The Handmaid´s Tale:. It is significant that the intertexts ofJohn Barths LETTERS include not only the British eighteenth-century epistolary novel, Don Quixote, and other European works by H. G. Wells, Mann, and Joyce, but also texts by Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, and James Fenimore Cooper. The specifically American past is as much a part of cromwell or villain essay year defining difference for Essay on The A Community, contemporary American postmodernism as is the European past. The same parodic mix of authority and transgression, use and abuse characterizes intra-American intertextuality. The Necklace, By Guy Essay. For instance, Pynchons V. and Morrisons Song of Solomon, in different ways, parody both the structures and theme of the recoverability of history in William Faulkners Absalom, Absalom!. Similarly, Doctorows Lives of the Poets (1984) both installs and subverts Philip Roths My Life as a Man and Saul Bellows Herzog (Levine 80). The parodic references to the earlier, nineteenth-century or classic American literature are perhaps even more complex, however, since there is a long (and related) tradition of the interaction of Handmaid´s Made of Classes fiction and history in, for example, Hawthornes use of the conventions of romance to connect the historical past and the writing present. And indeed Hawthornes fiction is a familiar postmodern intertext: The Blithedale Romance and Barths The Floating Opera share the same moral preoccupation with the consequences of what culture include writers taking aesthetic distance from life, but it is the difference in their structural forms (Barths novel is more self-consciously metafictional [Christensen 12]) that points the reader to the real irony of the conjunction of the ethical issue. The canonical texts of the American tradition are both undermined and yet drawn upon, for parody is the paradoxical postmodern way of on The Handmaid´s Tale: coming to terms with the past. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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When sent as an on The Handmaid´s Tale: of Classes e-mail attachment, however, its formatting may appear inconsistently from computer to computer, and it is vulnerable to The Necklace, de Maupassant Essay, viruses. Worse, the formatting probably wont translate well to the employers Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. Lines, graphics, fancy bullets, text boxes, tables, and on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community graphics (logos) are the issues the include ATS programs encounter when uploading a resume into a companys resume database, Boyer notes. Dont send a formatted, print resume as an attachment unless (a) youre sure its the employers preference, (b) you also provide another alternative, preferably your text-based resume pasted into the body of an Essay on The Tale: Made of Classes e-mail message, or (c) youve stripped the resume of all but the most basic formatting. Text resume , also known as a text-based resume, plain-text resume, or ASCII text resume, is the oliver or villain year preferred format for submitting resumes electronically. Essay On The Handmaid´s A Community Of Classes! A text resume, which carries the .txt file extension, is V Hardwick Supreme Case Essay stripped of virtually all its formatting and Essay on The Tale: Made is not especially visually appealing, which is OK since its main purpose is to be placed into culture include, one of the keyword-searchable databases that the vast majority of todays large employers now use. The text resume is on The Tale: A Community Made of Classes not vulnerable to viruses and is compatible across computer programs and platforms. It is highly versatile and morals can be used for: Posting in its entirety on on The A Community Made many job boards.

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Most job boards explicitly prohibit HTML resumes. Scannable resumes , which were all the rage just a few years ago, are very rarely requested by or villain essay year 8, employers today. Why? Because a scannable resume is basically a print resume that the employer turns into an electronic resume by using Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software and then placing it into a keyword-searchable database. With the on The Handmaid´s Tale: growth of e-mail as a mode of communication, employers soon asked themselves, Why are we going through the extra step of scanning hard-copy when we could have resumes e-mailed to us and place them directly into databases without having to scan them first? A former student of mine who had entered the human-resources field once told me that resumes e-mailed to his company could enter the Potential Ethanol Production Essay database in a matter of days, while a resume that had to be scanned could take up to three weeks to be placed in the database because of the extra labor involved. You still may occasionally encounter employers, however, who request scannable resumes. The rules for Essay on The Made, scannable resumes are virtually the same as for The Necklace, by Guy, text resumes except that scannable resumes are generally printed out and sent by fax or postal mail. Essay On The Handmaid´s A Community! They can also be sent as e-mail attachments.

For the lowdown on preparing a scannable resume, see our article, How to Write Text Resumes. Final Thoughts on E-Resume Formats. Boyer summarizes well why applicants need a good understanding of on the Western by Erich Maria Remarque Essay these resume formats: Job-seekers must understand recruiters may be dealing with as many as 200-400 resumes for a single job; they are NOT going to Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made, bother with any resume that doesnt easily convert over into their system, she notes. Text formatting and the MS Word Document (.doc) allows easier search capabilities within the ATS so should be a standard for any/all job-seekers for resumes. PDF resumes, print resumes, and Web-based resumes, while problematic for online submission, have their uses, as well. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seekers Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Potential for Large Production, Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and Essay Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out oliver hero essay year Dr.

Hansen on GooglePlus. And take advantage of all of our free resume resources, including articles, tutorials, quizzes, and Essay on The A Community Made of Classes much more! Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and skills! Take advantage of The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and worksheets in 35 career, college, job-search topic areas. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and by Guy Essay savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Essay A Community Of Classes! Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.

Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of does Quintessential Careers, one of the Essay Handmaid´s Tale: Made oldest and de Maupassant Essay most comprehensive career development sites on Essay Handmaid´s Tale: the Web, as well CEO of stories with EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Essay on The Tale: A Community Made Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine.

Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Hes often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. What Does Culture Include! Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for Essay Handmaid´s Tale: Made, more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and Potential for Large Scale Ethanol associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at stories with morals, A Storied Career. Handmaid´s Made Of Classes! Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to by Guy de Maupassant Essay, a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy@quintcareers.com.

Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is Handmaid´s Tale: A Community of Classes your key source for all things career-change related. Youll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the by Guy de Maupassant Essay process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and on The Tale: A Community Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of The Necklace, Essay Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and Essay on The Tale: A Community improved Quintessential Careers Blog for V Hardwick Supreme Case Essay, Job-Seekers and Careerists.

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AE Manager / Architecture And Engineering Manager. Hillsboro , OR 97123. Essay Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made? Introduction ASML brings together the most creative minds in science and include technology to Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made, develop lithography machines that are key to producing faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient microchips. We design, develop, integrate, market and service these advanced machines, which enable our customers - the what does worlds leading chipmakers to reduce the size and Essay Made of Classes increase the functionality of their microchips, which in turn leads to smaller, more powerful consumer electronics. Our headquarters are in morals Veldhoven, the Netherlands, and Essay A Community of Classes we have 18 office locations around the does culture United States including main offices in Wilton, CT, Chandler, AZ and Essay on The Tale: Made San Jose, CA. What Does Culture? ## Job Mission Own, contribute and drive site readiness, process improvements, and organizational improvement projects on behalf of the CS organization to drive the introduction of Essay Handmaid´s Tale:, ASML products. E / Architecture and Engineering Manager will be the primary point of contact to internal and external customers regarding the customer facilities required to support ASML products (DUV, EUV, Metrology). They will also be the single point of contact to stories, all internal organizations that provide information to the customer or need information from the customer regarding support facilities. Primary deliverables include arranging the delivery of the ASML Requirement packages, system upgrade/FCO facility requirements, feedback to Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made of Classes, internal customers regarding facility needs/capabilities, and with support the interpretation of customer design data internally. Customer interface: * Manage all communication with the customer. Drive customer needs internally.

Manage customer expectations. Find alternative solutions that meet customer needs while simultaneously meeting ASML business requirements. Plan and Prioritize: * Creates and uses detailed project plan (deliverables, why, who, when, how, what) * Clearly defines deliverables for project members. Defines clear and quantifiable priorities. Manage Project Structure: * Is able to identify resources needed for proper project delivery and escalates when not available. Is able to make planning based on available resources. Is able to on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made of Classes, challenge the assignment and agree on SMART deliverables. Manage project meetings. Has regular progress reporting to stakeholders / sponsors / project team.

Understands proper escalation paths and solve basic road blocks. Oliver Cromwell Essay? Delegate and Follow Up: * Allocates work and appoints owners to logical buckets of deliverables in Essay Tale: A Community Made of Classes line with team structure. Manage Risks and Customer Requirements: * Is able to assess and address risk based on input project members. Is able to morals, understand operational risks within own scope. Education Bachelors degree in Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: Made of Classes an Engineering discipline such as Mechanical. , Electrical, or Structural. Bachelors' or Masters' Degree in Potential for Large Scale Essay Architectural Engineering highly preferred!

Masters Degree highly preferred. PMP Certification helpful but no necessary. 5-10 Architectural and Engineering experience working with challenging, highly technical, large budget projects with a lot of moving parts. Semiconductor or similar complex technologies experience required. Detailed understanding of Semiconductor FAB facilities would be advantageous.

Fluent in reading and accurately interpreting technical, facilities drawings and blueprints. On The Handmaid´s Of Classes? Exemplary Account Management skills with highly advanced experience interfacing with customers as well as being adept at utilizing diplomacy, direct and clear communication. Experience developing strategies to address controversial topics with customers. Excellent written and verbal and listening communications skills. Able to independently create and deliver customer ready presentations.

Willing to work within a clean room and Bowers Supreme Court Essay all supporting areas. Essay On The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Of Classes? Professional, with excellent written, verbal and listening communications skills. Ability to remain level-headed and or villain essay 8 objective under customer scrutiny and tight deadlines. Able to convince, inspire and Tale: of Classes motivate people. Possess the The Necklace, by Guy de Maupassant ability to lead multiple interdisciplinary teams to manage the project execution. Able to manage project structure using project management tools, delegate tasks and follow up. Must able to Essay Tale: A Community, work independently and also effectively as a member of a team. Ability to thrive in a fast-paced environment. Ability to embrace changing work schedules based on Western by Erich Remarque Essay, project stage and Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes customer needs. Context of the position The physical demands described here are representative of those that must be met by an employee to successfully perform the essential functions of this job. . Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions.

While performing the duties of this job, the employee routinely is required to hero essay year 8, sit; walk; talk; hear; use hands to on The Handmaid´s Tale:, keyboard, finger, handle, and feel; stoop, kneel, crouch, twist, reach, and stretch. Frequent travel to the customer site Able to work in a clean room The employee is occasionally required to move around the campus. The employee may occasionally lift and/or move up to stories with morals, 20 pounds. May require travel dependent on company needs. Specific vision abilities required by Essay on The Tale: A Community this job include close vision, color vision, peripheral vision, depth perception, and ability to adjust focus. Work well under deadlines. The environment generally is for Large Scale Ethanol moderate in on The Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes temperature and noise level. Must be able to read and interpret data, information, and Bowers V Hardwick Supreme Case documents. Can observe and respond to people and situations and interact with others encountered in the course of work.

Can learn and apply new information or skills. /AA (W/M/Vets/Disability) Employer Location: Hillsboro. On The Handmaid´s Tale: Of Classes? OR, US Level: Bachelor Experience: 5-10 Experienced Available since: 2017-09-15 Functional area: Industrial Engineering Background: Others. Technical Reference: US03177. Create a job alert for AE Manager / Architecture And Engineering Manager at Hillsboro, OR. On The Western Front By Erich Remarque? Great! You#39;ll now receive job alerts for AE Manager / Architecture And Engineering Manager at Essay on The A Community, Hillsboro, OR.

Create a job alert for AE Manager / Architecture And Engineering Manager at Hillsboro, OR. Architecture And Engineering Manager. Leading Technology Company. With Morals? Posted 9 days ago. VIEW JOBS 9/24/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-23T00:00 The A E / Architecture and Engineering Manager will be the primary point of contact to internal and external customers regarding the customer facilities required to support ASML products (DUV, EUV, Metrology). They will also be the Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made single point of contact to all internal organizations that provide information to the customer or need information from the stories with morals customer regarding support facilities. Primary deliverables include arranging the delivery of the Essay ASML Requirement packages, system upgrade/FCO facility requirements, feedback to internal customers regarding facility needs/capabilities, and support the interpretation of customer design data internally.Customer interface:Manage all communication with the customerDrive customer needs internallyManage customer expectationsFind alternative solutions that meet customer needs while simultaneously meeting ASML business requirementsPlan and Prioritize: -Creates and uses detailed project plan (deliverables, why, who, when, how, what) -Clearly defines deliverables for project members -Defines clear and Ethanol Production Essay quantifiable prioritiesManage Project Structure: -Is able to A Community of Classes, identify resources needed for proper project delivery and escalates when not available -Is able to make planning based on available resources -Is able to challenge the assignment and V Hardwick agree on SMART deliverables -Manage project meetings-Has regular progress reporting to Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community of Classes, stakeholders / sponsors / project team -Understands proper escalation paths and Potential for Large Ethanol solve basic road blocks Delegate and Follow Up: -Allocates work and appoints owners to logical Companyets of deliverables in line with team structure Manage Risks and Customer Requirements: -Is able to assess and Essay Tale: address risk based on input project members -Is able to understand operational risks within own scope EducationBachelors degree in an Engineering discipline such as Mechanical, Electrical, or Structural.Bachelors or Masters Degree in Architectural Engineering highly preferred!Masters Degree highly preferred.PMP Certification helpful but no necessaryExperience5-10 Architectural and for Large Ethanol Production Essay Engineering experience working with challenging, highly technical, large budget projects with a lot of moving parts.Semiconductor or similar complex technologies experience requiredDetailed understanding of Semiconductor FAB facilities would be advantageous.Fluent in reading and accurately interpreting technical, facilities drawings and blueprints.Exemplary Account Management skills with highly advanced experience interfacing with customers as well as being adept at utilizing diplomacy, direct and clear communication.Experience developing strategies to address controversial topics with customers.Excellent written and verbal and listening communications skills.Able to independently create and deliver customer ready presentations.Willing to work within a clean room and all supporting areas.Personal skillsProfessional, with excellent written, verbal and Handmaid´s listening communications skills.Ability to remain level-headed and objective under customer scrutiny and tight deadlines.Able to convince, inspire and motivate people.Possess the ability to lead multiple interdisciplinary teams to Potential for Large Scale, manage the project execution.Able to manage project structure using project management tools, delegate tasks and Essay on The A Community of Classes follow up.Must able to work independently and also effectively as a member of a team.Ability to thrive in The Necklace, a fast-paced environment.Ability to Essay on The Handmaid´s, embrace changing work schedules based on project stage and customer needs.br/ Associated topics: architect, architectural, architecture, building, construction, drafter, structural engineer Leading Technology Company Hillsboro OR. Wireless Validation Engineering Manager.

Posted 2 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/1/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-30T00:00 **Job Description** Manage Bluetooth verification/validation/QA team of software professional who are responsible for Intels BT solutions in the Windows, Linux, Android, Chrome, OSX and does culture include IOS space. Experience in software and firmware integration and testing from the Essay on The Tale: of Classes planning stage all the way through product end of life cycle. A group that is responsible for delivering results over oliver cromwell hero or villain essay many areas of the software lifecycle: design, developing, debugging, validating, optimizing, benchmarking, customer engagement and on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made of Classes product support. This might include systems software, drivers, high performance computing, development tools, enterprise applications, consumer applications and V Hardwick Court Case Essay user interfaces. Responsible for Intels Connectivity solution quality. Plans and provides resources for and directs activities in engineering function to meet schedules, standards, and cost. Tale: Made? Cultivates and reinforces appropriate group values, norms and oliver cromwell hero or villain essay year 8 behaviors. On The Made? Identifies and analyzes problems, plans, tasks, and solutions. Can Do attitude and growth mindset is Scale Ethanol Essay a must.

Provides guidance for employee development, performance, and productivity issues. Plans and schedules daily tasks, uses judgement on a variety of problems requiring deviation from Essay Tale: A Community of Classes, standard practices. **Behavioral traits for this position include:** Upbeat, positive and innovative mindset is needed Independent, proactive, accountable and self-driven skills are a must Outstanding interpersonal skills and someone who is capable of effectively motivating the Potential for Large Ethanol Production team Someone who isnt afraid to get up in front of on The Handmaid´s A Community Made, a room full of talented engineers and with morals executives and present their teams work A leader who has deep as well as wide technical competency in on The Tale: A Community Made of Classes the wireless technologies Excellent collaboration between teams is needed as the what culture include team is remote from the majority of the rest of the engineering sites **Qualifications** 10y+ of experience in SW/FW development and/or verification/validation/QA in Wireless 5y+ of experience people management for Essay Tale: of Classes large teams; grow a team of highly effective, highly innovative software engineers 5y+ SCRUM Master/Agile, SDLC and Product Management Minimum Bachelor, preferably Master#39;s in on the by Erich Computer Science, Electrical Engineering or related field Must demonstrate hands-on testing knowledge of white box and black box testing techniques Must have sufficient software skills to implement test harnesses and test automation, including fluency in scripting languages such as Python, C/C++ and Made C# Experience in software development for testing with a proven track record of delivering production quality software products in The Necklace, de Maupassant Essay a fast paced environment. Set the technology vision and strategy for diagnostic systems, powered by big data and constant connectivity. Design and develop software that achieves this vision. Lead, and contribute to technical requirements, architecture, and Essay on The Tale: A Community Made of Classes interface design documents. Survey requirements and culture include plans, and remain coordinated with, allied groups in Software Development, Product Development, Validation or Manufacturing. **Preferred skills and experience:** In-depth understanding of on The Handmaid´s Made of Classes, both Bluetooth Classic and oliver cromwell hero essay Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) protocol Extended Bluetooth testing experience In depth understanding of ALM solutions Experience working with Bluetooth protocol analyzer or packet sniffers Familiarity with Bluetooth SIG certification and experience working with BQB is a plus **Inside this Business Group** Communication Devices Group: The wireless revolution at Intel!

We are one team - passionate engineers and technologists from diverse industry backgrounds working together to realize a world of connected computing. We are bringing the best ideas from the brightest minds to deliver future mobile experiences into the market. We are on the journey towards making Intel a wireless leader with exciting products for the Internet of Essay Handmaid´s Made of Classes, Things, 5G and does include an opportunity to change the world with your work. **Posting Statement.** Intel prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, national origin, age, disability, veteran status, marital status, pregnancy, gender expression or identity, sexual orientation or any other legally protected status. Intel Hillsboro OR. Posted 3 days ago. VIEW JOBS 9/30/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-29T00:00 strongJob Description/strongpbr/bEducation:/bbr/Candidate should possess a Master s degree with at least 7 years additional experience in Electrical or Computer Engineering./ppbr/bMinimum Requirements:/bbr/- Minimum of 3 years of management experience/pp- Minimum of 5 years of experience in technical leadership/pp- Minimum of 5 years of experience with RTL design and on The Made development for use in FPGAs or ASICs/ppbr/bPreferred Qualifications:/bbr/- 3 years of experience in RD/pp- Demonstrated leadership in selecting, building, developing, and retaining strong problem solving and Bowers V Hardwick Court innovative teams./pp- Proven success in leading complex, cross-organizational teams to deliver business results/pp- Proven interpersonal skills resulting in on The Handmaid´s A Community of Classes resolving complex organizational and personnel challenges/pp- Strong communication skills written and verbal with ability to influence cross group technical stakeholders/pp- Self-starter, who has a demonstrated ability to make key decisions and create product and division strategies/ppbr/strongQualifications/strong/pstrongInside this Business Group/strongpNon-Volatile Solutions Memory Group: The Non-Volatile Memory Solutions Group is a worldwide organization that delivers NAND flash memory products for use in Solid State Drives (SSDs), portable memory storage devices, digital camera memory cards, and other devices. The group is responsible for NVM technology design and development, complete Solid State Drive (SSD) system hardware and firmware development, as well as wafer and SSD manufacturing./pstrongPosting Statement./strong Intel prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, national origin, age, disability, veteran status, marital status, pregnancy, gender expression or identity, sexual orientation or any other legally protected status.

Altera Hillsboro OR. AE Manager / Architecture And Engineering Manager. 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. All Quiet On The Front? Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Copy paste or upload your cover letter. Dont have a cover letter? Build one now! We will save your jobs while you are here, but once you leave, they will be discarded.

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essay on change Animations by Carl Burton. T he future without oil! For optimists, a pleasant picture: lets call it Picture One. Shall we imagine it? There we are, driving around in our cars fueled by hydrogen, or methane, or solar, or something else we have yet to dream up. Goods from afar come to Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community of Classes us by The Necklace, by Guy de Maupassant Essay solar-and-sail-driven ship the on The Handmaid´s Tale: Made of Classes sails computerized to what does catch every whiff of air or else by new versions of the airship, which can lift and Essay Made of Classes, carry a huge amount of Essay, freight with minimal pollution and no ear-slitting noise. Trains have made a comeback. So have bicycles, when it isnt snowing; but maybe there wont be any more winter. Weve gone back to small-scale hydropower, using fish-friendly dams. Were eating locally, and even growing organic vegetables on our erstwhile front lawns, watering them with greywater and rainwater, and with the water saved from using low-flush toilets, showers instead of baths, water-saving washing machines, and Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community, other appliances already on the market.

Were using low-draw lightbulbs incandescents have been banned and energy-efficient heating systems, including pellet stoves, radiant panels, and long underwear. Does Include? Heat yourself, not the Handmaid´s Made of Classes room is no longer a slogan for nutty eccentrics: its the way we all live now. Due to improved insulation and indoor-climate-enhancing practices, including heatproof blinds and Bowers V Hardwick Supreme Court Essay, awnings, air-conditioning systems are obsolete, so they no longer suck up huge amounts of power every summer. As for power, in on The of Classes, addition to The Necklace, Essay hydro, solar, geothermal, wave, and wind generation, and emissions-free coal plants, were using almost foolproof nuclear power. Even when there are accidents it isnt all bad news, because instant wildlife refuges are created as Nature invades those high-radiation zones where Man now fears to tread. Theres said to be some remarkable wildlife and botany in the area surrounding Chernobyl. What will we wear?

A lot of hemp clothing, I expect: hemp is a hardy fiber source with few pesticide requirements, and Essay on The Made, cotton will have proven too costly and destructive to grow. We might also be wearing a lot of recycled tinfoil keeps the culture heat in and garments made from the recycled plastic weve harvested from the island of it twice the size of Texas currently floating around in the Pacific Ocean. What will we eat, besides our front-lawn vegetables? That may be a problem were coming to the end of cheap fish, and there are other shortages looming. Abundant animal protein in large hunks may have had its day. However, were an inventive species, and when push comes to Essay on The Handmaid´s shove we dont have a lot of fastidiousness: being omnivores, well eat anything as long as theres ketchup. Oliver Cromwell Hero Year? Looking on the bright side: obesity due to over-eating will no longer be a crisis, and diet plans will not only be free, but mandatory. Thats Picture One. Essay Tale: A Community Made? I like it. Its comforting.

Under certain conditions, it might even come true. Sort of. More or less. T hen theres Picture Two. Suppose the future without oil arrives very quickly.

Suppose a bad fairy waves his wand, and poof! Suddenly theres no oil, anywhere, at all. Everything would immediately come to a halt. No cars, no planes; a few trains still running on hydroelectric, and some bicycles, but that wouldnt take very many people very far. Food would cease to flow into the cities, water would cease to flow out of the taps.

Within hours, panic would set in. The first result would be the disappearance of the word we: except in Western Front, areas with exceptional organization and leadership, the word I would replace it, as the war of all against all sets in. There would be a run on Handmaid´s A Community Made, the supermarkets, followed immediately by food riots and looting. There would also be a run on Bowers V Hardwick Case Essay, the banks people would want their money out for black market purchasing, although all currencies would quickly lose value, replaced by bartering. In any case the banks would close: their electronic systems would shut down, and theyd run out of cash. Having looted and hoarded some food and Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: of Classes, filled their bathtubs with water, people would hunker down in their houses, creeping out into the backyards if they dared because their toilets would no longer flush.

The lights would go out. Communication systems would break down. What next? Open a can of dog food, eat it, then eat the dog, then wait for the authorities to restore order. But the authorities lacking transport would be unable to de Maupassant do this. Other authorities would take over. These would at first be known as thugs and street gangs, then as warlords.

Theyd attack the barricaded houses, raping, pillaging and murdering. But soon even they would run out of stolen food. Essay Handmaid´s A Community Made Of Classes? It wouldnt take long given starvation, festering garbage, multiplying rats, and V Hardwick Case, putrefying corpses for pandemic disease to break out. It will quickly become apparent that the present world population of six and a half billion people is not only Handmaid´s, dependent on oil, but was created by it: humanity has expanded to fill the Potential Scale Essay space made possible to it by oil, and without that oil it would shrink with astounding rapidity. As for the costs to the economy, there wont be any economy. Money will vanish: the on The Handmaid´s A Community Made only items of exchange will be food, water, and most likely before everyone topples over Bowers Supreme, sex. Picture Two is extreme, and also unlikely, but it exposes the truth: were hooked on oil, and without it we cant do much of anything. Essay On The Handmaid´s Of Classes? And since its bound to run out eventually, and since cheap oil is already a thing of the past, we ought to be investing a lot of time, effort, and V Hardwick Case Essay, money in ways to replace it. Unfortunately, like every other species on the planet, were conservative: we dont change our ways unless necessity forces us.

The early lungfish didnt develop lungs because it wanted to Tale: A Community be a land animal, but because it wanted to remain a fish even as the dry season drew down the water around it. Were also self-interested: unless there are laws mandating conservation of energy, most wont do it, because why make sacrifices if others dont? The absence of fair and Potential Ethanol Essay, enforceable energy-use rules penalizes the conscientious while enriching the amoral. In business, the laws of competition mean that most corporations will extract maximum riches from available resources with not much thought to the consequences. Why expect any human being or institution to behave otherwise unless they can see clear benefits? In addition to Essay on The A Community Made Pictures One and Two, theres Picture Three. In Picture Three, some countries plan for the future of diminished oil, some dont. Does Culture Include? Those planning now include not strangely those that dont have any, or dont need any. Iceland generates over half its power from abundant geothermal sources: it will not suffer much from an Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: of Classes oil dearth. With Morals? Germany is rapidly converting, as are a number of other oil-poor European countries.

They are preparing to weather the coming storm. Then there are the oil-rich countries. Of these, those who were poor in Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes, the past, who got rich quick, and who have no resources other than oil are investing the oil wealth they know to be temporary in technologies they hope will work for them when the oil runs out. But in countries that have oil, but that have other resources too, such foresight is lacking. It does exist in one form: as a Pentagon report of 2003 called An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and its Implications for United States National Security put it, Nations with the resources to do so may build virtual fortresses around their countries, preserving resources for themselves. Thats already happening: the cromwell hero essay year 8 walls grow higher and stronger every day. But the long-term government planning needed to deal with diminishing oil within rich, mixed-resource countries is mostly lacking. Biofuel is largely delusional: the amount of oil required to Essay Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made make it is larger than the payout. Some oil companies are exploring the development of other energy sources, but by Bowers and large theyre simply lobbying against anything and anyone that might cause a decrease in consumption and thus impact on their profits. Its gold-rush time, and oil is the gold, and short-term gain outweighs long-term pain, and madness is Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community of Classes afoot, and anyone who wants to stop the on the Remarque Essay rush is deemed an enemy. My own country, Canada, is an oil-rich country.

A lot of the Essay Handmaid´s A Community oil is in by Erich Maria Remarque Essay, the Athabasca oil sands, where licenses to mine oil are sold to anyone with the on The Tale: A Community cash, and where CO2 is Potential Production Essay being poured into the atmosphere, not only from the oil used as an end product, but also in the course of Handmaid´s of Classes, its manufacture. Also used in its manufacture is an enormous amount of what does culture include, water. The water mostly comes from the Athabasca River, which is fed by Essay A Community Made of Classes a glacier. But due to global warming, glaciers are melting fast. When theyre gone, no more water, and thus no more oil from oil sands. Or Villain 8? Maybe well be saved partially by our own ineptness. On The Made Of Classes? But well leave much destruction in our wake. The Athabasca oil-sand project has now replaced the Bowers Supreme Court pyramids as the must-see manmade colossal sight, although its not exactly a monument to hopes of Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made of Classes, immortality. There has even been a tour to Front Maria it: the venerable Canadian company Butterfield Robinson ran one in 2008 as part of its series Places on the Verge. Destinations at risk: first stop, the oil sands.

Next stop, the planet. Essay Made Of Classes? If we dont start aiming for Picture One, well end up with some version of what culture include, Picture Two. On The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made? So hoard some dog food, because you may be needing it. I ts interesting to look back on what I wrote about oil in 2009, and to reflect on how the conversation has changed in Bowers Case, a mere six years. Much of what most people took for granted back then is on The Tale: A Community of Classes no longer universally accepted, including the idea that we could just go on and on the way we were living then, with no consequences. There was already some alarm back then, but those voicing it were seen as extreme.

Now their concerns have moved to stories morals the center of the conversation. Essay On The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made? Here are some of the hero essay 8 main worries. Planet Earth the on The Tale: A Community Made of Classes Goldilocks planet weve taken for granted, neither too hot or too cold, neither too wet or too dry, with fertile soils that accumulated for millennia before we started to farm them - that planet is altering. The shift towards the warmer end of the Court Essay thermometer that was once predicted to happen much later, when the generations now alive had had lots of fun and made lots of on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community, money and oliver hero essay, gobbled up lots of resources and burned lots of fossil fuels and then died, are happening much sooner than anticipated back then. In fact, theyre happening now. Here are three top warning signs. First, the transformation of the oceans.

Not only are these being harmed by the warming of their waters, in itself a huge affector of climate. There is also the increased acidification due to Essay Handmaid´s Tale: Made CO2 absorption, the ever-increasing amount of oil-based plastic trash and toxic pollutants that human beings are pouring into the seas, and the overfishing and destruction of marine ecosystems and spawning grounds by stories morals bottom-dragging trawlers. Handmaid´s Tale: Made Of Classes? Most lethal to Bowers us and affected by warming, acidification, toxins, and dying marine ecosystems would be the Handmaid´s Tale: A Community destruction of the bluegreen marine algae that created our present oxygen-rich atmosphere 2.45 billion years ago, and that continue to make the majority of the oxygen we breathe. If the algae die, that would put an end to us, as we would gasp to death like fish out of for Large, water. A second top warning sign is the drought in California, said to be the worst for 1,200 years. This drought is Handmaid´s Tale: of Classes now in its fourth year; it is mirrored by droughts in other western U.S. states, such as Utah and Idaho. Potential For Large Ethanol Production? The snowpack in the mountains that usually feeds the water supplies in these states was only 3% of the norm this winter. Handmaid´s Tale: Of Classes? Its going to be a long, hot, dry summer.

The knockon effect of such widespread drought on such things as the price of fruit and vegetables has yet to be calculated, but it will be extensive. As drought conditions spread elsewhere, we may expect water wars as the worlds supply of fresh water is exhausted. A third warning sign is the rise in ocean levels. There have already been some noteworthy flooding events, the most expensive in The Necklace, Essay, North America being Hurricane Katrina, and the inundation of lower Manhattan at the time of Hurricane Sandy in Essay Tale:, 2012. Should the Essay predicted sea-level rise of a foot to Essay Tale: A Community two feet take place, the state of Florida stands to lose most of its beaches, and with morals, the city of Miami will be wading. Many other lowlying cities around the world will be affected. This result, however, is not accepted by Essay Made of Classes some of the politicians who are supposed to Potential for Large Ethanol be alert to Essay on The of Classes dangers threatening the welfare of their constituents. The present governor of Florida, Rick Scott, is on the Western Front Essay said to have issued a memo to all government of Florida employees forbidding them to use the terms climate change and global warming, because he doesnt believe in Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community of Classes, them (though Scott has denied this to the press).

I myself would like to disbelieve in gravitational forces, because then I could fly, and also in viruses, because then I would never get colds. Makes sense: you cant see viruses or gravity, and seeing is Supreme Court Case believing, and when youve got your head stuck in Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community of Classes, the sand you cant see a thing, right? The Florida government employees also arent allowed to talk about sea-level rise: when things get very wet inside peoples houses, its to be called nuisance flooding. (If the city of Miami gets soaked, as it will should the level rise the two feet predicted in the foreseeable future, it will indeed be a nuisance, especially in with morals, the real-estate sector; so the on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community governor isnt all wrong.) What a practical idea for solving pesky problems: lets not talk about All Quiet on the Remarque it, and maybe it will go away. The Canadian federal government, not to Essay Handmaid´s A Community Made be outdone in the area of with morals, misleading messages, has just issued a new map that shows more Arctic sea ice than the previous map did. Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made Of Classes? Good news! The sea ice is actually increasing! So global warming and Bowers Supreme Court Case Essay, climate change doesnt exist? How reassuring for the population, and on The Handmaid´s Made of Classes, how convenient for those invested in carbon fuels! But theres some fine print. It seems that this new map shows an average amount of sea ice, and the averaging goes back thirty years. With Morals? As the Globe and Mail article on this new map puts it:

In reality, climate change has been gnawing away at the planets permanent polar ice cap and it is projected to continue doing so. Its a subtle way, on a map, to change the perspective on the way something is viewed, said Christopher Storie, an assistant professor of geography at the University of Winnipeg and president of the on The of Classes Canadian Cartographic Association. Cute trick, wouldnt you say? Not as cute as Floridas trick, but cute. And both tricks emphasize the need for scientific literacy. Oliver Hero? Increasingly, the public needs to know how to evaluate the Essay Handmaid´s Tale: A Community of Classes worth of what does, whatever facts theyre being told. Essay A Community Made Of Classes? Whos saying it? Whats their source? Do they have a bias?

Unfortunately, very few people have the expertise necessary to decode the morals numbers and statistics that are constantly being flung at us. Both the Florida cute trick and the Canadian map one originate in worries about the Future, and the bad things that may happen in Handmaid´s Tale: Made of Classes, that future; also the desire to deny these things or sweep them under the Supreme Court Case Essay carpet so business can go on as usual, leaving the young folks and future generations to deal with the mess and Essay Handmaid´s of Classes, chaos that will result from a changed climate, and then pay the bill. Because there will be a bill: the cost will be high, not only in money but in human lives. The laws of chemistry and physics are unrelenting, and oliver or villain year 8, they dont give second chances. In fact, that bill is already coming due. There are many other effects, from Essay Handmaid´s Tale: A Community species extinction to the spread of diseases to a decline in overall food production, but the main point is that these effects are not happening in some dim, distant future. They are happening now. In response to our growing awareness of these effects, there have been some changes in public and political attitudes, though these changes have not been universal. Some acknowledge the situation, but shrug and go about their daily lives taking a What can I do? position. Some merely despair. But only those with their heads stuck so firmly into oliver cromwell or villain essay year, the sand that theyre talking through their nether ends are still denying that reality has changed.

Even if the deniers can be brought reluctantly to acknowledge the facts on the ground, they display two fallback positions: 1) The changes are natural. They have nothing to do with humankinds burning of fossil fuels. Therefore we can keep on having our picnic, such as it is, perhaps making a few gestures in the direction of adaptation a seawall here, the Essay of Classes building of a desalination plant there without worrying about what does include our own responsibility. 2) The changes are divine. They are punishments being inflicted on humankind for its sins by supernatural agency. In extreme form, they are part of a divine plan to destroy the world, send most of its inhabitants to a hideous death, and make a new world for those who will be saved. People who believe this kind of Essay, thing usually number themselves among the lucky few. It would, however, be a mistake to vote for them, as in a crisis they would doubtless simply head for higher ground or their own specially equipped oxygen shelters, and then cheer while billions die, rather than lifting a finger to save their fellow citizens.

B ack in 2009, discussion of the The Necklace, by Guy de Maupassant Essay future of energy and thus of civilization as we know it tended to be theoretical. Now, however, action is Essay A Community Made being taken and statements are being made, some of All Quiet Front by Erich Maria Remarque Essay, them coming from the usual suspects left-wingers and artists and radicals, and other such dubious folks but others now coming from Essay Handmaid´s Tale: Made of Classes directions that would once have been unthinkable. Some are even coming mirabile dictu! from All Quiet on the Western Essay politicians. Here are some examples of all three kinds: In September 2014, the international petition site Avaaz (over 41 million members) pulled together a Manhattan climate march of 400,000 people, said to be the largest climate march in history. On The Made Of Classes? On April 11, 2015, approximately 25,000 people congregated in Quebec City to serve notice on Canadian politicians that they want them to start taking climate change seriously. Five years ago, that number would probably have been 2,500. Just before that date, Canadas most populous province, Ontario, announced that it was bringing in a cap-and-trade plan. The chances of that happening five years ago were nil. In case anyone thinks that its only people on the so-called political left that are concerned, there are numerous straws in the wind thats blowing from cromwell hero or villain year what might once have been considered the resistant right. Henry Paulson, Secretary of the Essay on The Made of Classes Treasury under George W. Bush, has just said that there are two threats to our society that are even greater than the 2008 financial meltdown he himself helped the world navigate: environmental damage due to climate change, and cromwell essay year, the possible failure of China. (Chinese success probably means China can tackle its own carbon emissions and bring them under control; Chinese failure means it probably cant.)

In Canada, an Handmaid´s of Classes organization called the Ecofiscal Commission has been formed; it includes representatives from the erstwhile Reform Party (right), the Liberal Party (centrist), and the NDP (left), as well as members from the business community. Its belief is that environmental problems can be solved by business sense and for Large Ethanol Production Essay, common sense, working together; that a gain for the environment does not have to be a financial loss, but can be a gain. In America, the Tesla story would certainly bear this out: this electric plug-in is Handmaid´s Made of Classes doing a booming business among the rich. Meanwhile, there are other changes afoot. Faith-based environmental movements such as A Rocha are gaining ground; others, such as Make Way For Monarchs, engage groups of many vocations and political stripes. The coalition of the well-intentioned and action-oriented from stories morals finance, faith, and Essay on The Handmaid´s Made, science could prove to be a very powerful one indeed.

But will all of this, in the aggregate, be enough? T wo writers have recently contributed some theorizing about overall social and energy systems and Essay, the way they function that may be helpful to us in our slowly unfolding crisis. One is from art historian and energetic social thinker Barry Lord; its called Art and on The Handmaid´s Tale: of Classes, Energy (AAM Press). Briefly, Lords thesis is that the kind of art a society makes and values is culture joined at the hip with the kind of energy that society depends on to keep itself going. He traces the various forms of energy we have known as a species throughout our pre-history our millennia spent in the Pleistocene and in our recorded history sexual energy, without which societies cant continue; the energy of the body while hunting and foraging; wood for fire; slaves; wind and water; coal; oil; and renewables and makes some cogent observations about their relationship to on The of Classes art and culture.

In his Prologue, he says: Everyone knows that all life requires energy. But we rarely consider how dependent art and culture are on Bowers V Hardwick Supreme Court, the energy that is needed to Essay on The Tale: of Classes produce, practice and sustain them. What we fail to see are the usually invisible sources of Potential for Large Scale Ethanol Essay, energy that make our art and on The Handmaid´s A Community Made, culture(s) possible and bring with them fundamental values that we are all constrained to Potential for Large Ethanol Production live with (whether we approve of them or not). Coal brought one set of values to all industrialized countries; oil brought a very different set I may not approve of the culture of consumption that comes with oil but I must use [it] if I want to do anything at all. Those living within an Essay Tale: Made of Classes energy system, says Lord, may disapprove of certain features, but they cant question the system itself. Within the culture of slavery, which lasted at least 5,000 years, nobody wanted to be a slave, but nobody said slavery should be abolished, because what else could keep things going? Coal, says Lord, produced a culture of production: think about those giant steel mills.

Oil and gas, once they were up and running, fostered a culture of consumption. Lord cites the widespread belief of the 1950s and early 60s in the possibility of continuing indefinitely with unlimited abundance and economic growth, contrasted with the widespread agreement today that both that assumption and the world it predicts are unsustainable. Were in a transition phase, he says: the next culture will be a culture of stewardship, the energy driving it will be renewables, and the art it produces will be quite different from the art favored by production and consumption cultures. What are the implications for the way we view both ourselves and the way we live? In brief: in essay, the coal energy culture a culture of workers and production you are your job. I am what I make. In an oil and gas energy culture a culture of consumption you are your possessions. I am what I buy. But in a renewable energy culture, you are what you conserve. I am what I save and Essay Handmaid´s, protect. We arent used to Production Essay thinking like this, because we cant see where the money will come from. Essay On The Of Classes? But in The Necklace, de Maupassant Essay, a culture of renewables, money will not be the only measure of wealth.

Well-being will factor as an economic positive, too. The second book Ill mention is by anthropologist, classical scholar, and social thinker Ian Morris, whose book, Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels: How Human Values Evolve , has just appeared from Essay on The Tale: A Community Made Princeton University Press. Like Barry Lord, Morris is interested in the link between energy-capture systems and the cultural values associated with them, though in his case its the moral values, not only the aesthetic ones supposing these can be separated that concern him. Oliver Cromwell Year 8? Roughly, his argument runs that each form of energy capture favors values that maximize the Essay on The Tale: chance of survival for those using both that energy system and that package of moral values. Hunter-gatherers show more social egalitarianism, wealth-sharing, and more gender equality than do farmer societies, which subordinate women men are favored, as they must do the oliver or villain essay upper-body-strength heavy lifting tend to practice some form of slavery, and Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes, support social hierarchies, with peasants at the low end and kings, religious leaders, and Essay, army commanders at Tale: A Community Made of Classes the high end. Fossil fuel societies start leveling out gender inequalities you dont need upper body strength to operate keyboards or push machine buttons and also social distinctions, though they retain differences in wealth. The second part of his argument is more pertinent to our subject, for he postulates that each form of energy capture must hit a hard ceiling, past which expansion is impossible; people must either die out or convert to by Guy de Maupassant Essay a new system and a new set of values, often after a great collapse that has involved the Essay Handmaid´s Made same five factors: uncontrolled migration, state failure, food shortages, epidemic disease, and always in the mix, though contributing in unpredictable ways- climate change. Thus, for de Maupassant Essay, hunting societies, their way of Essay on The Handmaid´s, life is over once there are no longer enough large animals to sustain their numbers. Potential Scale Essay? For farmers, arable land is A Community Made a limiting factor. The five factors of doom combine and augment one another, and people in those periods have a thoroughly miserable time of it, until new societies arise that utilize some not yet exhausted form of energy capture.

And for those who use fossil fuels as their main energy source that would be us, now is there also a hard ceiling? Morris says there is. We cant keep pouring carbon into the air nearly 40 billion tons of CO2 in 2013 alone without the consequences being somewhere between terrible and for Large, catastrophic. Past collapses have been grim, he says, but the possibilities for Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: Made, the next big collapse are much grimmer. We are all joined together globally in ways we have never been joined before, so if we fail, we all fail together: we have just one chance to get it right. This is not the way we will inevitably go, says he, though it is the by Guy way we will inevitably go unless we choose to invent and Essay on The Tale: A Community of Classes, follow some less hazardous road. But even if we sidestep the big collapse and keep on Bowers V Hardwick Supreme Court Case Essay, expanding at our present rate, we will become so numerous and ubiquitous and densely packed that we will transform both ourselves and our planet in ways we cant begin to on The Handmaid´s Tale: imagine. The 21st century, he says, shows signs of producing shifts in with morals, energy capture and social organization that dwarf anything seen since the evolution of modern humans. S cience fiction? you may say. Or you may say speculative fiction. For a final straw in Essay on The Made, the wind, lets turn to what the by Guy actual writers of these kinds of stories (and films, and television series, and video games, and graphic novels) have been busying themselves with lately. A British author called Piers Torday has just come out with a Young Adult book called The Wild Beyond. In April, he wrote a piece in The Guardian that summarizes the Essay on The Handmaid´s Tale: A Community Made field, and explains the very recent term, cli-fi: Cli?fi is oliver cromwell hero a term coined by blogger Dan Bloom to describe fiction dealing with the current and on The Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes, projected effects of climate change. Potential For Large Scale Ethanol Production? Cli-fi as a new genre has taken off in a big way and is now being studied by universities all over the world.

But dont make the mistake of confusing it with sci-fi. If you think stories showing the effects of climate change are still only Essay on The A Community of Classes, futuristic fantasies, think again. For example, I would argue that the only truly fantastical element in my books is that the animals talk. To one boy. Other cli?fi elements of my story that are often described as fantastical or dystopian, include the hero year 8 death of nearly all the animals in Handmaid´s A Community, the world. Bowers Supreme? Thats just me painting an Handmaid´s Made extreme picture, right, to make a good story? I wish. Could cli-fi be a way of educating young people about the dangers that face them, and helping them to think through the problems and divine solutions? Or will it become just another part of the entertainment business? Time will tell. But if Barry Lord is right, the outbreak of oliver hero or villain year 8, such fictions is in part a response to the transition now taking place from the consumer values of oil to the stewardship values of renewables.

The material world should no longer be treated as a bottomless cornucopia of Tale: A Community of Classes, use-and-toss endlessly replaceable mounds of stuff: supplies are limited, and must be conserved and treasured. C an what does include we change our energy system? Can we change it fast enough to Essay Tale: A Community Made avoid being destroyed by it? Are we clever enough to what does come up with some viable plans? Do we have the political will to carry out such plans? Are we capable of thinking about longer-term issues, or, like the lobster in a pot full of Essay Handmaid´s A Community of Classes, water thats being brought slowly to the boil, will we fail to realize the danger were in until its too late? Not that the Bowers V Hardwick Court Case Essay lobster can do anything about it, once in the pot. But we might. On The? Were supposed to be smarter than lobsters.

Weve committed some very stupid acts over for Large Scale Ethanol Essay, the course of our history, but our stupidity isnt inevitable. Here are three smart things weve managed to do: First, despite all those fallout shelters built in on The Handmaid´s of Classes, suburban backyards during the Cold War, we havent yet blown ourselves up with nuclear bombs. Second, thanks to Rachel Carsons groundbreaking book on pesticides, Silent Spring , not all the birds were killed by DDT in what include, the 50s and 60s. And, third, we managed to stop the lethal hole in the protective ozone layer that was being caused by the chlorofluorocarbons in Essay Handmaid´s Tale: A Community of Classes, refrigerants and spray cans, thus keeping ourselves from morals being radiated to death. As we head towards the third decade of the 21st century, its hopeful to Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community bear in mind that we dont always act in our own worst interests.

F or everything to stay the does culture include same, everything has to change, says a character in Giuseppe di Lampedusas 1963 novel, The Leopard . What do we need to change to keep our world stable? How do we solve for X+Y+Z X being our civilizations need for energy, without which it will fall swiftly into anarchy; Y being the finite nature of the earths atmosphere, incapable of absorbing infinite amounts of CO2 without destroying us; and Z being our understandable wish to live full and happy lives on a healthy planet, followed by Handmaid´s Tale: of Classes future human generations doing the what does include same. One way of solving this equation is to devise more efficient ways of turning sunlight into electrical energy. Another way is to Essay on The Handmaid´s Made of Classes make oil itself and the CO2 it emits part of a cyclical process rather than a linear one. Potential For Large Production? Oil, it seems, does not have to Essay on The A Community come out of the ground, and All Quiet Maria Remarque Essay, it doesnt have to have pollution as its end product. There are many smart people applying themselves to these problems, and many new technologies emerging. On my desk right now is a list of Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes, 15 of them. Some take carbon directly out of the air and hero or villain year 8, turn it into Essay on The Handmaid´s A Community Made, other materials, such as cement. Others capture carbon by regenerating degraded tropical rainforests a fast and cheap method or sequestering carbon in the soil by means of biochar, which has the added benefit of increasing soil fertility.

Some use algae, which can also be used to make biofuel. Supreme Court? One makes a carbon-sequestering asphalt. Essay Tale: Made? Carbon has been recycled ever since plant life emerged on earth; these technologies and enterprises are enhancing that process. Meanwhile, courage: homo sapiens sapiens sometimes deserves his double plus for intelligence. Lets hope we are about to Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque Essay start living in one of Essay Handmaid´s A Community Made, those times. An earlier version of Potential for Large Scale Production, this article appeared in the Norwegian magazine Samtiden.

Appendix: Companies that take CO2 out Handmaid´s A Community Made of Classes of the air. This fund doesnt exist yet, but it could. medium.com. Click the tags below to read more like this on Medium. Clapping shows how much you appreciated Margaret E. Atwoods story.