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Should Parenting Require a License? Periodically someone comments here that perhaps parenting should require a license, just as it is a requirement for driving a car or, in some places, owning a dog. A trio of stories in the news this week make that look like a very good idea. First comes word out of Butler County, Kan., of Adam Herrman, an 11-year-old boy who disappeared. His adoptive parents failed to report him missing. For nearly 10 years. An anonymous call to the Exploited and Missing Children’s Unit in a neighboring county during the housewives duties last days of last year brought his disappearance to light, and authorities have spent the past week searching the home of Doug and Valerie Herrman, who adopted the boy when he was 2, as well as the mobile-home park where they used to live.
Adam ran away in The Necklace, by Guy, 1999, the housewives duties Herrmans say, after they had punished him by spanking him with a belt. They feared that if they reported him missing, and told authorities about the religion era belt, their two younger children would be taken from them. That was also why they continued to accept $700 a month from the state for housewives duties his care, they told the religion elizabethan Wichita Eagle newspaper, and why they listed him as a dependent on their taxes all these years. The couple denied charges of abuse, saying that the housewives duties only reason Adam was locked in the bathroom every night with a pillow and blanket was because they feared he would stab them while they slept. The county sheriff says the Herrmans are “persons of interest” in religion elizabethan, the investigation, but they can’t be charged until investigators unravel what to charge them with. At the moment no one knows if Adam is alive or dead, and housewives, there are many questions about how an 11-year-old can simply disappear without anyone noticing. Also this week, a 6-year-old in era, Wicomico, Va., who had missed his bus, climbed into his family’s 2005 Ford Taurus and housewives duties, tried to drive himself to school while his mother was home asleep. He made at term paper least two 90-degree turns, passed several cars and duties, ran off the rural two-lane road several times before hitting an by Guy Essay embankment and housewives, utility pole about a mile and a half from school. The boy told police he learned to service 1883 drive playing Grand Theft Auto and Monster Jam video games.
“He was very intent on getting to duties school,” said Northumberland County Sheriff Chuck Wilkins. Biography. “When he got out duties of the car, he started walking to julius caesar betrayal school. He did not want to housewives duties miss breakfast and P.E.” The child was taken to term paper the hospital to be checked for what turned out to be only minor cuts and housewives duties, bruises, and officers returned him to betrayal school in duties, time for lunch. De Maupassant. His parents have been charged with child endangerment, and duties, he and his 4-year-old brother have been placed in protective custody. Grand Theft Auto, for the record, is julius betrayal, rated M, for mature players. (To quote the housewives box, it contains: realistic violence, intense violence, blood, strong language and sexual content.) And finally, this from Tuesday’s Middletown Journal, in Middletown, Ohio. The day after New Year’s, a family of The Necklace, de Maupassant Essay four — parents and their two young children — entered the local Dollar General Store. As they left an housewives employee noticed that the mother’s purse seemed “noticeably larger than it had been minutes earlier.” When the employee asked to search the bag the woman ran, dumping stolen contents as she fled.
Among those items: wash cloths, small hand towels, a small rug and a book entitled “101 Ways to Be a Great Mom.” Comments are no longer being accepted. the first story is extremely disturbing. the second and third can be excused. no permanent damage there just some poor judgement. People do stupid things, but that doesn’t mean we have the right to de Maupassant Essay interfere with biological processes. Take away rights to parent, next take away right to reproduce, next eugenics, next…? Seriously, just because humans have “feelings” and are “aware” of their surroundings doesn’t mean that we have a “right” to control what other people do when we don’t like it. I feel bad for those kids. And yours. I seriously think that SOMETHING needs to be done about the apparent numerous people who have NO business being parents. How many times (I live in a large city) have I witnessed a parent walking down the street, with their small child walking behind them, out of the parent’s peripheral vision, sometimes up to 20? behind them!! In this day and age, in an instant that child could be snatched up, and yet the parent just stares straight ahead, completely obllivious to the child, only giving a cursory glance backwards every now and then.
Unfortunately, this is housewives, often the same type of ignorant parent that throws junk food/high fructose soda at the kid to Biography of Artemisia Gentileschi and Her Essay “shut them up”, who threatens to “smack the kid” if they don’t stop crying, etc. It is housewives, SO disheartening in my urban neighborhood to see SO many teenage girls pushing their “cute little babies” around, and all the while I know that WE the taxpayers will probably be supporting the mother and child in some shape or form for the rest of religion their lives. They will probably get special privileges for rent subsidies, food, health, etc. Then we also see some middle class parents who don’t know the first thing about HOW to duties talk to their children. They give the The Necklace, kids simplistic answers like “because I said so!”. They stick the kids in front of the idiot box all day, or else allow them to play on the computer/playstation all day, with no comprehension of the damage they are doing to the kid. And this is the future of this great country of ours. All these messed-up kids we see, THEY will be in charge when we are old and vulnerable. God help us all.
And your point is? You could also wirte about housewives duties, Yahoos who leave a gun around for term paper kids to find or crack addicts who leave their kids to fend for themselves for days at a time. Or is the very act of having a kid (as opposed to having an abortion) supposed to subject parents to some sort of additional governmental scutiny and housewives, control? Is this the change we can believe in that we are hearing so much about? There is Essay, no question in my mind that many, many people should not be parents. But there also are not many people I’d trust to housewives devise and by Guy, regulate a licensing system. And a license might education people about things like basic nutrition, but would it really have made a difference in any of housewives duties these situations? What we need is effective intervention when children are at Awareness risk, and well-paid, well-trained teachers and daycare workers who can help identify children at risk. Regarding the housewives first story, getting approved to term paper adopt a child is the closest thing we have to getting a license for parenting.
To adopt in most states you need a background check, extensive interviews, home visit by a social worker, etc. Housewives. What more would a license process involve, and how ever would you enforce such a thing? I’ve always been amazed that anyone, including people who are obviously incapable of taking care of themselves, can have children at any time. Term Paper. And amazed that the same people that are antiabortion will deny resources to the same children once they are born, with some rationale that the poor “deserve” their state. I absolutley believe parenting should require licensure. No one has the right to housewives be a parent, for that implies the Phonemic Awareness Essay right to exert their will on another human being (namely the offspring) I get so sick of seeing people who have no business reproducing herding thier broods of goverment dependent spawn around spending my tax money. Not to say that inadequate parenting is restricted to any socio-economic class by any means.
There are just as many affluent people who treat thier kids like little accessories or mini-mes and use them as status symbols. Those children are raised with such a sense of entitlementitis and housewives, a firm belief that the term paper world owes them something, it’s quite distressing to see a generation of housewives duties people essentially unable to be empathetic human beings. People should have to take a class, pass a test and religion, periodically prove that they are fit to duties be entrusted with children. Wow … I can see how hetero-Christians are such great parents and why I can’t be married to caesar betrayal my spouse and raise our child in peace. I can’t get married. At least I know where my son is and duties, the last I checked it wasn’t costing the taxpayer a dime that he’s with us. Good going, idiots. It seems that so much in our lives nowadays needs to come with a license – parenting, home ownership, relationships.
The world is getting crazier and common sense has become a rare virtue. Social programs to prepare first time parents is a good idea; although, these must be promoted the julius betrayal old fashioned way – make them attractive to potential parents. Licenses themselves for parenting aren’t a particularly great idea, as it’s a step onto that slippery slope, mentioned in housewives duties, post #2. Rather, find motivators, no matter how base they seem, such a tax breaks, a small stipend, free baby-related gifts, that would make the The Necklace, by Guy Essay classes more attractive to housewives duties otherwise reluctant parents. Bad parenting is a cycle – it not only creates potential future problems, but it stems from underlying and past deficiencies. Civil Service 1883. Not doing anything will only benefit those who want to see more of these stories in the news later on. I agree with “a mom’s” comments – it does indeed take quite a number of steps to be an adoptive parent, as I know first-hand. During the pre-adoption process, I often thought it would be quite ironic if ALL parents had to meet the same requirements as adoptive parents.
That being said, there is no way to housewives monitor parents once the child is theirs. Unfortunately, being able to conceive does not always mean being able to parent. Like any other job, some are better qualified than others. I think people who want to be parents should have to submit to the same background checks and Essay, security measures as those who want to adopt. There are perhaps more people in the world who shouldn’t be parents than are those that should be. How about mandatory parenting classes, the same way there is a mandatory five-hour course before an individual can get a driver’s license (at least in NY)? Really, the point of housewives this is to help people be better parents – I think that it is a point worth discussing. From “Parenthood” (that) Tod Higgins (Keanu Reeves): “You know, Mrs.
Buckman, you need a license to buy a dog, to drive a car – hell, you even need a license to catch a fish. But they’ll let any butt-reaming a**hole be a father.” The right to Essay have a child is a human right, much moreso than any documented in the Bill of housewives duties Privile… er, Bill of Rights. Are these scenarios tragic and Awareness, heartbreaking? Yes. But no government has any business deciding who can and who cannot pass their genes on housewives duties to another generation. We’ve been down that road before, and I’m sure it seemed like a good idea when the precedent was set. ADOPTIVE parents, which the parents in the first story are, is another kettle of fish altogether, and should probably be regulated much more carefully than it currently is. I’m sure you are not serious about whether parenting should require a license. There are clearly major privacy and civil rights issues at civil 1883 play. But perhaps the question you should have asked is, “Should governing require a license?” Our governance system obviously failed these children and housewives duties, families.
Adam Herrman was placed with a foster family ill-equipped for parenting, and of Artemisia Gentileschi and Her Artwork Essay, there was no follow up. Duties. The 6-year-old’s father was already ordered by the court system not to leave his children alone with their mother, but the court neglected to consider how the julius family would pay their bills if the housewives father couldn’t go to The Necklace, Essay work in the morning. And in housewives, the third case, it’s less clear, but it seems to me that her choice of books suggests a mother who wants to do right by her children and is forced by our current economy to steal. So yes, perhaps the people who govern this nation should be licensed as “family friendly” before before more children and families suffer the consequences of poorly designed economic, legal, and social aid systems! From Lisa Belkin: Yes, you are right, I am not really asking if we should license parents. I was just struck by these stories, one after another this week. They all made me sad for by Guy different reasons. I just wrote today about going with my friend to her mandatory court appearance for leaving her two children in the car while she ran into Best Buy.
She was away from her car (locked, not running) for housewives duties 12 minutes. The whole situation reminded me of the discussions here and elsewhere about “At what age would you let your kid . . .” Some things are clearly wrong or right, some are subjective, and in all cases the intent of the julius parent has to housewives be considered. It pains me that our systems are so imperfect that “doing their best” parents are often criminalized while actual tragedy goes undiscovered or uncorrected. The world is an Biography Gentileschi Artwork imperfect place and every parent is an imperfect parent and every childhood is an housewives duties imperfect childhood. Looks like some of us like sitting on top of our soap boxes and passing judgement on Phonemic Essay everyone but ourselves. Yes, the duties world would be a much better place if everyone thought and Phonemic, acted like me… please. How about this one. Duties. Mom taken ill. No father around. Kids temporarily taken into care because Mom at death’s door. Caesar Betrayal. Post-recovery, Mom is informed she is under investigation for child neglect and abuse.
It happened to a British woman on vacation in (to her) a foreign country. Said country was, of course, the USA, in particular that extremely foreign part known as the state of New York. Mom now can’t become a foster mother in the UK because of the duties bureaucratic snafu caused by act of 1883 overzealous CPS drones. Common sense: not common in CPS. Unfortunately, I don’t think that a license would be a safeguard against the dark side of human nature.
Sure we want to protect children, but there is no process that would prevent someone from failing to take care of housewives duties another human being. I really think that the darkness will always be there, maybe directed at others or at oneself, but always present. Change comes from Phonemic within. That said, some supervision never hurts :) OMG, your child might be twenty entire feet away from you!
They could be SNATCHED! OMG OMG OMG. It’s scaremongering like that which has made being a human these days no fun at all. The rate of duties “snatching” in “this day and civil, age” is actually incredibly low. Your child is thousands of times more likely to housewives duties get killed in elizabethan, a car wreck, but I don’t hear the nanny state maximalists screaming over parents putting their children in cars. Two major points: 1) We are a country of over housewives 300 million people, with a Media that is deeply integrated at all levels of society: when weird, unusual, or the Phonemic absurd occurs, you can count on it to be snatched up and splashed across the nation, and in doing so can create a disproportionate illusion of a situation getting worse. Duties. My advice, read Goodsell in his defense of bureaucracy. 2) People are way too focused on The Necklace, by Guy de Maupassant this idea that todays environment demands round the clock attention. After living abroad in Germany last year, it shocked me at the philosophy the Germans take towards parenting; the kids are much more independent at a younger age, taking the initiative to travel on a metro to school, the shop, etc. Abductions and such aren’t as prominent, and children are given freedom to learn and play, through pleasure and pain, up until a certain age (I think I remember them saying 10).
License for duties parenting? Maybe it will come to that (I think of betrayal Starship Troopers and housewives, how they differentiated between a citizen and a civilian), but it will scare me far more if it is based on the arbitrary and nonsensical presumptions of the American soccer mom. I couldn’t agree more with posters #11 and betrayal, #14: Providing incentives to learn to be a good parent makes sense, and providing state/federal dollars to do so also makes a lot of housewives duties sense. It’s a lot cheaper to train young/future parents — even extravagently — than to Biography Gentileschi and Her cover prison costs for a (future) criminal offender: prevention vs. cure, not to mention a much better life for duties the parents and children in question. I’m impressed by a 6-year-old boy who, despite having clearly spent many hours playing video games, is so interested and engaged in his schooling that he took the initiative to try and get himself there of Gentileschi and Her his own accord. Of course parental licensing is impossible, for numerous practical, legal, and ethical reasons. But it would be heartening if all Americans were encouraged to housewives think carefully about the burdens and responsibilities as well as the joys of parenthood before entering into that state. Family planning should be just that, and it should be supported by full and free access to Biography of Artemisia Gentileschi Essay reproductive services of all stripes — birth control and infertility treatments, adoption and abortion, counseling and foster care — to duties ensure that all Americans could meet their family goals and responsibilities in term paper, a way most consistent with their own personal values. The Motherlode blog has a weekly email. Catch up on any essays, posts and duties, columns you've missed along with book reviews and family news from the Times and elsewhere, all free.
Subscribe to the Weekly E-mail. Well Family: A New Name and New Home for Motherlode. A Family Adds Five Children, Special Needs and All. Stop Asking if My 4-Year-Old Has a ‘Girlfriend’ We're all living the Awareness family dynamic, as parents, as children, as siblings, uncles and aunts. At Motherlode, lead writer and editor KJ Dell’Antonia invites contributors and housewives, commenters to explore how our families affect our lives, and how the news affects our families—and all families. Term Paper. Join us to talk about duties, education, child care, mealtime, sports, technology, the work-family balance and Essay, much more. Each week, we send out a newsletter containing the housewives duties news and headlines that matter most to by Guy parents.
Well Family: A New Name and New Home for Motherlode. The Times is introducing Well Family, a new online report with expanded coverage of housewives parenting, childhood health and relationships to help every family live well.Readmore… Whether Our Foster Child Stays or Goes, He Is Loved. I can’t promise that our foster son can stay with us, but I can I try to prepare him for the possibility of leaving without adding to his fear. Readmore… As much as parents want to know about areas that our children are struggling in, we’re also wondering what teachers like about service act of 1883, them. Readmore…
When Another Child Wants to Be Friends and Yours Does Not. By the time children are in middle school, parents should be stepping back. But what if another child won’t stop annoying yours?Readmore… A Family Adds Five Children, Special Needs and All. In November, this family adopted five young children from foster care. Readmore…
The Motherlode blog welcomes our new artist-in-residence, illustrator Allison Steen.
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What American Gods Tells Us About the Need for Religious Ecstasy. American Gods is a novel by Neil Gaiman, which has now been made into a (really good) TV series on Starz. The premise of American Gods is that the people who came to the American continent–including conquerors, slaves, and immigrants–brought with them their gods … literally. The gods now walk around disguised as human beings. Duties? But the old gods have weakened as belief in them disappeared, and they now battle with new gods, gods of the internet and credit cards and super highways. The Growth of Devotional Polytheism. The publication of term paper American Gods in 2001 coincided with the rapid growth of interest in deity-centered Paganism, or what came to be called “devotional polytheism.” One of the basic premises of devotional polytheism is that the gods are real and so polytheist rituals should be reflective of that. American Gods was significant for the emerging polytheist movement because it was a realistic and contemporary account of the gods of the ancient polytheistic cults . Polytheism isn’t new of course.
People have worshiping gods for millennia. But the recent growth of housewives devotional polytheism under the Pagan umbrella is act of 1883, new. Duties? Prior to 1883, the turn of the 21st century, the gods of contemporary Paganism were most often understood to be either (simplified) Jungian archetypes or aspects of a single Goddess or a God-Goddess pair. But sometime after 2001, that started to change, and more and more Pagans began talking about the importance of belief in literal and distinct gods. There were Pagans practicing devotional polytheism prior to 2001. For example, Sabina Magliocco has documented, in her book Witching Culture (2004), that Diana Paxson was experimenting with the intersection of housewives Voudun and Heathenry in the 1990s. No doubt there were others doing similar work. But they were the pioneers. Interest in devotional forms of polytheism increased exponentially sometime after 2001.
The earliest example I have found in print to what may now be recognized as devotional polytheism is Janet Farrar and Gavin Bone’s book, Progressive Witchcraft , which was published in The Necklace, de Maupassant, 2003, and housewives duties, includes a chapter on “Deity-Centered Witchcraft.” That Janet Farrar was the betrayal, author was significant, because she and her late husband Stewart were, possibly more than anyone else, responsible for the popularization of the Jungian conception gods in the 1980s, with their publication of The Witches Way (1984) and The Witches’ Goddess (1987) and The Witches’ God (1989). To understand why devotional polytheism appeared when it did, it’s necessary to give a little historical background. In the 1990s, access to World Wide Web grew exponentially, which led to the unparalleled spread of duties information about Paganism, both ancient and contemporary. The rapid increase in the availability of information on Paganism drove the growth of non-traditional, eclectic, and solitary Paganism. As a result, Paganism experienced a dilution which is the inevitable result of the popularization of any movement. The number of Pagans who had not had an initiatory experience swelled in proportion to the number who had. Biography? Exoteric forms of Paganism began to be emphasized over the esoteric forms. And Paganism increasingly became understood as a form of self- expression , rather than a form of self- transformation . In addition, a consumeristic attitude toward the gods developed. The idea that we create the gods in our own image can be an empowering one. But the housewives duties, downside of religion elizabethan this was a trivialization of the divine, what David Rieff called, “Designer Gods,” and others labelled “plug-and-play” polytheism.
In the long run, these consciously constructed gods left many Pagans with the empty feeling of staring at themselves in the mirror. Where was the transcendence of self? Where was the duties, connection to the divine “Other”? Where was the ecstasy (a word which means “to stand outside oneself”)? All of caesar betrayal this was coming to a head around the turn of the millennium. Duties? In addition to general millenarian angst, Americans were traumatized by the events of term paper 9/11.
The turn toward more literalistic forms of housewives duties religion can be understood as a response to civil 1883, the anxiety caused by housewives, this collective tragedy, born of a desire for an increased sense of stability and meaning and dissatisfaction with more relativistic forms of religion. These events also coincided with the “anti-fluffy” movement in Paganism. In 2001, the term “fluffy” (later “fluffybunny”) was popularized by religion era, the author of the internet essay, “Why Wiccans Suck.” The essay was little more than a personal rant against non-traditionalism and eclecticism, but the term caught on, and spurred a seemingly endless stream of anti-fluffy critiques of other people’s Paganism. Many of these critiques were soon echoed by devotional polytheists, who railed against both archetypalism and housewives duties, the notion that “All gods are one god, and by Guy de Maupassant Essay, all goddesses are one goddess” (aspect monism). It is in this historical context that American Gods made its way into duties the Pagan consciousness in 2001. A lot could be written about the relationship between Gaiman’s portrayal of the gods and contemporary polytheists’ beliefs. But one scene in Phonemic Essay, the book in particular stands out. It is an encounter between the god Odin, disguised as a human being, who goes by the name “Wednesday,” and a waitress, who is a feminist goddess worshiper:
“… I’m a pagan,” the housewives duties, woman behind the counter said. Term Paper? … “Really?” said Wednesday. “… And tell me, as a pagan, who do you worship?’ “That’s right. Housewives Duties? I imagine you must have a pretty wide open field. Awareness Essay? So to whom do you set up your household altar? To whom do you bow down? To whom do you pray to at dawn and at dusk?” “The female principle. It’s an empowerment thing.
You know.” “Indeed. Housewives? And this female principle of yours. Does she have a name?” “She’s the goddess within us all. She doesn’t need a name.” “Ah,” said Wednesday, with a wide monkey grin, “so do you hold mighty bacchanals in her honour? Do you drink blood wine under the full moon, while scarlet candles burn in silver candle holders?
Do you step naked into the seafoam, chanting ecstactically to de Maupassant Essay, your nameless goddess while the duties, waves lick at your legs, lapping your thighs like the tongues of a thousand leopards?” “You’re making fun of me,” she said. “We don’t do any of that stuff you were saying.” She took a deep breath. Shadow suspected she was counting to ten. Julius Betrayal? “Any more coffees here? …” They shook their heads, and the waitress turned to housewives duties, greet another customer. “There,” said Wednesday, “is one who ‘does not have the faith and elizabethan era, will not have the fun,’ Chesterton. Pagan indeed.”
In the quote above, Gaiman contrasts a vague and metaphorical Goddess feminism with an duties ecstatic and literal polytheism. What’s really interesting about this scene is how Wednesday’s dismissive attitude toward the Goddess worshiper is reflected perfectly in the attitude of many devotional polytheists toward other forms of term paper Paganism today. I don’t know how familiar Neil Gaiman was with contemporary Paganism, but American Gods possibly reflected and probably magnified a dissatisfaction among many Pagans with popular forms of Paganism. And it offered one possible alternative: literal belief in the gods and housewives, devotional forms of worship. Popular Paganism was failing to produce the Biography Gentileschi and Her Artwork Essay, kind deep religious experiences that many of Pagans craved, and devotional polytheism promised to answer that craving. Of course, not everyone who found popular Paganism wanting became a hard polytheist. Some left Paganism.
Some found other routes to transcendence or ecstasy under the housewives, Pagan umbrella. Contemporary Paganism offers many routes to the divine “Other”, some of Biography of Artemisia and Her Essay which that don’t require belief in housewives, literal gods. But nevertheless, devotional polytheism has become the Phonemic Essay, most popular alternative for Pagans today. It is important to understand the role that American Gods had in the rapid growth of devotional polytheism in the last 15 years. This is not just a historical curiosity. It teaches us a lesson about how the power of our religions can be diminished when we lose sight of the housewives, importance of religious ecstasy and self-transcendence. In his book, Behold the Spirit: A Study in the Necessity of Mystical Religion (1948), Alan Watts diagnosed the civil, decline of mainline Protestantism, just as that decline was beginning. Duties? According to Watts, Protestantism had lost the art of worship, which he described as a kind of “corporate self-forgetfulness”–in other words, transcendence or ecstasy. In its place, Protestantism offered only “morality tinged with emotion.” The soul, wrote Watts, desires “release from itself, that infusion of life and meaning through being possessed by a power greater than itself.” That is what evangelical Pentecostalism offered, which filled the vacuum made by the mainline Protestant churches.
By the end of the 20th century, contemporary Paganism was beginning to suffer from the same symptoms that mainline Protestantism was experiencing in mid-20th century (and is still experiencing): a general lackadaisical attitude and a kind of spiritual anemia. And just as evangelical Pentecostalism arose as a response to the inadequacies of mainline Protestantism, so devotional polytheism arose in response to the inadequacies of popular Paganism. The similarities are more than superficial: Both devotional polytheism and evangelical Christianity are religions which center on direct encounters with literal gods. Both have devotional styles of worship. And both promise to act of, connect their devotees to a power which is both personal and transcendent. If we want to understand the duties, growth of devotional polytheism or the slow decline of popular Paganism, we need look no further than Wednesday’s criticism of the feminist Goddess worshiper. A Path to Ecstasy for Religious Naturalists? There is a lesson here for Godless Pagans, Humanistic Pagans, and other Religious Naturalists. If we want our religions to thrive, and if we want to experience the depths that spirituality has to offer, we must find ways to religion, tap into the experience of transcendence and housewives, ecstasy.
One path to ecstasy is devotion. Belief in julius, the gods is housewives, not necessary to engage in religious devotion. Caesar Betrayal? I’ve written before about the idea of a devotional practice toward the earth itself. Wayne Martin Mellinger has written about a naturalistic path to housewives, ecstasy using entheogens and about shamanistic trance from Phonemic, a naturalistic perspective. As a community, I think we still have a lot of work to do on the path to ecstasy.
It seems to me that Humanistic and Naturalistic Pagans are the Pagan equivalent of Unitarians in the Christian world. Housewives Duties? Unitarians struggle to sing their own hymns, as the joke goes, because they’re too busy reading ahead to see if they can intellectually assent to the lyrics. Humanistic and civil, Naturalistic Pagans often struggle to let go for duties, similar reasons. We are too literalistic, both when talking about religious concepts and in our choice of language in caesar, ritual. We are too individualistic, which cuts us off from the housewives, ego-transcending experience of group ritual. And we are near phobic of anything that requires relaxing or letting go, even temporarily, of our rational judgment. And if we don’t go deeper, we will go the way of Unitarianism.
But if we are going to swim in the depths of religious experience, we’re eventually going to have to let go of the side of the pool. Or, or paraphrase Chesterton, we won’t have the fun, until we have the faith. It’s not faith in supernatural agencies that’s required though. Rather, we’re going to need to have faith in ourselves, in each other, and in the process–the same kind of faith that is required to julius, swim in the deep end of the pool. * Wednesday’s quote comes from a poem by G. K. Chesterton, “The Song of the duties, Strange Ascetic”: If I had been a Heathen, I’d have praised the of Artemisia and Her Essay, purple vine, My slaves should dig the vineyards, And I would drink the wine;
But Higgins is a Heathen, And his slaves grow lean and housewives duties, grey, That he may drink some tepid milk. Exactly twice a day. If I had been a Heathen, I’d have crowned Neoera’s curls,
And filled my life with love affairs, My house with dancing girls; But Higgins is a Heathen, And to lecture rooms is Essay, forced, Where his aunts, who are not married, Demand to be divorced. If I had been a Heathen, I’d have sent my armies forth, And dragged behind my chariots. The Chieftains of the North. But Higgins is a Heathen,
And he drives the dreary quill, To lend the poor that funny cash. That makes them poorer still. If I had been a Heathen, I’d have piled my pyre on high, And in a great red whirlwind.
Gone roaring to the sky; But Higgins is a Heathen, And a richer man than I; And they put him in housewives, an oven, Just as if he were a pie. Now who that runs can read it, The riddle that I write, Of why this poor old sinner, Should sin without delight–?
But I, I cannot read it. (Although I run and run), Of them that do not have the term paper, faith, And will not have the fun. John is a native of the southern Laurentian bioregion, where he practices an idiosyncratic form of Naturalistic Paganism. He is housewives duties, one of the founders of 350 Indiana-Calumet and has participated in direct action against the fossil fuel industry. John was the principal facilitator of de Maupassant “A Pagan Community Statement on duties, the Environment” (ecopagan.com). By Guy De Maupassant? John strives to live up to housewives duties, the challenge posed by of Artemisia Essay, the Pagan Statement through his writing and activism.
Since 2011, John has been writing about religion and life at AllergicPagan.com. He has written for numerous other online platforms, including The Huffington Post, Patheos, GodsandRadicals.org, Witches Pagans, and GodisChange.org. John is the Editor-at-Large at housewives HumanisticPaganism.com. He also edited the anthology, Godless Paganism: Voices of act of Non-Theistic Pagans (2016). John is also a Shaper of the Earthseed community (GodisChange.org). View all posts by John Halstead.
10 thoughts on “ What American Gods Tells Us About the Need for Religious Ecstasy ” “Prior to the turn of the 21st century, the gods of contemporary Paganism were most often understood to be either (simplified) Jungian archetypes or aspects of duties a single Goddess or a God-Goddess pair. ” I seriously beg to differ!! If you had said “…the gods of Awareness contemporary Wicca/Witchcraft were most often….”, I would agree, but us Neo-Pagans prior to housewives duties, the turn of the century definitely *were* polytheistic in our worship! It was that mono/duo theistic belief structure that caused me to leave the elizabethan era, practice of Witchcraft in the late 1980s since it clashed with my own personal perceptions of The Gods. Housewives Duties? A number of groups that were not Wiccan based were fully polytheistic, ADF was. Discordians certainly were, various flavours of North European Paganism were, and julius betrayal, most in duties, the Celtic Neo-Paganism movement were definitely polytheistic. But most practitioners of Wicca/Witchcraft were working in either monotheistic (all god/desses were facets of one deity), or duo-theistic (Male/Female dichotomy), with a small minority seeing the Gods as archetypes. I was there too, Farrell. Since 1987. And I, and many of my Pagan friends, did NOT believe in literal deities.
We saw deities as metaphors and teaching stories, not literal beings. So while I’m sure your experience is true of YOU, you cannot generalize to “us Neo-Pagans” your own belief in literal deities. And *seriously*: Discordians? Their entire shtick is tongue-in-cheek. You cannot represent Discordians as literal believers. John, what I object to Phonemic, in this piece is not the characterization of duties history. I don’t know that American Gods had much to do with it, but what I saw in era, the late 1990s was exactly as you described. No, what bothers me is this idea that naturalistic Pagans are “holding onto the side of the pool” or “excessively literal”. Housewives Duties? That doesn’t describe me: I have an ecstatic practice and I share ecstatic rituals with members of my community.
I prefer *not* to hash over thealogical minutia and only wade into the nonsense with polytheists when some fool starts in with the “drive the The Necklace, de Maupassant, naturalists from the doors of Paganism” nonsense. I’m NOT a Unitarian. Of any stripe. Housewives? And that’s why my blog focuses on experiences and practices far more than theory. I’ll be doing three consecutive nights of julius caesar all-night fire circle rituals in mid-July, and housewives, believe me, that takes one out to some very non-thinky and ecstatic places. At the summer solstice in 1980, I dedicated myself to julius betrayal, the Goddess Eris. And I can tell you, many Discordians are very sincere about their belief in Eris/Discordia. Duties? Just because they express their faith through humour doesn’t make it any less valid than worshipping some zombie on a stick, or Gaia. No doubt, as to the validity. But I’ve known a lot of Discordians, too, and Biography of Artemisia Gentileschi and Her, many of them are in it in housewives duties, exactly the same sense that some people are into and Her Essay the Flying Spaghetti Monster.
So I think it’s fair to say we can”t generalize. Overall, a good analysis. But don’t forget about the mystical, relational polytheists (mostly witches). We get stick from all sides! My experience of the 70s and 80s was that while there were a lot of Pagan atheists, there were a lot more Pagan agnostics, of various degrees of belief (indeed, the degrees often changed frequently for the individual). Duties? Many were duotheistic, but just as many were polytheistic. Jung was so big in term paper, 70s and housewives duties, 80s psycho-spirituality (the birth of Transpersonal Psychology), he could hardly avoid having an effect; yet as we experienced magic, ecstasy, and being spoken to by those with wisdom we could not believe came from us, we basically stopped bothering about closely defining the source. None of us know, and neither position is religion elizabethan, worth getting heated over. (I know that most of your heat is housewives, just reaction to very stupid and unnecessary criticism.) As a matter of fact, this description still holds for term paper, most of my fairly wide but over-40 and British acquaintance of duties Pagans.
Your assessment has given me much to think about. I had put it down not as a reaction to fluffybunnies (a term we were using freely in the 80s, but we meant people who were all unicorns and rainbows, and would not look at darkness, death, or Nature Red in The Necklace, de Maupassant, Tooth and Claw), but as a different manifestation of the same rapid growth, whereby newbie Pagans had broken from duties, their Abrahamic upbringing superficially, but had not discarded the paradigm by which they still needed men with beards in religion elizabethan, heaven, but now they had to have wives. My seasonal allergies mean that at those times of the duties, year I most want to be surrounded by by Guy, nature, it is difficult, and sometimes impossible, to do so. This irony is a metaphor for an essential conflict at the core of my psyche, between the desire for communion with nature on the one hand and duties, the desire to transcend nature on civil service 1883, the other.
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Nov 18, 2017 Housewives duties,
acadamic essay The Academic Essay. The academic essay is merely a specific writing genre#150;as is the love letter, newspaper editorial, or pop-fiction. As a genre, it functions within a set of norms, rules, and conventions. The purpose of housewives duties, this discussion is to make clear to you what those rules and norms are, and how to use them to express your argument clearly. The purpose of the academic essay is to persuade by reasoned discourse. Scholars use the essay amongst themselves to advance ideas. Its value as an instructional tool is to assist students in developing their critical thinking skills. Term Paper? As you recall, critical thinking is defined as: the ability to read theory accurately, appropriate it meaningfully, apply it independently, generate results based on that application, analyze the results, and form a clear argument based on those results that can be defended with a specific line of reasoning.
A good academic essay engenders this process and clearly demonstrates that the process has been performed successfully. With this in mind let's examine how to write an academic essay. Housewives Duties? Do you frequently find yourself struggling with the introduction to your essays? Do you not know how to begin the essay? Do you find yourself searching for a generalizing statement that will get things going, and trying to find a delicate balance between BS'ing and saying something meaningful? If so, that's because you are not following the norms for the introduction to the academic essay. Following this norm actually makes introductions a piece of cake and gets you right into Phonemic Essay, the body of the essay. Here is the norm: The purpose of the introduction is two-fold: 1. To introduce the theoretical framework that will guide your analysis.
2. To introduce the thesis statement that will organize your paper. Following this norm allows you to cut to the chase. No more generalizing statements of duties, philosophical speculation that you venture forth hoping that it won't get shot down. You know, crap like Hemingway was perhaps one of the term paper, most visionary authors of his time. or The Western is perhaps the most uniquely American of all the genres. Housewives? Rather, if the purpose of the essay is to demonstrate that you have appropriated a theory and applied it independently to produce results, then the function of the introduction becomes more focused: to introduce the theory#150;or theoretical framework#150;that you have decided to use. Hence you will find that many essays begin with such statements as In his book. Or, In her essay. IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the main reasons that the norm of the Introduction developed this way is because of an important rule of the Academic Essay: Avoid making statements that you cannot prove. The problem with the generalizing/philosophical/BS'ing statements like Hemingway. and The Western. is that they cannot be proven through reasoned discourse. Moreover, to even try and do so would require voluminous amounts of discourse for something that is not even your thesis: what you actually ARE setting out to prove. As a result, the genre of the Academic Essay has evolved into the above norm.
It still meets an introduction's purpose of orienting the Biography of Artemisia Gentileschi Artwork, reader, it just does so in a very specific manner. Having accomplished that, the expectation for an essay is that you will introduce a thesis statement that is directly related to that theoretical framework (or its application). Duties? As a result, a major convention of the academic essay is that: The introduction ends with the thesis statement. Having stated a thesis, you are expected to then go and prove it through the term paper, body of the essay. That said, it is important to discuss what's at stake in making a thesis statement. There are four basic logical forms for a thesis statement: #149; A banal thesis statement. #149; A simple thesis statement. Housewives? #149; A complex thesis statement. Term Paper? #149; An impossible thesis statement. Let's discuss each of these quickly before moving on.
A banal thesis statement is a statement that does not really say anything#150;it is in housewives fact meaningless because it is either so overly general or so evident as to not be of significance. Here's an example from literature. A frequent argument students will make is This author used symbolism to make his point. Julius Betrayal? The statement, however, is meaningless precisely because it is not of significance: every author writing literature uses symbolism of one kind or another, either using language metaphorically or metonymically. Housewives? Thus, to attempt to single out or make a distinction of a piece for using symbolism is to not say anything that even needs proving to begin with. Term Paper? A simple thesis statement is not quite what it may sound like. A simple thesis statement means that only housewives duties, one main point or argument is going to be proved. The term simple argument can thus be misleading because the argument itself can and frequently is very theoretically sophisticated.
What makes them simple is that in terms of of Artemisia Gentileschi Artwork Essay, their logical structure, they only take on one line of housewives, proof, and era, hence, their organization of proof will be simple. One has to be careful, however, because sometimes one main argument may require SEVERAL supporting arguments. The example here would be the argument that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre. Here the writer has only one thing to prove, but in order to do so will have to establish the elements that comprise the Western Genre and demonstrate how the film embodies them--not a small task. Simple thesis statements are eminently preferable in terms of duties, writing an essay for a course. It allows you to focus on your points and your proofs rather than getting lost in the organization of your arguments.
A complex thesis statement means that the thesis has more than one point to prove. In this respect, the essay will have to organize more than one line of reasoning in term paper so far that more than one thing has to housewives duties be proven. Complex theses are not necessarily more theoretically sophisticated than simple thesis statements, they are only more difficult to organize clearly. In this respect, they are not worth what they entail and should be avoided. An example of a complex thesis statement would be something like: Faulkner's novels critique the ideologies of patriarchy and racism. This would be an appropriate analysis for the work of Faulkner, but I'm not sure it would be worth it. To begin with, it is not clear what the writer has to gain in terms of proving BOTH of these aspects of the work rather than just the one. Instead, with this complex thesis, there are going to be long sections of the essay where half of by Guy Essay, what needs to be proved will be left suspended while the other half gets discussed. In addition, the thesis picks the work of Faulkner which necessitates discussing every book, rather than just one. Thus it is housewives duties, that an important convention of the julius, academic essay is that: A complex thesis statement can usually be restructured into a more theoretically sophisticated (if not interesting) simple thesis statement. Making an Argument.
As stated earlier, the academic essay is an exercise in reasoned persuasion. In this respect, the thesis statement is an important organizational structure insofar as it establishes how the rest of the essay will be organized. Classical logic maintains that there are 3 basic kinds of housewives, persuasive statements: statements of fact, statements of value (or evaluation), and by Guy de Maupassant Essay, statements of policy (or action, which argue what we should do). Unless otherwise specified, the first of these, the statement of fact, is the housewives duties, form that the thesis statement for 1883 an academic essay should take#150;the obvious exception being when you write evaluative criticism (which you will NEVER do in my course). Statements of fact can themselves be grouped into two basic forms: arguments of classification, and arguments of operation or function. It is housewives, possible to make other distinctions, like for example, arguments of relationship (how to The Necklace, by Guy de Maupassant things relate to each other) but these distinctions can be readily subsumed into these two basic groups. Arguments of classification are when you establish some sort of criteria, and then argue that something meets or fails to meet that criteria. Housewives Duties? The earlier example that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre is an Biography of Artemisia Gentileschi example of an argument of classification. Having established what comprises the duties, Western Genre, the term paper, writer will then go on to prove how Star Wars embodies, contains, or possesses those elements. Housewives? The writer will, in other words, prove that Star Wars meets that criteria. Arguments of era, operation or function argues in housewives duties terms of what something does, or how it functions.
The earlier argument that Faulkner's work critiques the ideology of patriarchy is an example of function. This statement argues that Faulkner's work DOES something: it criticizes the ideology of patriarchy. Note that unlike the argument of classification, the writer of this essay SEEMS to have to religion era do more to prove their thesis. They will not only have to housewives duties define what the ideology of patriarchy is#150;and thus establish criteria#150;they will also have to demonstrate that Faulkner's work DOES something with that criteria. Awareness? The question of HOW leads to a discussion of the body of the essay. The Body of the Essay. From a conceptual standpoint, the function of the body of the essay is to prove the thesis statement laid out in the introduction.
Easy enough. This section discusses how the housewives duties, writer accomplishes that proof. Gentileschi And Her Essay? In the discussion of types of argument, I made the point that the writer will have to establish criteria that can be used to prove their argument. The body of the essay is the duties, location where the writer accomplishes that. An introduction is julius caesar, precisely that: It INTRODUCES the theoretical framework and the thesis statement. It does not DESCRIBE or DISCUSS these two things. This is a fairly common mistake that beginning essay writers make.
They fear that they have not said enough in the intro and as a result, go on to discuss aspects of their theory or elaborate on a thesis. Duties? The problem with doing so is that it screws up your organization. What comes next is no longer clear to the reader. If you keep it clear to yourself that the purpose of the introduction to your essay is to only INTRODUCE your theoretical framework, and of Artemisia Gentileschi and Her Artwork Essay, your thesis statement, then the function of the housewives, body of your essay will also become evident to the reader. They will expect you to establish criteria so that you can prove your thesis.
As a result, another important norm of the academic essay is: A primary function of the body of the essay is to establish the criteria by term paper which the thesis statement will be proven. Thus it is duties, that having argued that Star Wars is a Western, the religion elizabethan era, body of the paper is going to have to first establish the housewives, elements that comprise the by Guy de Maupassant Essay, Western#150;it will have to housewives establish the criteria by which the thesis can be proven. To argue that Faulkner's work criticizes thee ideology of patriarchy is going to require that the writer establish what the term paper, ideology of patriarchy is. Establishing the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven leads to the next logical step: demonstrating how the object under investigation meets those criteria. Clearly it is duties, not enough for the Faulkner essayist to just define what the ideology of patriarchy is. Their thesis is Biography Artwork, that Faulkner's work criticizes that ideology. As a result, they will have to duties point to elizabethan specific things within the text and argue that they relate to housewives those criteria IN A SPECIFIC WAY#150;in this case through a process of criticism. This process of caesar, relating the object of investigation back to the established criteria is another fundamental component of the body of the essay. Without it, the proof is not complete. As silly as that sounds, I kid you not that the most frequent mistake of beginning essay writers is a failure to relate their analysis back to the criteria they have established.
Thus it is that another important norm for the academic essay is: Relate the analysis back to the terms and concepts of the established criteria. The Star Wars example brings up another fundamental logical task to this process. From the beginning you have probably thought the Star Wars thesis to housewives not be very feasible. Term Paper? The film is not set in the West, and it occurs in the future. The question becomes, however, whether these are ESSENTIAL criteria to the Western, and if not, what is?
In terms of proving that thesis statement, the writer is going to have to clearly establish what the duties, elements of the Western Genre are, and then relate aspects of the film back to ALL of those criteria. Herein lies the essential importance of religion elizabethan, completeness to that process. If the Star Wars writer establishes the duties, criteria but can only Essay, point to the gun-fighting that occurs in the film, then their essay will fail to persuade. Housewives? Their essay will fail to persuade precisely because it inadequately addresses the scope of the criteria. Thus it is that another important norm for this process is: Fully address the established criteria. It is very important to note that fully addressing the The Necklace, by Guy de Maupassant Essay, scope of the criteria does NOT mean that the object under discussion has to fully meet ALL the criteria. Housewives Duties? To stick with the Star Wars example, the caesar betrayal, writer can not IGNORE the issue of setting and even remotely hope to duties persuade the audience. In some way, the writer is going to have to Biography address the fact that both time and place are out of the bounds of the Western.
This is the point precisely. The author will have to ADDRESS that point#150;those criteria#150;not necessarily MEET those criteria. In this respect, the writer is going to have make a supporting argument about how these criteria relate to each other in terms of comprising the genre (or in a logical sense the whole). The important point is housewives duties, that all criteria are addressed adequately. Failure to address any of the established criteria creates a gap in logic. Subsequently, the reasoning process (and its ability to persuade) fails. Fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria fulfills the logical requirements necessary to persuade reasonably and allows the writer to draw conclusions. Before that process is discussed, however, it is term paper, necessary to examine an important component of this relating back process. The Role of housewives duties, Description. Relating the object of investigation or the object of the thesis back to the established criteria is necessarily going to involve description.
Description is frequently an unclear and thorny issue for writers of the academic essay#150;especially in terms of scope (how much is enough?). The purpose of description, however, clarifies the issue of scope. The purpose of Phonemic Essay, description to is to make clear, or establish WHAT in the object of investigation (the film, the scene, the shot) relates to housewives the criteria being used. It therefore becomes important for the writer to use description in such a manner as to The Necklace, de Maupassant Essay establish the basis of the relationship between the object and the criteria. Housewives? Furthermore, the writer should LIMIT description to accomplishing only this task. Added description is not only superfluous, but distracts from trying to prove your argument. As a result, another important norm for the body of the academic essay is: Subordinate description to the purpose of analysis. As stated above the process of fully relating the era, object of the thesis to the established criteria has the effect of housewives, fulfilling the logical requirements. It is THAT task which ultimately persuades, not the conclusion itself.
It is for this reason that, in some respects, the Biography and Her Essay, conclusion does not seem to housewives duties have a FUNDAMENTAL role in the process of reasoned persuasion. That in itself probably accounts for how many dopey tips exist for what to julius do with a conclusion, like: repeat the thesis statement (like people have forgotten it despite the fact that you've been working to prove it the entire time) or some other such thing. What to do with a conclusion if the work of proof is housewives duties, already done? The most effective thing to do with a conclusion is to first signal that the work is coming to close, and Phonemic Awareness, then close off the discussion itself by stating something definitive about the work. Like the introduction, then, the conclusion has a dual role: to signal the housewives, transition to closure, and to close the discussion with a definitive statement.
The work of the julius, conclusion should reference the thesis, without necessarily repeating the thesis (or the steps by duties which it was proven) It should then say something definitive that signals closure by pointing to the implications of what you've discussed, by amplifying what you've discussed, or by contextualizing what you've discussed. In each case, you are striving to close discussion by being definitive, and you are taking caution not to violate rule #1 of the academic essay: avoid statements that you cannot prove. To stay with the running examples, the civil act of 1883, conclusion to the Faulkner paper could look something like this: . it therefore serves as an duties example of Biography Gentileschi and Her Essay, how literary texts structure their criticisms of dominant ideologies. (pointing to the implications of proving your argument). Thus, far from housewives duties, being a portrait of its time Faulkner's work demonstrates that literary works actively engage ideologies. (amplifying your argument) Rather than a story centered exclusively on war, Hemingway's novel instead participates in the reinforcement of dominant ideologies with American culture. (Contextualizing the argument) Note that the term paper, similarity here is how definitive these statements are. They draw upon the work that has been done, but say something different and final that is logically based upon duties what has been discussed. There are, of Phonemic Essay, course, variations on the genre of the academic essay--some rather large difference exist, for example, between the social sciences and the humanites. Housewives? This discussion is based on service act of 1883 the humanties approach. Other variations can result from the housewives, idiosyncracies of specific instructors.
To the degree that what is written here sounds heavy handed and inflexible, I caution instead that such tone is trying to reflect the manner in which your own analysis and writing will need to sound precise and Awareness Essay, rigorous#150;the standards by which the academic essay is evaluated. The precision and rigor with which these norms and conventions are applied should function only to demand that your own analysis and reason engender these standards. They are thus meant to elevate your thinking, not control it. The principles by which the academic essay structures itself is designed to be a discipline that frees your thinking, not subjugate it. Within its conventions is unlimited creative potential whose only demand, ultimately, is that you say something meaningful that others can be persuaded of via your logic. What I have attempted to do here is make the duties, norms and conventions of the genre explicit so that you can refine your skills working within it. Mastering this genre has the benefit of developing your skill to analyze situations using explicit criteria, and be able to make decisions based on that analysis.
More than a few people have found that possession of caesar betrayal, such a skill is invaluable in life and professional endeavors.
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essay period cheat frequency, methods, and housewives, causes. Mikaela Bj?rklund and term paper, Claes-G?ran Wenestam. ?bo Akademi University. Department of Teacher Education, email: Mikaela.Bjorklund@abo.fi or firstname.lastname@example.org. Paper presented at the European Conference on housewives duties Educational Research, Lahti, Finland 22-25 September 1999. During the term paper, past decades cheating among undergraduate students has been a well-known problem difficult to gain knowledge of.
European research in this field of research is scarce. Duties? The aim of de Maupassant Essay, this paper is to present a study, investigating the frequency of cheating, the cheating methods used and the students#146; motives for cheating or not cheating in a Swedish-Finnish university context. Comparisons with other higher education contexts were possible since an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and housewives duties, used in the study. The participants were three groups of university students (n=160) from different academic disciplines. The findings implicate that cheating among undergraduates is common and Phonemic, mainly is a problem of ethic character. The paper also discusses consequences of student cheating for the university staff, legislators, and society. Housewives Duties? Suggestions on what measures should be applied are presented along with suggestions for further research in this area. During the past decade, problems concerning cheating among undergraduate students have become increasingly apparent in academic institutions in the Nordic countries. Cheating or academic misconduct is, however, not a new phenomenon, but a well-known problem in many European countries, as well as in the United States of Essay, America. Because of the ethical and moral character of the housewives duties, problem it is not easy to do research in this field. Era? Obvious problems are i.e. student integrity.
Thus, academic dishonest behaviour and cheating is a familiar problem for any university, but it is duties often not very well known and sometimes the julius caesar betrayal, university authorities do not even want to housewives duties, know of it. Keith-Spiegel (in Murray, 1996) shows that among a sample of almost 500 university professors 20 percent reported they had ignored to take further measures in evident cases of cheating. Many university teachers obviously hesitate to take action against of Artemisia Gentileschi and Her, cheating behaviour because of the stress and housewives duties, discomfort that follows (Murray, 1996). Also Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that faculty often choose not to involve university or departmental authorities but handle observed cheating on an individual level, making it invisible in university documents and, thus, unknown to the university authorities. Also other findings support the reluctance to bring dishonest academic behaviour like cheating before the university administration.
Jendreck (1992), as an example, concludes that students preferred to handle the problem informally rather than by using formal university policy. Probably at least partly because of the reasons mentioned above European research in this field is still scarce (cf. The Necklace, De Maupassant? Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes Armstead, 1995 and Ashworth et al., 1997). Nevertheless, we feel that it is of the housewives duties, utmost importance that this area of research is further developed in the near future, not the least since students tend to see cheating as a more or less normal part of their studies, which is illustrated in the quote below: Students beliefs that everyone cheats (Houston, 1976, p. 301) or that cheating is a normal part of life (Baird, 1980) encourage cheating.
The adage cheaters never win may not apply in the case of academic dishonesty. With cheating rates as high as 75% to 87% (e.g., Baird, 1980; Jendreck, 1989) and detection rates as low as 1.30% (Haines et al., 1986), academic dishonesty is reinforced, not punished. (Davis, Grover, Becker McGregor, 1992, p. 17) With detection rates as low as 1,3 % it is hardly surprising that students to a great extent perceive academic misconduct as worth while and even approved of. Term Paper? As an illustration of the low detection rates; during a five year period (1991-1995) only 24 students were brought to the disciplinary board for cheating at one Swedish university (Grahnstr?m, 1996). It is, hence, of importance to housewives duties, university staff and administrators, as well as to legislators and society as a whole to gain insight in term paper, this matter, in order to be able to duties, do something about it. The aim of the study. The main aim of the study presented in this paper is to era, provide a first step in a survey over university students#146; cheating, i.e. to investigate the overall frequency, different methods and main reasons for cheating and not cheating among students in a Finnish context. The study is intended as a starting point for further in-depth research in this area. In order to get a better understanding of the problem, the aim is also to relate the outcome to subjects#146; backgrounds in terms of sex, age, academic experience (number of study years), faculty belongings, level of difficulty, level of study success and main reason for study at duties, the university, in order to get a deeper understanding of student cheating behaviour.
To make comparisons with other contexts possible an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by the British researchers Newstead , Franklyn-Stoked and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study, which was carried out on term paper 160 university students during the spring of 1996. I this presentation we focus attention on: a) the frequency of admitted cheating, b) what kinds of housewives duties, cheating is most frequent in relation to the British results, b) the relationship between frequency of admitted cheating/not admitted cheating and sex, c) the reasons selected for Phonemic Awareness Essay, or against duties, cheating in relation to the British results, and. d) the relationship between the reasons selected and sex. It is very human to julius, try to housewives, find ways to solve problems as easy as possible or to avoid unnecessary difficulties. Sometimes a creative mood is not only Phonemic Awareness wanted but also morally supported, but in other situations it is considered as dishonest and shameful. In higher education this kind of creativity may be in conflict with study performance and productivity and may turn out to be viewed upon with disapproval or contempt. How define cheating? Plagiarism related to the exam situation is what is usually referred to when generally talking about cheating. It is also this kind of duties, behaviour that has received most attention in research on cheating.
Defining cheating is, however, much more complicated than that, since cheating seems to involve both a moral and an achievement dimension, which is graphically illustrated in Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Graphic presentation of the problematic grey-zone between moral and immoral behaviour. The levels in the achievement dimension are not absolute, but dependent on the perspective of the viewer. The area between the dashed lines symbolises the julius caesar betrayal, grey-zone that exists concerning the housewives duties, classification of potential cheating behaviours. Definitions of cheating also vary as a result of variation in moral development, experiences of studies, influence of significant others, studying strategy (cf. Miller Parlett, 1973) and probably also other factors. The result is a wide spectrum of definitions ranging from liberal to conservative. Hence, the need for normative documents is apparent. Elizabethan? Evenso they do not seem to housewives duties, exist, at least not in Finland. Nowhere in the legislation concerning exams and cheating is it mentioned what kind of behaviours constitutes cheating. The examples above illustrate what a complex problem cheating is.
In the study presented in this paper all not strictly correct behaviours were classified as cheating for clarity#146;s sake. To what extent does cheating occur? Most of the research done concerning the amount of cheating occurring, has, as mentioned earlier, been carried out in the USA. Biography Of Artemisia Gentileschi And Her Artwork? The quotation below provides examples of the cheating-rates measured in duties, different studies in a North American context. The reader ought to observe that these studies were different in design; concentrated on different behaviours and civil service 1883, therefore some of the variation in the percentages might be accounted for in that way, and thus can not only be taken to convey a steadily increasing rate of cheating. Drake (1941) reported a cheating rate of housewives, 23%, whereas Goldsen, Rosenberg, William, and Suchman (1960) reported rates of 38% and 49% for 1952 and 1960, respectively. Hetherington and Feldman (1964) and Baird (1980) reported cheating rates of 64% and 76%, respectively. The Necklace, By Guy De Maupassant Essay? Jendreck (1989) placed the typical rate between 40% and 60% but noted other rates as high as 82% (Stern Havlicek, 1986) and 88% (Sierles, Hendrickx, Circle, 1980). (Davis et al., 1992,s.16) Davis et al. (1992), pointing at the results presented above, regard cheating as epidemic.
There are indications that give some, but not very much, support to the epidemic theory. McCabe and Trevino (1996) found that the tendency to cheat had increased only duties little, from 63 percent in 1963 to 70 percent in 1990-91 but that the cheating methods had been more developed and the repertoire wider. Their findings may also be interpreted to mean that students who cheat are doing it more often than previous generations of students. Betrayal? Three studies cited by Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that cheating is housewives a constant study technique among large groups of students (60-75 percent). Also Davis and term paper, Ludvigson (1995) found in a more recent study that the individuals who cheat during their university-level studies are the ones that also have cheated earlier in their studies. In a study by Baldwin, et al (1996), where 2459 medical students participated as subjects, 39 percent said they had witnessed cheating, 66,5 percent had heard about cheating, and 5 percent had cheated during their medical studies. Graham et al (1994) found that among 480 college students 89 percent admitted cheating and in a study by Lord and Chiodo (1995) 83 percent of the duties, undergraduates investigated (n=300) admitted to cheating on significant tests and major projects. In a European context Newstead et al. (1995) also present high rates of cheating. Of Artemisia Gentileschi Artwork Essay? In their study only 12% of the respondents claimed that they had not cheated. All the above mentioned figures are concerned with the number of cheaters, i.e. the number of housewives duties, students who have at Biography of Artemisia Gentileschi Essay, least on one occasion been involved in duties, academic misconduct, they do not tell us anything about to what extent these people do cheat.
It is, however, likely that the more cheating is julius caesar done, the more probable it is that the numbers of behaviours used vary. It is therefore of importance to find out what kind of behaviours students utilise. What methods are used? There are four major kinds of duties, groups to be distinguished when classifying cheating behaviours, namely: Individual opportunistic, individual planned, active social and Phonemic, passive social (Hetherington Feldman, 1964). Baird (1980) on the other hand distinguishes only between individual and co-operative behaviours. The findings of duties, Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995) point to extensive cheating in some areas like copying each others work, changing or inventing research data, while some other cheating behaviour like lying or changing persons at examination (impersonation) was fairly scarce (see Table 5). Hence, there seems to be a correlation between level of perceived seriousness of the behaviour and its frequency of occurrence #150; the more serious the behaviour, the less frequent it is. Students tend to Phonemic Essay, classify exam-related cheating as more serious than course-related cheating.
These classifications were also confirmed by duties Newstead et al#146;s results, where all exam-related items were among the least frequent and term paper, course-related items among the most frequent. McCabe and Trevino summarise their findings in a table showing what kind of cheating and housewives, the frequency students admit they are engaged in. The modified table (below) shows the level of era, admitted cheating in 1963 and housewives duties, 1993. The two tests make a comparison possible. Table. 2. Kind of admitted student cheating in 1963 and 1993 (%) (McCabe and Trevino, 1996). Copied material without footnoting. Table 2 shows that some kinds of cheating are more frequent than other kinds. It is also interesting to find that in most of the cases the tendency is an increase of the cheating between 1963 and 1993. This does not necessarily mean, however, that the students were cheating more in 1993 than they did in service 1883, 1963.
Another reasonable explanation is that the students were more prone to admit cheating in 1993 than the students were in 1963. These results are similar to findings in other studies but there are also findings suggesting cultural differences. Kuehn, Stanwyck, and Holland , for instance, asked students from Mexican, Arabic and US cultural backgrounds about cheating. Housewives Duties? The main focus was on julius caesar three typical cheating behaviours: using crib notes, copying another student#146;s test, and allowing another student to copy course work. Housewives Duties? The findings suggest that there were differences between the culturally different groups of students in how they looked upon and rated cheating. Also new technique, like the World Wide Web, is Phonemic Awareness Essay used by students in order to download papers, essays, etc produced by other students but presented to the examiner as own work. One illustration of this is a report from a Swedish university, where several students were found out using not accepted means for getting course credits among which the downloading of ready-made course works from the web was mentioned (Lunds Universitet Meddelar, 1998). Considering the variety of methods used in housewives, cheating, as described above, it is probable that also the reasons given for cheating are many. Reasons for cheating and not doing it. The reasons or motives for cheating are not very well known but must be assumed to be complex.
In a North American study of school students cheating by Anderman, Griesinger, and Westerfield (1998) it is claimed that the schools#146; obsession with performance measures spurs cheating. Term Paper? It is suggested that classrooms that emphasise high grades and test scores may drive the students to duties, cheat . Similar conclusions are reported from several investigations, where the students#146; workload is found to julius betrayal, be an important explaining factor (Lipson MacGavern, 1993). Davis et al (1992) point out that pressures for housewives, good grades in higher education, student stress, ineffective deterrents, teacher attitudes, and an increasing lack of academic integrity are important determinants of Phonemic, cheating. Baird (1980) previously reported similar findings. In that study 35 percent of the housewives, students stated that they had too little time for Awareness Essay, studying for the exam and duties, 26 percent of the The Necklace, by Guy de Maupassant Essay, students said their working load made it necessary to duties, cheat. In a study by Singhal (1982) as much as 68 percent of the students regarded the wish to get good results as the de Maupassant, reason for cheating. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes, and Armstead (1995) found that 21 percent of the cheaters say it was lack of time to study that made them cheat and 20 percent explicitly stated that their cheating was a consequence of their wish to get better grades. A third frequently occurring reason for cheating was everybody else does it (16%), which effectively reflects students#146; attitudes towards cheating.
This reason was followed by housewives duties the wish to help a friend (14%) and by Guy de Maupassant Essay, laziness (10%), which also says quite a lot about the risks of duties, getting caught. It is of Artemisia Gentileschi Essay obviously easier to help a friend cheat than to e.g. help the friend learn to an exam. Also Maramark and Maline (1993), when looking for causes for cheating, found that stress, competition for jobs, scholarships and admission to post-graduate programs were important determinants. On a general level the causes or explanations identified can be organised in two classes of factors, external, and individual/personal. Housewives Duties? In Table 1 below the two super-ordinate factors and some elements/reasons mentioned in research done by Baird (1980), Davis et al (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964) are presented. Table 1. Presentation of factors that might lead to cheating mentioned by Baird (1980), Davis et al. Elizabethan? (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964). Importance of the test. Level of test-difficulty. Awareness of the.
performance of fellow. A certain expectation of. Overcrowded, great classes. Wish to help a friend. Aversion to teacher. At a closer examination of the reasons mentioned by these researchers it seems obvious that the strongest reasons are to be found among the personal factors and that the external factors merely help to ease the cheating. The external factors are furthermore a welcome excuse for the students, since they appear to prefer blaming external factors for their behaviour (Baird, 1980).
Anderman et al (1998) identified two general types of housewives duties, study approaches, which on a general level seem to be similar to the deep and surface approaches to studying and learning. The cheaters tend to believe that the Awareness Essay, purpose of housewives duties, school is to compete and show how smart you are. Also, to them, what is most important, is doing better than others and getting the right answer. They also worried about Phonemic Awareness school and made use of housewives duties, self-handicapping behaviours, blaming others and making excuses for not performing well at school, more often than their counterparts. The Necklace, By Guy? Many of housewives, them believed cheating would result in less homework and civil act of, fewer academic demands. Duties? The non-cheating group of students, in comparison, expressed interest in their learning of science concepts and tried various problem-solving methods and sought to connect ideas. In several previous studies it is suggested that the civil service, effect of an explicit and unanimously accepted honour code will lower the duties, frequency of of Artemisia and Her Artwork Essay, cheating behaviour (McCabe Bowers, 1994). Housewives Duties? But honour code may have an effect in two opposite Phonemic Awareness directions. A very common reason for some types of cheating is the wish to help a friend (Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead, 1995; McCabe Trevino, 1996).
To many students some behaviours are not viewed as cheating although forbidden by the university or staff. For instance, letting a fellow student borrow or copy an individual course work or a written assignment or even have a look at the answer in a test may be regarded as honest and correct behaviour. Thus, some cheating behaviours may be explained by the honour code prevalent among the duties, students. The most frequent reasons for not cheating were, in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead (1995) that it is immoral/dishonest and that it is useless/unimportant. In their study these were the most frequent reasons for Biography Gentileschi and Her Artwork, not indulging in academic misconduct regardless of sex and duties, age. In later studies (Newstead et al, 1995) there were, however, significant differences between the age groups: the older students gave the reason immoral more often than their younger peers did. The 160 subjects participating in the study were recruited from three different groups of students. In Table 3 below, the samples and some characteristics are presented. Table 3. Participants in the study. The collection of data was carried out at era, the university during ordinary lecture time. Duties? The students were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of questions about cheating behaviours.
The questionnaire was originally developed by term paper Franklyn -Stokes and housewives duties, Newstead in the U.K. but adapted to meet the of Artemisia Gentileschi Essay, needs of the Swedish-speaking environment in Finland. In their questionnaire a set of probable cheating behaviours (A-U) were presented to the student, who was asked to housewives, tell (Yes or No) if he/she had carried out Awareness Essay, that behaviour at least once. Two additional items were included in housewives duties, the questionnaire totalling the betrayal, number of duties, cheating behaviours presented to 23. The Necklace, De Maupassant? Accompanying each question about cheating was a list of arguments (reasons) motivating or explaining the behaviour and housewives, a list of arguments giving reasons for not cheating. The subjects were asked to Awareness Essay, select one reason for each Yes/No response. There was also a few additional questions asking about their reason to study at the university, their judgement of their study successfulness and about their belief about housewives duties fellow students cheating. The questionnaire was distributed to the students during ordinary lecture time at the university. The respondents completed it immediately and anonymously. Of Artemisia And Her Essay? It took about 15 minutes to complete. The data was analysed by housewives duties quantitative methods.
4. The result of the data analysis. The overall frequency of cheating. 75 % of the respondents in this study had engaged in at The Necklace, by Guy Essay, least one of the behaviours listed in the questionnaire. However, only 63,5 % of them admit to cheating in the overall question at the end of the questionnaire, even though no less than 91,9% report that they believe their fellow students cheat. Housewives Duties? The over all tendency to cheat only correlated with year of study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,160, P=.046), reason to study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,213, p=.012) and term paper, the respondents#146; estimation of how much other students cheat (Spearman#146;s rho= ,159, p=.046). This seems to housewives, imply that the over all amount of cheating is relatively stable, but that the methods used vary depending on discipline of religion, study, gender, age and success in studies, since there are some significant correlations for the individual items on the basis of these background variables. This study was not designed to study the moral development of the respondents, but the results do, however, point in one certain direction as far as moral is concerned. In Table 4 below, the reported tendency to cheat is cross-tabulated with respondents#146; own evaluation of their inclination to cheat. Table 4. Cross-tabulation of the variables reported tendency to housewives duties, cheat and own evaluation of caesar, cheating inclination. Of the ones who have reported that they never cheat 53,4 % have admitted to exercising at least one of the behaviours mentioned in the questionnaire, whereas 12,9 % of the ones of the opinion that they cheat rarely have not reported cheating on any of the behaviours.
A considerable amount of the students do seem to cheat, even though they do not always consider what they do as wrong, which makes it interesting to study how they do it and which behaviours are the most commonly used ones. Cheating methods used. In this section the occurrence of the different methods listed in duties, the questionnaire are presented. Observe that the behaviours listed in the questionnaire are various behaviours that can be regarded as cheating and term paper, dishonest behaviour, but do not necessarily need to housewives, be considered as such (cf. the definition of cheating used in this paper). Below, in Table 5 the students#146; responses to the behaviours described in julius caesar betrayal, the questionnaire are presented in order of frequency. The table also includes a classification of the behaviours as social/individual, and course-/exam-/research related, as well as the British results (Frankyn-Stokes Newstead, 1995). Table 5. The cheating behaviours listed in order of frequency.
The percentage of yes-answers to each cheating behaviour listed in order of frequency, starting with the most frequently used. The figure to the right is the percentage of positive answers received for duties, the same item in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995).The letters to the left represent the classification of the behaviour. The letters stand for research (R), coursework (C), exam (E), and individual (I), social (S) and altruistic (A). In Table 5 one can see that some cheating behaviours are more frequent than others are. The most frequent ones among the Finnish respondents are Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source, Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author, Allowing own course-work to be copied by another student, and Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge.
These behaviours are admitted by more than 20 percent of the participating students. As mentioned earlier, these behaviours may be considered as academic misconduct. All of them may, however, be viewed as acceptable and even morally correct among the students, since they do not have negative consequences for Phonemic, the fellow student but may be regarded as help and housewives, support in difficult situations. In that sense it can be assumed that there exists a conflict between staff#146;s and students#146; social and ethical value systems, creating a moral borderline area where what is right and wrong are not easily delimited. From the bottom of the list we can observe that the elizabethan era, least admitted behaviours are Inventing data (i.e. entering non-existent results into the database)and Kept silent about a teacher's misbehaviour or misuse of his/her position in housewives, order to by Guy de Maupassant Essay, get approval on a test or a higher mark. These behaviours were reported only by one respondent/ behaviour. The general nature of these behaviours seems to be different from the most frequent ones in that they are more directed to personal gratification. The behaviours also represent more active deception of teachers and fellow students in order to gain personal reward. It can be assumed that these behaviours are viewed as more morally disapprovable and of low peer esteem. As also can be seen above, three of the housewives, behaviours do not occur at civil service act of, all in this study.
This is probably due to the limited sample and perhaps also (judging from cryptic comments of the respondents) to fear of punishment. The students#146; responses to the items in housewives duties, the questionnaire depicting various cheating behaviours were in most cases similar for the both sexes; that is, there are almost no differences between female and male student#146;s responses in Biography Artwork, this respect. To two items, however, there were different reactions that are related to differences in duties, sex. One of these items was Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;). The outcome is presented in Table 6 below. Table 6 Relationship between students#146; responses to item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) and students#146; sex. The result in caesar betrayal, the table indicates that there are clear differences between female and male students#146; ways of responding to the item suggesting cheating in the form of taking unauthorised material in housewives duties, the testing situation. Among the female students only 2.6 percent admitted to the behaviour while 13.6 percent of the male students said #146;Yes#146; to having carried out the cheating. The differences are statistically significant (Fisher#146;s Exact Test, D.F.=1, p=.015). The second item where there were observed statistically significant ( c 2 =5.82, D.F.=1, p=.016) response differences related to sex was the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. This item was added to the original questionnaire.
The outcome is presented in Table 7 below. Table 7. Relationship between students#146; responses to the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for and students#146; sex. As can be seen in the table more than 20 percent of the female students admitted that they had signed on The Necklace, by Guy a fellow student at a lecture although he/she was absent. This can be compared with 4.5 percent of the male students admitting the same behaviour. Duties? Compared to the outcome in the previous table, there is a clear female dominance for this behaviour, while males more often than females answered Yes to caesar, the previous one. Another difference is that the housewives, total proportion of Yes-responses are much larger for the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course, where obligatory attendance is asked for when compared with students#146; Yes-responses to the item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) (se Table 6 above), showing the response variation between the items regarding the tendency among the students to accept or not accept a specific cheating behaviour. The social #150;individual relation. In the following, the frequency of certain cheating behaviours are discussed in relation to the nature (see classification in Table 5 above) of the behaviour.
14 of the behaviours in this study were clearly classified as individual and 5 as social. The mean for yes-responses was 14,4 % for the social behaviours and of Artemisia Gentileschi Artwork Essay, 10,5 % for the individual ones. As for situation relatedness, the five most frequently used behaviours were clearly course related. The study only contained one item concerning research related cheating (R), and this was the ninth in order of frequency (10,8 %) and had mostly been used by male respondents at the age of housewives duties, 21-23 successfully (16-24.99 credits/term) studying education . Exam related cheating was not among the Phonemic Awareness Essay, most commonly used cheating methods, but 13,8 % of the respondents still admit using the most frequent of these behaviours. The clearly altruistic behaviours A and S were used to a greater extent by female respondents (A: 27,4 % and S: 8,8 %) than by men (A: 16,7 % and S: 2,3 %, even though the reasons given for exercising this behaviour are not clearly altruistic. Reasons for cheating. Another area of interest to us concerns the reasons and the arguments selected as explanations and sometimes also as excuses for the behaviour. In Table 8 below all the duties, reasons used to motivate cheating are listed in order of frequency. It should be remembered that the reasons available to be selected were generated by Biography Gentileschi Essay the researchers, but that the respondents also were given the duties, possibility to express other reasons/motives. These less frequent reasons are also listed in julius caesar, Table 8.
Regarding reasons given for not cheating the most frequent one (27.5 %) is the choice stating that cheating is immoral or dishonest. The reasons following in frequency of appearance represent on a general level a completely different class of attitudes, since it may mean that the subject do not distance him/herself from cheating, only that it was not considered or regarded as useful (I never thought of housewives duties, it, 21.3 % and Situation did not arise, 19.5 %). In the lower frequency range two reasons mirroring fear of detection and Biography Gentileschi and Her, getting caught are found; Shame/embarrassment at being caught (1.3 %) and housewives duties, Fear of detection/punishment (1.4 %). The Necklace,? In a way these reasons like the two previous ones are focusing the social condemnation for cheating and dishonest behaviour and are not clearly a statement against duties, cheating. When looking at students#146; ways of service act of, choosing reasons for housewives duties, cheating or for not cheating there seems to exist a strong connection with the cheating behaviour that is in focus. This means that the choice of civil, reason is to a large extent dependent on the particular behaviour that have been admitted to housewives, or not admitted to.
This topic will be discussed no further in this paper. In most cases, however, there are no obvious differences between female and male students#146; ways of selecting their reasons for their responses. Biography Of Artemisia Gentileschi And Her Artwork Essay? Depending on what cheating behaviour is to be decided on, female and male students mostly make similar choices of arguments for their behaviour. In two cases, however, there exist statistical significant differences between the two sexes in ways of explaining the behaviour. The reasons chosen as an explanation or an housewives duties argument for or against the behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') are different between female and male students. In the table below the by Guy de Maupassant Essay, outcome is presented.
Table 10. Reasons for housewives, or against the cheating behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs')among female and male students. The outcome points to statistical significant differences (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V =.404, p=.048) between the Phonemic Awareness, female and male ways of selecting the reason for their behaviour regarding Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs'). First of all 7.1 percent of the boys have selected Fear of failure as a reason for this cheating behaviour while no girl have selected that reason. Also It would be unfair to other students were chosen by duties 4.8 male students but not one female student. Among the female students reasons like To increase the mark, Laziness, I would not know how to go about it and Phonemic, Situation did not arise/not applicable to duties, my course were chosen by a few female students but no male student. A relatively large difference between female and male ways of choosing among the reasons for explaining the Yes/No-answer can be found for term paper, reason I never thought about it, where 20.5 percent of the female students selected that reason while it attracted only 14.3 percent of the male students. Also It would devalue my achievement was chosen by housewives duties a larger proportion female students (8.0 %) than male students (2.4 %). The second statistical significant difference (Phi and term paper, Cram?r#146;s V=.348, p=.028) concerns the reasons chosen for item Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. The outcome is housewives presented in Table 11 below. Table 11.
Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an by Guy de Maupassant Essay examination for you. Duties? among female and male students. In one case the term paper, male students have chosen a reason (Shame/embarrassment at being caught) that is not chosen by duties any female student. Large difference on the basis of elizabethan era, sex are found for the reason Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course, where more than 16 percent more boys have chosen that reasons for their behaviour. Two female students selected one reason that the male students did not choose, namely Fear of detection/punishment. Largest difference (18.7 percent) to the male students are found for reason I never thought of housewives, it, which was chosen by 33.0 percent of the Biography Artwork, female students but only 14.3 percent of the male students. Various methodological problems that have been discussed elsewhere (see Bj?rklund, 1997), are not mentioned here, since they do not seem to affect the reliability and validity of the results discussed. There is, however, one point of importance as far as methodological bias is concerned and that is the fact that the instrument in this study was translated from English and a British context, which in some cases have called for adjustment and in housewives, one case yielded an Biography of Artemisia and Her Essay erroneous translation (item L). The frequency of individual cheating behaviours in comparison to the British results. The over all frequency of cheating reported in this study does not differ significantly from the ones reported by previous researchers, and can, hence, be taken as a further proof of the housewives, fact that the over all cheating rates seem to be fairly constant in the western word. What is Essay more interesting is the variation in frequency on individual behaviours.
The most outstanding feature when comparing the duties, frequencies reported by the Finnish respondents with the ones reported by the British, is that in most cases the British respondents have reported remarkably higher degree of of Artemisia Gentileschi and Her Artwork, cheating. Housewives? The greatest variation is to be found in items I (peer assessment), L (inventing data) , R (altering data) and A (allow copying of coursework). The great difference concerning peer assessment is probably due to differences in the academic traditions: Peer assessment is not very common in the Swedish #150;speaking university level studies in Finland. Item L does not represent a real difference, since the item was erroneously translated into Swedish and civil 1883, , thus, measures something else. Research related cheating seem to be much more common in Britain, but the result might in this case be biased for faculty, since the studies were not conducted at the same kinds of institutions. Item A, concerning course work, is the top one of many items concerning coursework that exhibit considerable higher frequencies for the British respondents, which is duties probably due to the same kind/s of cultural differences as mentioned regarding item I. Only on elizabethan item K (advance information about exam) was the housewives, result of the Finnish respondents higher than the result of the British. The items concerning examrelated behaviours generally exhibit the smallest differences between the groups, which seems to indicate that exam conditions are more or less alike between the julius, two countries. It is duties also possible to claim that the results indicate that Finnish students seem to find examrelated cheating less serious than British, who , in turn, do not seem to regard research related cheating as particularly serious. In the Finnish results the social behaviours seem to be slightly more common, whereas the individual behaviours get a higher mean score in the British results (social 24 %, individual 20,8 %). The Necklace, By Guy De Maupassant? This can be seen claimed to duties, indicate that the British academic environment is more competitive than the Finnish, but it ought to term paper, be remembered that the mean score used here is a very crude measure.
Reasons for cheating in comparison to the British results. The most frequent reasons for cheating mentioned by the Finnish students were time pressure, laziness and the wish to help a friend. The wish to housewives duties, help a friend and time pressure are also two of the Phonemic Essay, three most frequent reasons mentioned by the British students, but they have mentioned the wish to housewives duties, increase the mark as the most frequent reason for cheating. Concerning this reason the difference between the two samples is remarkable (Finnish students 9,3 % and British students 33,3 %). Finns on the other hand contribute their cheating to laziness and extenuating circumstances considerably more often than their British peers, who, in turn, seem to caesar, fear failure more and also tend to justify their behaviour with the reason everybody does it. Out of these differences it is easy to create caricature image of the housewives duties, cheating British student as an ambitious person , who wishes to perform well and of the Finnish student who mainly cheats because it seems to be the term paper, easiest way to go about the studies. Considering the reasons for not cheating the duties, British students seem to have two main reasons, which are used considerably more often than the other ones available; That it would have been pointless/unnecessary and that it would have been immoral/dishonest. The immorality aspect is mentioned as the most frequently used among the Finnish students, but the second most frequently used is that the student never thought of caesar, it, closely followed by the reason that the situation didn#146;t arise or wasn#146;t applicable. Again, then , the British students seem to be more focused on the outcome/the result of the housewives, cheating behaviour than the Finnish ones.
Even though morality is one of the most frequently used reasons for Awareness, not cheating in both of the groups, the housewives duties, potential cheater-reasons, i.e. the ones giving I never thought of it, the situation didn#146;t arise and/or it was unnecessary/pointless, amount to about 50 % in both of the groups. In connection to Phonemic, the fact that the reasons shame /embarrassment at being caught (1,3 % of Finnish answers, 0 % of housewives, British ones) and fear of detection/punishment (1,9 % of The Necklace, by Guy Essay, Finnish answers and 5,8 % of British ones) were used quite infrequently, this implicates that it is of the utmost importance to reduce the opportunities of successful cheating, e.g. by creating individual exams and other assessment tasks that demand creativity and originality, not just reproduction. The fact that embarrassment is duties such an infrequent reason also implicates that nether British or Finnish students feel responsible for the code of honour of their academic institutions. Hence, by establishing a functioning code of honour one could most likely reduce the instances of cheating remarkably, since the socio-moral climate is known to affect the behaviour of students more effectively than their own level of moral development (MacCabe Trevino, 1996). The reduction of opportunities for successful cheating is, of course, the most immediate way of term paper, reducing cheating, but in the long run that measure will not suffice. According to the findings in this study and other ones (cf. Duties? Davis et al, 1992) , there is a gap between the notions of morality and correctness as withheld by term paper society and university staff and the notions of these phenomena withheld by the students. It is therefore necessary to spell out which the common rules are and housewives duties, also control that they are followed.
To go even further it is also important to stress the importance of moral education for civil service act of 1883, moral development in order to secure a functioning society, presuming that that is what is what is wanted. Variations in cheating behaviour on the basis of the back ground variables. Contrary to previous research very few of the background variables seem to affect the tendency to cheat to a significant extent. This was, however, also the case for Haines et al (1986, in Davis et al, 1992). They came to housewives, the conclusion that it was because of the unproportionality concerning sex and year of study in term paper, the sample, which also seems to be the case in this study. Except the gender differences on some items, mentioned in the results, there were, however, also weak, but statistically significant positive correlations between the overall tendency to cheat and year of study, the perception of how much other students cheat and reason for studying. This result implies that academic misconduct, at least to some extent, may be epidemic and that students#146; reasons for not cheating are gradually worn down when they see fellow students cheat, without being caught. The reason for studying is also of considerable importance, when discussing cheating rates. An obvious way of reducing cheating in our faculties would be to ensure that only housewives intrinsically motivated students are accepted. The question is then: How do we control for Awareness, that, and duties, do we really want to; It is term paper all linked to the kind of professionals we want to educate. Summary of implications.
Academic staff can no longer presuppose that students know and duties, behave according to unwritten moral rules or an inner code of honour. Of Artemisia Gentileschi Artwork Essay? One, obvious way of duties, reducing cheating in universities is then to religion elizabethan era, spell out what rules and codes the students are subjected to. Such a document ought, however, to be carefully thought out and produced in co-operation with the students, in order to establish it as a code of honor2, otherwise it will only fill the duties, purpose of term paper, a list of duties, potentially successful cheating behaviours. According to previous research, students#146; moral behaviour and ethical reasoning seems to develop under continuous education. I am convinced that this influence can be made stronger through focused attention to the area and an open ethical dialogue, not in any specific course, but as every teacher#146;s concern. This would create a good socio-moral environment for moral development, which is what universities ought to foster in julius, their students, since that is something they will need in their everyday life as well as in their professional activities, and of which society will benefit or suffer in the long run. Even though the personal factors causing or preventing cheating are probably the duties, primary ones, it is religion elizabethan also a good idea to housewives, try to reduce or eliminate the religion, external factors that seem to cause cheating. One of the major external reasons for housewives duties, cheating was time pressure.
That ought to be quite easily remedied through courses/ supervision in studying technique and discipline, as well as a better co-ordination of courses and civil 1883, exams between university staff. It is also up to the staff to really check that the rules they give are followed. Such a behaviour signals that the rules are judged as important and might awaken conscience in housewives duties, the students, or at least make the cheating alternative less attractive and easy to carry out. In this case it is, in fact, most important to catch the small fish. Davis and Ludvigson in turn present a twofold way of reducing cheating in service act of, the long run, namely by a) using positive reinforcement and b) by encouraging and fostering the students to acquire an outlook on life that will prevent them from cheating. The results of this study are particularly serious from a societal point of view, since it involved future teachers, theologian and economists. Housewives? What kind of religion elizabethan, teachers does the society of today want? Is it possible for a teacher who does not regard cheating as wrong to teach pupils high ethical and moral standards? Or should the comprehensive school only strive to teach knowledge and skills? The compulsory schoolteachers are of strategic importance, since they are the ones who ought to start the process of moral development, if academic freedom is to be a reality in the future. Lax morality among economists and teologians is, however, no less serious than among teachers.
If those particular groups in society are not to be trusted, then who? In the long run that will produce an even greater disbelief in authorities, eventually resulting in community breakdown. In order to be able to deal with the problem in an efficient manner it is necessary to reach the causative factors, which probably are best reached with a flexible and qualitative approach. Housewives Duties? To understand delicate and The Necklace, Essay, inaccessible phenomena like the one at hand it is important to benefit from as many sources of duties, knowledge as possible; an interdisciplinary approach would probably be most adequate. Service Act Of? It is housewives also important to by Guy Essay, realise the problem with truthfulness. In this study it was generally found that the students tended to housewives, answer the questionnaire with less anxiety, when it was stressed that the researcher was a fellow student and not a member of the university staff. Anderman, E, Griesinger, T, Westinger, G. (1998). Motivation and cheating during early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 , 1, 84-93.
Ashworth, P. Bannister, P. (1997). Religion? Guilty in whose eyes? University students#146; perceptions of cheating and plagiarism in academic work and housewives duties, assessment. Studies in Higher Education, 22 , 2, 187-204. Baird, J.S. Jr. (1980). Current trends in college cheating. Elizabethan Era? Psychology in the Schools , 17 , s. 515-522. Baldwin., DeWitt C., et al. (1996). Cheating in Medical School: A Survey of duties, Second-Year Students at 31 Schools.
Academic Medicine; 71 , 3, p267-73. Bj?rklund, M. (1997). Julius Caesar? Akademiskt fusk #150; F?rekomst, metoder och orsaker. En enk?tunders?kning bland studerande vid Svenska handelsh?gskolan i Vasa, samt pedagogiska och teologiska fakulteterna vid ?bo Akademi. Unpublished master#146;s thesis. Housewives Duties? ?bo Akademi University, Vasa. Davis, S.F., Grover, C.A., Becker, A.H. McGregor, L.N. (1992). Academic dishonesty: prevalence, determinants, techniques, and punishments. Teaching of Psychology , 19 , 1, s. 16-20. Davis, S.F.
Ludvigson, H.W. (1995). Biography And Her Essay? Additional data on academic dishonesty and a proposal for remediation. Teaching of Psychology, 22 , 2, s. 119-121. Franklyn-Stokes, A. Newstead, S.E. (1995). Undergraduate cheating: who does what and why?. Housewives? Studies in Higher Education, 20 , 2, s. 159-172. Graham, Melody A., et al. Essay? (1994). Cheating at small colleges: An examination of student development. Journal of duties, College Student Developments, 35 , 4, 255-260. Grahnstr?m, T. (1996). Sv?rt f? uppr?ttelse f?r fuskanklagad.
Vertex, 5 . Hetherington, E.M. Feldman, S.E. (1964). College cheating as a function of subject and situational variables. Journal of Educational Psychology , 55 , 4, s. Phonemic Essay? 212-218. Jendreck, Margareta, Platt. (1992).
Students#146; reactions to academic dishonesty. Journal of College Student Development, 33 , 3, 260-273. Kuehn, P., Stanwyck, D. J., Holland, C. L. (1990). Attitudes toward cheating behaviours in the ESL classroom. Duties? TESOL (Teacher of English to Speakers of term paper, Other Languages) Quarterly, 24 (2), 313-317. Lipson, Alberta and McGavern, Norma. (1993). Undergraduate academic dishonesty at MIT. Results from a study of attitudes and behaviour of undergraduates, faculty, and graduate teaching assistants. Lord, T., Chiodo, ?D. (1995). A Look at Student Cheating in College Science Classes. Journal of duties, Science Education and Technology; 4 , 4, 317-24.
Lunds Universitet Meddelar, ?rg 31, nr 7, 1998. Lunds universitet. Maramark, Sheila Maline, Mindi, barth. (1993) Academic dishonesty among college students. Issues in service 1883, education. Office of Educational research and Imporvemnet (ED), Washington, DC. McCabe, Donald, L. (1993).
Faculty resposnes to housewives duties, academic dishonesty: The influence of student honour codes . Biography Gentileschi And Her Artwork Essay? Research in Higher Education, 34 , 5, 647-658. McCabe, Donald, L., Bowers, William, J. (1994). Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty year perspective . Journal of College Student Development, 35 , 1, 5-10. McCabe, D.L. Trevino Klebe, L. (1996).
What we know about cheating in duties, college. Change, 28 , 1, s. 28-33. Miller, C.M. Phonemic Awareness? Parlett, M. Housewives Duties? (1974). Up to the Mark, a study of the examination game. Society for Research into Higher Education. Murray, B. (1996). Are professors turning a blind eye to cheating?
Schools facing a plague of cheating. Beware the #145;A#146; student: Overachievers can be cheaters. The APA MONITOR , 27 , 1, s. 1, 42. Newstead, S.E., Franklyn-Stokes, A. Armstead, P. (1995, in press) Individual differences in The Necklace, de Maupassant, student cheating. Duties? Journal of Educational Psychology . Singhal, A.C. (1982). By Guy De Maupassant Essay? Factors in students#146; dishonesty . Psychological Reports, 51 , s. 775-780.
A) Allowing own course-work to housewives, be copied by julius caesar another student. B) Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') B)Fabricating references or a bibliography. D) Lying about medical or other circumstances to get special consideration by examiner. E) Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge. F) Lying about medical or other circumstances to get an extended deadline or exemption from a piece of work. G) Submitting course-work from an outside source. H) Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. I)In a situation where students mark each other's work, coming to an agreement with another student or students to mark each other's work more generously than it merits J) Copying another student's course-work without their knowledge. K) Illicitly gaining advance information about the contents of an examination paper.
L) Inventing data (i.e. entering nonexistent results into the database) M) Ensuring the availability of books or journal articles in the library by deliberately mis-shelving them so that other students cannot find them, or by cutting out the relevant article or chapter. N) Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author. O) Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source. P) Premeditated collusion between 2 or more students to housewives, communicate answers to each other during an examination. Q) Copying from a neighbor during an exami-nation without them realizing. R) Altering data (e.g. Service 1883? adjusting data to obtain a significant result) S) Doing another student's course-work for them. T) Submitting a piece of course-work as an individual piece of work when it has actually been written jointly with another student.
U) Attempting to obtain special consideration by offering or receiving favors, for duties, example, bribery, seduction, corruption. V) Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is Biography of Artemisia Artwork Essay asked for. W) Kept silent about duties a teacher's misbehavior or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. This document was added to the Education-line database on civil service act of 1883 21 March 2000.