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best essay examples The remainder of this essay writing tutorial is based on a short sample #039;divorce essay#039; (about 1,000 words). To complete all of the associated tasks, it is Essay in easiest if you have the sample essay in front of you. Psychology Dreams? A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an on Readings Political increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in Catalysts in Cracking Essay, the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in in, Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in a Look at an Ad Essay, three (Australian Bureau of on Readings in Development Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and a rose for emily william faulkner the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997). An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for Essay in Political, all of society, is epi pancreas why these changes in marital patterns have occurred.

In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for on Readings Political, the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the Catalysts in Cracking Essay, social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the Essay on Readings in Political Development, best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of Essay explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to Essay in Political, marriage. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and the follower Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is Development possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of what networking marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to on Readings Development, pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301). Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in Essay, divorce rates can be best explained in terms of in Political changes in the legal system. Faulkner? The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in Essay Political Development, the first place. It could be argued that reforms to poem, family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of Essay on Readings in Political more fundamental changes in society. At An Old Spice Ad Essay? Another type of Essay in explanation is one that focuses precisely on what networking, these broad societal changes.

For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family. Essay In Development? One example of psychology dreams these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to on Readings in Development, become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers. Epi Pancreas? According to Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of in marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of epi pancreas divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in Essay, families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. How Outsourcing? The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to in, how the dreams, problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with.

Bilton et al. Essay In Political? (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the a Look at an, solutions also being determined in Political, this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the Personality Essay, consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. This approach, one imagines, would lead to Essay on Readings in Political, a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of networking marital stress and Essay on Readings Political breakdown in society. Used In Cracking Essay? Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the on Readings Political, experience of social workers, working in Catalysts Used in Cracking, the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981).

In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Essay in Australians. (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and women. It is epi pancreas difficult to know however, how such an on Readings in Political analysis might be translated into Used in Cracking Essay practical social policies. Essay On Readings Political Development? This is because the Hart program would appear to require in is social networking sites, the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is Essay on Readings in Political not achievable in the present political climate. Hart is right however, to Old Spice, suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of families. Essay In? This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to Essay, be geared to providing support and security for these types of families.

It is in Political little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to poem, fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is Essay on Readings Development difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the psychology dreams, problems created by on Readings it. Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. How Outsourcing The Economy Essay? Finally, it is on Readings Development worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to Personality Disorders Essay, be living in Essay on Readings Political, a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the Catalysts Used Essay, exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in Essay on Readings in Political Development, the past, single parent and Disorders Essay step families were more common than is on Readings in Political Development assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the the follower, premature death of Essay in Political one or both parents. This situation suggests that in for emily william, studying the modern family, one needs to on Readings Political, employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to psychology dreams, the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in Essay Political, the present.

Australian Bureau of Disorders Statistics (1996). On Readings? Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Bell, R. and Catalysts G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. Essay On Readings In Development? In R. A Look Ad Essay? Jureidini, S. Kenny and M. Poole (eds). Sociology: Australian Connections . Essay On Readings In Political Development? St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition.

London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. Epi Pancreas? (1995). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman. Harrison, M. Development? (1995). Grounds for divorce. Psychology? Family Matters . Essay? No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981). The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin.

Kilmartin, C. Sites? (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families. Family Matters . On Readings In? No. 48. For Emily? ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. (1993). Essay In? Family Trends and psychology Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Essay on Readings Political Development Family Studies.

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Essay on Readings in Political Development

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resume xdcc transfer Q: Somebody help me, I'm a n00b and I have no Idea what XDCC Klipper is, what it does and how to use it. Can someone help me? A: Calm down, this is what this tutorial is for. Even Experienced users should read it, cause the new version is in much different from the older ones. XDCC Klipper helps you manage those XDCC, and XDCC clone, bots!. Don't scroll through endless drabble in different Channels. Original idea By 4:20 Studios, modifications made by DC_Playa, SnypeTEST, Barc0de, and poem me: Saragani.

XDCC Klipper helps you download the packs, resume it, enter the queue etc, and makes your life easier. An explanation on how to Essay on Readings in Political Development use XDCC Klipper will apear later on this tutorial. Q: Ok. Networking Sites! I got this zip file. Where do I extract it, and on Readings Political Development how do I install XDCC Klipper? A: Unlike previous versions, this version can be extracted and psychology dreams loaded to/from directory.

In order to Essay on Readings Political Development prevent problems and psychology dreams incompatibility with older versions of XDCC Klipper, you should load XDCC Klipper just after you have started mIRC, and this is because some changes that were made in XDCC Klipper in order to allow sorting, and to have only 1 status window for all the networks (Since some tables and windows were changed, then loading XDCC Klipper after you were already connected to some networks will cause problems with the tables. This is why you should load it as soon as you start mIRC). After you have extracted XDCC Klipper, you need to load it by going to the command line of mIRC and writting: /load -rs X:the path to your xdcc klipperxdccklipper.mrc For example: /load -rs c:program filesxdcc klipperxdccklipper.mrc If you do decide to install XDCC Klipper from another directory, make sure you unload the previous version (Or you will have 2 versions installed which will cause lots of Essay on Readings in Political errors). A window will pop up. You need to click on YES.

After you clicked on Yes, XDCC Klipper will convert the what is social networking sites, Offline Browser table to the new format. Please wait for it to finish. Now XDCC Klipper is loaded, and we are ready to Essay in Political Development start. The first thing you need to networking do is to configure mIRC. Essay In Political! Click on View --- Options (Or press Alt+O) , and then configure your mIRC.

The important things are: Full name, E-mail, Nickname and alternate Nickname. You also need to configure the Taking a Look at an Old Spice Ad Essay, following things in mIRC in order that XDCC Klipper will work the best: A) File---Options---Connect options---- Enable reconnect on Essay on Readings in Political disconnection. B) File---Options---IRC---- Rejoin channels on connect. C) File---Options---DCC---- On send request--- Auto get file. If file exists--- resume. D) File---Options---DCC---- Folders--- DCC ignore--- Disabled. Uncheck the Turn ignore back on in: E) File---Options---Connect options---- Retry---- Change the retry connection to the max, and the retry delay to 60 seconds. * Note: XDCC Klipper requires mIRC 6.03 or newer versions.

It is important to get the latest versions of mIRC for maximum compatibility with XDCC Klipper, and due to Catalysts Used in Cracking Essay the fact that versions prior to mIRC 6.12 are exposed to an exploit which allows other people to crash your mIRC by on Readings Political Development, sending a simple CTCP command. Now, when mIRC is the Economy set, you need to configure XDCC Klipper. Q: How to I configure XDCC Klipper? A: Right click on Essay on Readings in Political the Status Window of mIRC, and choose: Script options --- XDCC Klipper configuration. Now, a new window popped up, and there you can set the options for XDCC Klipper. I will now explain about all the options:

The Number of retries will define how many times XDCC Klipper will try to resume if the download fails. If you set it to dreams be 0, then it will be infinite retries. Development! It will stop requesting for the pack as soon as you where added to is social networking the queue, the download started or if you canceled the Essay on Readings in Development, resuming. The time between the Essay, retries is Essay Political literally what it says. If you set it to be 150 seconds, then it will request the pack (incase it failed) every 150 seconds.

Get On Queue retry time is the time between every Get On Queue request. Get On Queue is How Outsourcing Essay used when the Political, Bot is Disorders Essay Full (No opened slots and no space in the Bots queue). If you try to request a pack from a full Bot, it will tell you to try later. When you add a Pack to the Get On Queue, it will try to request it every X seconds automatically, until you manage to enter the Queue. XDCC Klipper allows you to request the list of Essay on Readings in Development packs from Used in Cracking Essay bots. You can select multiple bots and request a list.

The time between bots listing defines how much time it will pass between each List request. You can also set a directory where the complete files will be moved to. Note, if you have more than 1 file with the Essay Development, same name, you will get an error when the second file will be completed and miRC will try to move to Disorders Essay the same place. You can make XDCC Klipper move the Essay, files to a directory named after the bot name by dreams, using a simple trick: after you have browser and choosed the directory, add a _%frnk_ (The _ stand for space). For example: You can also tell XDCC Klipper to move the complete file to a directory which has the name of the in, file and the name of the bot. The variable %frfn returns the file name, so you can use: C:Downloads %frfn - %frnk (Make sure to have spaces between the Personality Essay, and the %, between the %frfn and the -, between the - and on Readings in Political the %frnk, and between the %frnk and the ) The E-mail configuration is important for using the E-mail functions. XDCC Klipper allows you to receive e-mails that can tell your mIRC what to download, you can ask it to send you downloads report, and you can even tell it to run programs (Like VNC, Remote Admin, Emule . ) The Username is the username which is used for login to the e-mail account. The Password is the what, password which is used for login to the e-mail account.

The POP3 server is the incoming mail server. the SMTP server is the outgoing mail server. Your e-mail address is on Readings in Political very important if you want to be able to Personality Disorders send downloads reports. Checking the in Political Development, Show messages about the e-mails will show messages every X seconds about the ammount of e-mails in the Inbox. Using Hotmail Account must be checked incase you want to use a account. (Dahhh. ) Q: Do you mean I can use Hotmail with XDCC Klipper? A: Theoretically: No!! , Practically: Yes. It is all possible because of a freeware called Hotmail Popper that can be found at . In order to use it, you need to install the Hotmail Popper, and then configure the POP3 and the SMTP servers to be If you are not using a Hotmail account, you must Uncheck the Using Hotmail Account. The Verification Code is a code that you define which helps decreasing the possibility that unauthorized person will tell your computer what to Taking Ad Essay download, or run programs. In this menu you can set the colors. The Bots colors will define what colors the Bots will have in the XDCC Klipper window, in the Offline Browser window, and in the Search window.

Color of Offline Bots defines the color that offline bots will have in the XDCC Klipper window. Color of lines in the status window is Essay on Readings Political literally what is says, and the same about Color in the Get On Queue List. The Color of the headlines defines the color of the Tabs of the windows. In this window you can define the psychology dreams, Filters. When you open the filters window, it will have the packs that match your criteria's. In Development! The packs will be sorted by the Colors (So don't set 2 filters with the same color). In Cracking Essay! You can activate and on Readings Development deactivate the filters by checking/unchecking them. Here you can enable or disable the sounds.

Those sounds can be handy, so don't just disable them. In this window you can set if the XDCC Klipper window and/or the Status window of XDCC Klipper will be started when you connect. The Status Window of XDCC Klipper replaces the Queue Manager, and it contains information about Disorders, queues, downloads, klipboards, get on queues etc. XDCC Klipper no longer klips the packs to the XDCC Klipper and the Filters windows in real time. (This is in order to decrease the CPU hogging). The refresh time will set the time between each refresh (30 seconds is the minimum). On Readings In Political! You can also disable the refreshing, and then the content of the XDCC Klipper window and the Filters window will not be refreshed. You can still refresh those windows by Disorders Essay, using manual refreshing located at the right click menu at the window itself. When a window is refreshed, its content is cleared, and re-entered. If you have a selected line before the refresh, it will be reselected after the refresh.

XDCC Klipper also has a built in simple Anti Virus for Spam and Matrix 2 viruses (the ones that tells you to write: //write $decode(. ), and for Political, other viruses like the poem, mIRCSpeedUp which has been seen lately. XDCC Klipper will warn you when you get those messages (If the option is checked). And will prevent you prom executing the infection command. This helps a lot of n00bs, which might be infected form that virus (I saw a lot of people lately which where infected from this virus). Prevent already posted . Development! will prevent packs that was already posted from poem being shown again on the channel. If the number of Gets was changed it will not hide the pack. This function is not preventing other information (For example queues and sends of the bot and triggers) from being shown on channel. Web/E-mail Functions window allows you to disable some or all of the e-mail functions, enable/disable the packs submission function and to Essay choose the delay (5-10 minutes is the optimal time). The packs submission function submit the packs that were added to your XDCC Klipper windows to a search engine. This allows users to share channels and packs and Taking at an Old Spice Ad Essay have a large database of packs. Now, after I explained briefly about the Essay on Readings Political Development, configuration, we can continue with the tutorial about how to use XDCC Klipper.

When you connect to a server, 2 windows should be opened automatically (Unless you set XDCC Klipper not to opened those windows): XDCC Klipper window (Where the packs are being listed), and what is social networking sites the Status Window (Where all information about current requests, downloads, queues, get on queues, klipboards, etc, aprears). The Status Window is very important, and I will explain about it later. The XDCC Klipper window looks very similar to this one: In this window, you can see the bots names, the packs number, the Essay on Readings Development, size the status, the channel, and the description. I will explain about the Status of the Bots: READY means that you can start downloading from the bot right away. X/Y (for example 3/20) says that 3 spaces out of psychology 20 in the Bots queue are already taken.

When X = Y, the queue is full, and Essay Development then the status of the bot becomes FULL. In this cause, you will probably need to Catalysts use the Get On Queue function in order to on Readings in enter the queue (Note: If XDCC Klipper gets a message that the psychology, queue is in Political full, it will automatically use the Get On Queue). OFFLINE means that the bot has left the dreams, channel. Essay In Development! Since sometimes the channel doesn't says when the bot is back, or since the window is being refreshed every 60 seconds (default), the information about the offline bot might be wrong. Incase the bot is is social networking sites really offline and you request a pack, or a list, mIRC will automatically gets a message that the bot is on Readings Development no longer there, and you will hear a sound (Incase you didn't disable that sound). As you can see, the Get On Queue functions has a sub menu. Affects The Economy Essay! Clicking on Get On Queue will add the selected Pack to the Get On Queue list. Scheduled Get On Queue will let you schedule when the Get On Queue for this bot will start.

If you click on Essay in Political Development Open List, you will get a list of all bots which are on dreams the Get On Queue. You can remove Bots from in Political that list using this option (By removing the wanted Bots from the new window that opens). As you can also see, if you right click on a Bot, you get the Affects the Economy Essay, Slots (number of total download slots), Record Speed, Minimum Speed (if you download with lower speed than the on Readings in Development, minimum, then bot will terminate your download), and Current speed. This information helps you find out if the bot is good or not. Q: My friend told me that there is something called Klipboard. What it does and where did it go?

A: Lets say that you want to download more than 1 pack from the same bot. The Klipboard will automatically ask for the next pack which is in the Klipboard, from the bot that just finished transferring you a file. Older versions had the the follower, option to add packs to the Klipboard. Political Development! The new version does it automatically. If you double click on the first pack that you want to download from a Bot, and then double click (or choose Get this pack or Get On Queue), it will recognize that there is already a pack which is waiting for download, and will add the pack to the Klipboard. You can see the information about it in poem, the Status Window. Q: What Other Right Click menus exist? A: All the Political, windows has right click menus, and I already showed few of them.

If you click on the status window of mIRC (not the status window of XDCC Klipper), you get the following Right Click menu (I did a copy paste, so I won't have to Taking at an put the in Political, same picture 3 times. I combines few sub menus in the same picture. The arrows shows to which menu they belong): With this right click menu, you can configure XDCC Klipper, get Help (Support, E-mail, Forum, Website), Open the XDCC Klipper and/or the Status Window and/or the Filters window, Open the Offline Browser, search for a Look Old Spice, packs in the Offline Browser, clear the Essay in Development, Offline Browser, and create a registry key file (Which I explain about it later), and ever reload/unload XDCC Klipper or turn it Off/On. Another Right Click menu is Disorders Essay available when you right click on a Bot: The Bots listing lets you ask for pack listing from Bots.

XDCC List Packs will only ask for Essay Development, listing from the first selected bot. If you want to ask for listing from more than 1 Bot, then select the bots that you want to list, and click on List Selected Bots. You can stop the Disorders Essay, Listing using the Stop Multiple Listing With Get Pack you can ask for a pack (Packs 1- 30), or enter the number manually. With Get On Queue you can add a pack to the Get On Queue (Packs 1-30), or enter the number manually. XDCC Klipper catches the Syntax of the Bots (/ctcp or /msg, and on Readings Political it can also work with formats more complicated syntaxes): /msg bot something send #x or /ctcp bot something send #x , or ever /msg bot please please gimme pack #x. In you want to How Outsourcing the Economy Essay enter the Syntax Manually, you can click on the right option, and then you need to enter the Essay on Readings in Development, Syntax as: /msg bot something send or /ctcp bot something For Example: /msg ISO-09 gimme send. (Just copy paste what the bot tells you to write, and remove the the follower poem, #x or #Pack at Essay on Readings in Political, the end). Most of the times you don't have to do it since XDCC Klipper catches the syntax.

Q: Can you explain me more about the is social, Status Window? A: Yes I can. In the Status Window, you can find all the information you need about the downloads etc. It is important that you will work with it (so leave it opened), cause you will most likely have to do some Right clicking and stuff like that on Essay in that window. For example: If you are downloading a file, and you want to cancel it, then closing the transfer window )or clicking the Disorders Essay, cancel) will cancel the download, but will also cause the file to be resumed (after the Political Development, period you have set. The Follower Poem! Default is on Readings Political 150 seconds).

You can cancel the resuming from the Status Window. A smarter thing will be to cancel the download from the Status Window itself (It will automatically close the transfer window, and will not resume). You can also remove packs from the Get On Queue, or from the Klipboard. Catalysts Essay! Disable the scheduling (will not download the file), or start the scheduled download right now. If you have a pack in on Readings in, the Status Window which is what is social being downloaded, in Get On Queue, on Essay on Readings Development Queue, or other than in the Klipboard, removing the line will automatically search for the next pack from that bot which is in the Klipboard list, and will request it, so if you wanna cancel all the packs from a specific bot, start from the packs which are in the Klipboard first. Using the right click you can disable packs and do lots of actions. XDCC Klipper now has 1 status window for How Outsourcing the Economy, all the network, which will probably make your control of the downloads easier.

Furthermore, when you close mIRC (or when mIRC crashes), the content of this window is not being erased, so when you start mIRC again, it will auto-connect to the servers and channels and on Readings Political will request the packs again. As you can also see, then you download a file, the status window has the information about the percent and the current download speed of that pack. The information about the percent and the speed is being refreshed every 30 seconds. Another right click menus can be found in the Filters and the Offline Browser Windows. There is poem only 1 window from each kind which is on Readings Development common for all networks (Not like the XDCC Klipper window and the Status Window that every Network has its own windows). In the Catalysts in Cracking, Filters window, you get the packs sorted by the filters that you defined in the XDCC Klipper configuration. Here is how the Filters window looks like: Again, you can request a pack, Get On Queue, or clear the Filters window incase you want to change the Filters (and the old filters doesn't match your criteria's ) All the Essay in, windows Above (XDCC Klipper, Status Window, Filters window) are not being deleted if you disconnect from the network, BUT. if you also close mIRC they are being deleted. The rule doesn't apply on the Offline Browser (which some of you might already know of from version 3.4).

The Offline Browser makes a list of at an Old Spice all the Essay in Political, packs from all the networks in 1 window, and it is being saved in a file, so it is what networking sites not being deleted when you exit mIRC. It can be good for channels and networks that doesn't appear in Packetnews, packetSeek, etc (which are Search Engines). The Offline Browser Window looks very similar to this one (But with much more lines. On Readings In Political! Mine already exceeded the 6000 lines, and Essay I only have 3 Networks in the list): You can also request for pack, or add to the Get On Queue list, or just tell it to Essay on Readings in Political connect the server and Catalysts join the channel. Using the Search Packs will do a search inside the Offline Browser Window. This will Open a new window: Offline_Browser(search). Essay On Readings In Political! In this window, you have the sites, same right click menus as in Essay on Readings in Development, the offline browser.

TIP: You can do a search in the Offline Browser Window, and the do another search in the Offline_Browser(search) window. This can help you narrow the results. For example: First search: Matrix reloaded , Seconds search from the Taking Old Spice Ad Essay, Offline_Browser(search): SVCD. Q: What is those Packetnews and Essay Political Packetseek that you mentioned? A: Those are Search Engines that helps you find out the files that you are looking for. Affects Essay! XDCC Klipper has a build in Dialog that let you enter the search key words, select the search engine, and Essay on Readings in Political it automatically opens the browser.

If you right click on the mIRC status window, you can see an option Search with search engines. this will open the dialog which looks like this: It is very simple, and I think that there is nothing to psychology dreams explain. Do you have another questions? Q: Actually, I have. What are the E-mail functions and how do I use them? A: There are 3 e-mail functions in XDCC Klipper: xdccmail, xdccstat and xdccrun. The xdcctest is only used for testing incoming mail, and there for it is not a function. Incase you cant to Essay in Political check the incoming mail, you need to Disorders Essay send the e-mail account that is Essay on Readings in Political Development configured in XDCC Klipper an e-mail with the subject xdcctest. When XDCC Klipper will check the e-mail account again it will tell you that the test went OK.

The xdccmail function lets you tell your computer what to download by Personality Disorders, sending it an e-mail. This is good when you are away from the computer. The format of the e-mail must be: Subject: xdccmail VCode. (incase you didn't defined a verification code, leave the Vcode empy). Network Server Channel Bot Packs. Network Server Channel Bot Packs. Here is Essay on Readings Development a good example: You can tell XDCC Klipper to Essay have more than 1 pack from the Essay on Readings Political, same bot. You can also cancel packs using the xdccmail function.

The only Affects the Economy difference is that you don't need to put :start and :end. All you need to Essay in Political Development write is: :cancel Network Bot Pack. The xdccstat function lets you get downloads report by e-mail. The format of the e-mail must be: SUbject: xdccstat Vcode. (If you didn't define Verification code then leave the Vcode empty). The e-mail address is where the report will be sent to. A Look! You can tell XDCC Klipper to send the e-mail to more than 1 recipient if you put more than 1 :goback line. Here is a good example: The third E-mail function (xdccrun) can let you run programs my using e-mail (Incase you wanna run VNC or emule, but you are away from the computer, I mean far far away from the computer).

Since this function could be dangerous (for example: someone can run format c: /q /Y ), then this function can not run without a Verification Code. If you didn't define one, then you will not be able to use this function. Essay On Readings In Political! Further more, the Catalysts Used in Cracking, xdccrun has a double identification. You will also need to put your e-mail password in on Readings Political, the subject (So if someone wants to in Cracking Essay run programs in your computer, he must know both the Vcode and in Political Development the e-mail password). The e-mail must be on the following form:

Subject: xdccrun Vcode Password. Here is a good example: TIP: If you know of a certain programs that you will most likely gonna run, then create a batch file that runs them, and put it in the main directory of mIRC. Then, when you send the e-mail, you just need to write a short command: Q: What is the Registry Key Maker? A: The registry Key Maker creates a registry key in the main directory of mIRC, and inserting the key to Personality Disorders Essay your registry allows XDCC Klipper to have another special function that might be used by other websites. Essay In Development! You can choose which OS you have (9x or 2000/XP) and it will create the a Look Old Spice, registry key according your selection. The special function allows websites to on Readings in Political have a link in their website that will automatically tell XDCC Klipper what to download (Not using the e-mail functions). Clicking on a link will cause mIRC to open (incase it is Catalysts in Cracking closed), and it will connect to Political the server and download the file. If mIRC is networking sites already opened it will just open a new connection, and will try to download the file.

It is on Readings Development very similar to psychology dreams the known link: irc://server/channel which is Essay on Readings Political used by a lot of websites. The format of the link is: (It doesn't matter if you write #1 , #01 #001, cause XDCC Klipper automatically changes it to #001). This, I hope, will allow websites like packetnews and infabot to Used have direct links to on Readings Political the files.

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Action Verbs #8212; By Skills Categories. Remember to use the below action verbs when describing your skills and accomplishments in a resume or cover letterby doing so, you’ll maximize the Essay on Readings in Political, effectiveness of your accomplishments, and make potential employers take notice. Be sure to use these action verbs in their proper context. Always use action verbs in the past tense when describing responsibilities and Personality Essay accomplishments from Essay on Readings Development a previous job . Here’s an example: Trained, led, and supervised a team of content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of online classes. Psychology Dreams. Always use action verbs in the present tense when describing responsibilities and on Readings accomplishments in a current job . Remember, these are leads words that start off each descriptive bullet point of a job description. Disorders Essay. Train, lead, and supervise a team of content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of online classes.

Addressed Advertised Arbitrated Arranged Articulated Authored Clarified Collaborated Communicated Composed Condensed Conferred Consulted Contacted Conveyed Convinced Corresponded Debated Defined Developed Directed Discussed Drafted Edited Elicited Enlisted Explained Expressed Formulated Furnished Incorporated Influenced Interacted Interpreted Interviewed Involved Joined Judged Lectured Listened Marketed Mediated Moderated Negotiated Observed Outlined Participated Persuaded Presented Promoted Proposed Publicized Reconciled Recruited Referred Reinforced Reported Resolved Responded Solicited Specified Spoke Suggested Summarized Synthesized Translated Wrote. Acted Adapted Began Combined Composed Conceptualized Condensed Created Customized Designed Developed Directed Displayed Drew Entertained Established Fashioned Formulated Founded Illustrated Initiated Instituted Integrated Introduced Invented Modeled Modified Originated Performed Photographed Planned Revised Revitalized Shaped Solved. On Readings Political Development. Administered Adjusted Allocated Analyzed Appraised Assessed Audited Balanced Budgeted Calculated Computed Conserved Corrected Determined Developed Estimated Forecasted Managed Marketed Measured Netted Planned Prepared Programmed Projected Qualified Reconciled Reduced Researched Retrieved Slashed Sliced. Adapted Advocated Aided Answered Arranged Assessed Assisted Clarified Coached Collaborated Contributed Cooperated Counseled Demonstrated Diagnosed Educated Encouraged Ensured Expedited Facilitated Familiarized Furthered Guided Helped Insured Intervened Motivated Prevented Provided Referred Rehabilitated Represented Resolved Simplified Supplied Supported Volunteered. The Follower Poem. Administered Analyzed Appointed Approved Assigned Attained Authorized Chaired Considered Consolidated Contracted Controlled Converted Coordinated Decided Delegated Developed Directed Eliminated Emphasized Enforced Enhanced Established Executed Generated Handled Headed Hosted Improved Incorporated Increased Initiated Inspected Instituted Led Managed Merged Motivated Navigated Organized Originated Overhauled Oversaw Planned Presided Prioritized Produced Recommended Reorganized Replaced Restored Reviewed Scheduled Secured Selected Streamlined Strengthened Supervised Terminated.

Approved Arranged Catalogued Categorized Charted Classified Coded Collected Compiled Corrected Corresponded Distributed Executed Filed Generated Incorporated Inspected Logged Maintained Monitored Obtained Operated Ordered Organized Prepared Processed Provided Purchased Recorded Registered Reserved Responded Reviewed Routed Scheduled Screened Submitted Supplied Standardized Systematized Updated Validated Verified. Analyzed Clarified Collected Compared Conducted Critiqued Detected Determined Diagnosed Evaluated Examined Experimented Explored Extracted Formulated Gathered Inspected Interviewed Invented Investigated Located Measured Organized Researched Reviewed Searched Solved Summarized Surveyed Systematized Tested. Adapted Advised Clarified Coached Communicated Conducted Coordinated Critiqued Developed Enabled Encouraged Evaluated Explained Facilitated Focused Guided Individualized Informed Instilled Instructed Motivated Persuaded Simulated Stimulated Taught Tested Trained Transmitted Tutored. Essay In Political Development. Orlando Haynes is an author, speaker, CEO, and dreams founder of The Inside Recruiter LLC, a full service career coaching company with one mission: #8220;Taking you from the job seeker to the sought after.#8221; The Inside Recruiter offers a wide array of career enhancement services, including resume writing, interview coaching, job search assistance, career workshops, and much more. Orlando brings 14 years of on Readings Political Development, experience and insider knowledge to the game, and is ready to Personality Essay help job seekers realize their career goals and on Readings in Development dreams.

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format report essay Click on the highlighted text to see the comments. Computer systems computer systems. This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and its operation is Political, initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to the follower poem, four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. It is Essay on Readings in, concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is is social networking sites, also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras. The purpose of this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in on Readings in Political Development, the field.

By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and Disorders internet sites on Essay in Political Development the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common use today and Catalysts in Cracking Essay examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and Essay on Readings in Political software. The report then considers the effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology on the future development of scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a #039;reading machine#039;, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device could scan printed material and Personality Essay then compare each character to a set of standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the best match principle to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). Essay On Readings In Political. This reading machine was to form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines.

An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner. These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT) . Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The Follower. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use followed the Political drum scanner as the Affects Essay number of computer users increased and computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on a hard-drive or floppy disk. With the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and Essay Political Development enhanced by the user.

It is now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an in Cracking Essay entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer. This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an Essay in invaluable tool for Disorders adding graphics and text to documents and have been readily adopted by both business and domestic users. A scanner is a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an image into on Readings in Development binary data (0s and dreams 1s). In Political Development. This binary data can then be used to store the is social networking scanned image on a computer. A scanner recreates an image by using small electronic components referred to as the scanner#039;s #039;eyes#039; (Scanner tips 2000). The type of #039;eyes#039; used in Essay, today#039;s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT). These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from individual points on the page and translate it to digital signals that correspond to How Outsourcing Essay, the brightness of each point (Englander 2000). To create a file on the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000).

A scanning head, termed a row of #039;eyes#039;, reads over Essay on Readings Development the grid and assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and Catalysts Used Essay red. For example an Essay in Development aqua pixel would be saved as a number to represent the proportion of blue, green and red which represents the colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). There are five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners. Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology. Disorders Essay. As a result of on Readings Political Development, their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and contact image sensor#039;s (CISs). Drum scanners are difficult to operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the item to psychology dreams, be scanned on a glass cylinder rotating at high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996).

The most popular scanners for Essay general use are flatbed scanners. This type of scanner is highly versatile because it is able to what sites, scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners operate by placing the item to Essay Political, be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it. Catalysts Used In Cracking. A transparency adapter is used to scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and an automatic document feeder is available for Essay Political scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000) . Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent years, particularly for small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). Most models of dreams, sheet-fed scanners have an inbuilt document feeder to overcome the problem of manually feeding one sheet of Essay on Readings in Political, paper at is social sites a time. However the actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in distortion as the image to Essay, be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). A further limitation of psychology dreams, sheet-fed scanners is Essay in Political Development, that they are unable to psychology, scan three dimensional objects. This type of scanner is used to scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning. Essay Political Development. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in slide scanners do not reflect light from the image, but rather pass light through it. This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. To be able to scan small and detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result.

Slide scanners tend to be more expensive and less versatile than flatbed and sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to only scanning slides and film. These scanners, however, are well suited to users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of Catalysts Used in Cracking, slides (Scanner tips 2000). Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an image. These scanners are easy to use and on Readings in Political economical to purchase; however, their use is limited to text of up to four inches in what sites, diameter that does not require a high resolution. For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the Essay Political user must have a steady hand when scanning or the resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000). The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Resolution is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. It is used to describe the amount of detail in an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and is social sites Thomas 1996).

Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail. Scanners have two types of resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can actually read. A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of 300 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999) . This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. Essay Political Development. Some scanners stop the Catalysts Used scanning head more frequently as it moves down the on Readings Development page, giving an optical resolution of 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in the follower, one direction does not improve the result of the scan. The basic requirement for Political scanning detailed images and Disorders line art from photos or other printed originals is an on Readings in optical resolution of 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the Personality Essay minimum optical resolution is 1200 dpi. Interpolated resolution measures the in Political Development number of pixels a scanner is able to predict.

A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned. Personality Essay. This prediction is on Readings Political Development, then used to insert new pixels in between the actual ones scanned. This technique is less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the Used enlargement of scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an image to digital form. Scanners differ in the amount of data they record for each pixel within an Essay on Readings in Development image. The simplest kinds of scanners only record data related to black and white details and have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit depth required for scanning photographs and Taking a Look at an Ad Essay documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at least 30-bits. Thus for a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is Essay Political, required.

In general, current scanners have a bit depth of 24, which means that 8 bits of Catalysts Used in Cracking, information can be collected for the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). In Development. This high resolution allows scanners to produce images close to the follower, photographic quality. Dynamic range refers to the measurement of the range of in Political Development, tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and 4.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2.4. A range of the follower poem, this measurement is unable to provide high quality colour scans. A dynamic range of 2.8 and 3.2 is suited to professional purposes and can be found in high-end scanners. An even higher dynamic range of 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by drum scanners. A scanner, like any type of hardware, requires software. Typically the two most common pieces of software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and image editing software. Optical character recognition software translates the Essay Political information recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into a text file which can be edited.

Image editing software allows the tones and colours of an image to be manipulated for better printing and display. Image editing also gives filters to the follower poem, apply special effects to scanned images. The quality of scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and on Readings in Political Development further developed. More sophisticated image editing and optical character recognition software development is also resulting in superior quality scans. The Economy. Future advances are expected to result in the incorporation of specialized scanners into other types of technology such as the Essay on Readings Development recently developed digital camera. This device allows the user to take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of using film, the objects are scanned by the camera in a similar process to the functioning of a flatbed scanner. The relatively new area of sensor technology in the form of a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is expected to improve the functionality of scanners and the quality of Personality Disorders, images as it replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of sensors (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. 1). Developers have already been able to in Political, produce a CIS scanner which is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and cheaper to manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. However, the Catalysts in Cracking quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts. Further development of CIS technology is needed to improve image quality and colour, and to address the problem of a limited 300 or 600 dpi.

This report has identified five types of scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for Essay in Development specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners. The performance of these scanners is dependent upon their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and a Look Ad Essay software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent years in terms of weight, size, price and speed, and the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is anticipated to produce further benefits to Essay in Development, these areas as well as to scan quality. The impact of in Cracking Essay, these improvements is expected to increase the accessibility of scanner technology to a wider range of users and Essay Political its suitability for a wider range of purposes.

In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of the follower, different technologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and photocopiers. Essay In Development. This can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and weight. Anderson, D. The PC Guide. []. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and the follower poem halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA. Englander, I (2000). The Architecture of computer hardware and systems software. John Wiley, USA, p272. Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What#039;s now . What#039;s next. [] PC Magazines 20 October 1998.

8/4/00. Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photoCDs. [] 1998. 6/4/00. Scansoft scanner tips [] 2000.6/4/00. Sullivan. M. Types of scanners. [] 1996. 8/4/00. Clear statement of the four criteria used in the report to assess the on Readings Development technology.

Appropriately mentions an important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of future scanning technology. The comment on the quality of scanned images could be extended to dreams, include other desirable improvement outcomes; for example, faster scanning or 3D scanning. States the purpose and outlines the on Readings Development content of the report succinctly at How Outsourcing the start. Historical background is then provided. This level of detail should be placed in Section 2 #039;How Scanners Work#039;. Try to avoid repeating ideas in the body of the Essay Development report by grouping ideas on the same topic or subtopic together.

Good comment - provides an overall picture. It would be more appropriate to discuss such detailed aspects of scanning in the body of the report rather than the introduction. When a technical term such as this is used it should be explained and related to the previous sentence(s). This paragraph presents a clear definition of how a scanner works. The student#039;s understanding of the concept is evident because the definition has been clearly expressed in the student#039;s own words and the sources of the definition have been acknowledged.

The student has used information from only one source for Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5. This has severely limited the psychology dreams content of these sections of the report. This paragraph provides a good description of this criteria in simple clear language. It would be better to use a more recent reference here. A 1999 reference which states this is current typical resolution in an essay written in Essay on Readings Political, 2002 is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly. This concept is poorly explained.

The student needs to express the main point in more detail. The ideas in this paragraph are well expressed; however the source of these ideas has not been provided. Essay. The student needs to provide references. The concept of in Political, #039;dynamic range#039; has not been sufficiently explained here. The student needs to provide further detail and to provide references to the sources of information used. As in sites, the previous paragraph, the in Political Development concept has not been sufficiently explained. Further detail is required, especially in relation to the current capabilities and limitations of the software. References to the sources used are also required here.

This sentence is too general. It would be better to include more specific information about the kind of enhancements being referred to. This paragraph provides an appropriate amount of detail. Significant improvements to the field are identified in a brief discussion of new technology. However the student has again omitted references to the sources used in the discussion. This conclusion presents a brief summary of the main ideas that have been established in the report.

Unfortunately, it typifies the limitations of the the follower poem report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is required. A further improvement would be to provide more detail on how the current state and on Readings in future position of scanner technology is related to the broader field of computer technology. WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model! The number of sources used in an assignment depends on the quality of the sources - their currency, reliability, and the amount of relevant information. This reference list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and 4 commercial web sites. Catalysts In Cracking Essay. It does not meet the on Readings in Political requirements of the Catalysts Used assignment description. One source is used for a number of sections in the report. The reference list needs to include several academic journal articles and more magazine articles. This would enable a wider range of opinions and ideas to be included. For this report, it is best to in, only use commercial web sites published by major manufacturing companies which provide technical and educational information rather than online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by individuals.

Content and layout: The citations need to include appropriate details, and to be punctuated according to the Harvard Referencing System. For example, the country (USA) has been provided as the place of publication in a number of Personality, citations instead of the name of Essay on Readings in, a city or town, the copyright dates of many of the web sites has not been included, and the inclusion of a page number for a book (p.145) is not necessary in the reference list (it is required in the text if the student is making a direct quote). The use of punctuation in this reference list is inconsistent and not always appropriate. Problems? Questions? Comments?

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Can computers really grade essay tests? The inside track on Washington politics. *Invalid email address. New software described in this New York Times story allows teachers to leave essay grading to the computer. It was developed by EdX, the nonprofit organization that was founded jointly by Harvard University and on Readings in Political, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and that will give the software to other schools for Personality free. The story says that the software “uses artificial intelligence to grade student essays and short written answers.” Multiple-choice exams have, of course, been graded by Essay Political machine for Taking at an Ad Essay a long time, but essays are another matter. On Readings In Political Development! Can a computer program accurately capture the Catalysts Used in Cracking, depth, beauty, structure, relevance, creativity etc., of an Essay in Development essay?

The National Council of Teachers of English says, unequivocally, “no” in its newest position statement. Here it is: Machine Scoring Fails the Test. [A] computer could not measure accuracy, reasoning, adequacy of evidence, good sense, ethical stance, convincing argument, meaningful organization, clarity, and How Outsourcing the Economy, veracity in your essay. If this is true I don’t believe a computer would be able to measure my full capabilities and grade me fairly. — Akash, student. [H]ow can the feedback a computer gives match the Essay Political Development, carefully considered comments a teacher leaves in the margins or at poem, the end of your paper? — Pinar, student. (Responses to New York Times The Learning Network blog post, “How Would You Feel about Essay Political Development a Computer Grading Your Essays?”, 5 April 2013) Writing is a highly complex ability developed over years of practice, across a wide range of tasks and contexts, and with copious, meaningful feedback. Students must have this kind of sustained experience to meet the demands of higher education, the needs of a 21st-century workforce, the challenges of civic participation, and the realization of full, meaningful lives.

As the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) sweep into individual classrooms, they bring with them a renewed sense of the importance of writing to students’ education. Writing teachers have found many aspects of the CCSS to applaud; however, we must be diligent in at an Old Spice, developing assessment systems that do not threaten the possibilities for the rich, multifaceted approach to writing instruction advocated in the CCSS. Effective writing assessments need to account for the nature of writing, the ways students develop writing ability, and the role of the teacher in fostering that development. Research 1 on the assessment of student writing consistently shows that high-stakes writing tests alter the normal conditions of writing by denying students the opportunity to think, read, talk with others, address real audiences, develop ideas, and revise their emerging texts over time. Often, the results of such tests can affect the livelihoods of Essay teachers, the fate of schools, or the educational opportunities for students. In such conditions, the narrowly conceived, artificial form of the tests begins to subvert attention to other purposes and varieties of writing development in psychology, the classroom. Eventually, the Essay, tests erode the psychology dreams, foundations of excellence in writing instruction, resulting in students who are less prepared to meet the demands of their continued education and future occupations. Especially in Political Development, the transition from high school to college, students are ill served when their writing experience has been dictated by tests that ignore the ever-more complex and varied types and uses of writing found in higher education. Note : (1) All references to research are supported by what is social sites the extensive work documented in the annotated bibliography attached to this report. These concerns — increasingly voiced by on Readings in parents, teachers, school administrators, students, and members of the general public — are intensified by the use of machine-scoring systems to read and evaluate students’ writing. To meet the outcomes of the psychology, Common Core State Standards, various consortia, private corporations, and on Readings in, testing agencies propose to is social networking, use computerized assessments of Essay on Readings in student writing.

The attraction is obvious: once programmed, machines might reduce the Catalysts in Cracking Essay, costs otherwise associated with the human labor of on Readings in Development reading, interpreting, and evaluating the writing of our students. Yet when we consider what is lost because of poem machine scoring, the presumed savings turn into significant new costs — to Essay Development, students, to our educational institutions, and to society. Here’s why: Computers are unable to recognize or judge those elements that we most associate with good writing (logic, clarity, accuracy, ideas relevant to a specific topic, innovative style, effective appeals to audience, different forms of organization, types of persuasion, quality of evidence, humor or irony, and effective uses of repetition, to name just a few). Using computers to “read” and evaluate students’ writing (1) denies students the chance to have anything but limited features recognized in what networking sites, their writing; and (2) compels teachers to ignore what is most important in writing instruction in order to teach what is least important.

Computers use different, cruder methods than human readers to judge students’ writing. For example, some systems gauge the sophistication of vocabulary by measuring the average length of words and how often the words are used in a corpus of texts; or they gauge the development of ideas by counting the length and number of sentences per paragraph. Computers are programmed to Essay Development, score papers written to very specific prompts, reducing the incentive for teachers to develop innovative and creative occasions for writing, even for assessment. Computers get progressively worse at scoring as the length of the writing increases, compelling test makers to design shorter writing tasks that don’t represent the How Outsourcing Affects the Economy, range and variety of writing assignments needed to prepare students for the more complex writing they will encounter in college. Computer scoring favors the most objective, “surface” features of writing (grammar, spelling, punctuation), but problems in these areas are often created by the testing conditions and are the most easily rectified in normal writing conditions when there is time to revise and edit. Privileging surface features disproportionately penalizes nonnative speakers of English who may be on a developmental path that machine scoring fails to recognize. Conclusions that computers can score as well as humans are the result of humans being trained to score like the computers (for example, being told not to make judgments on Essay in Political Development, the accuracy of information). Computer scoring systems can be “gamed” because they are poor at working with human language, further weakening the validity of their assessments and separating students not on the basis of writing ability but on dreams, whether they know and can use machine-tricking strategies. Computer scoring discriminates against students who are less familiar with using technology to write or complete tests. Further, machine scoring disadvantages school districts that lack funds to provide technology tools for every student and Essay in Political Development, skews technology acquisition toward devices needed to at an, meet testing requirements. Computer scoring removes the purpose from written communication — to Essay on Readings, create human interactions through a complex, socially consequential system of meaning making — and sends a message to students that writing is not worth their time because reading it is not worth the time of the people teaching and Old Spice Ad Essay, assessing them.

What Are the Alternatives? Together with other professional organizations, the National Council of Teachers of English has established research-based guidelines for effective teaching and assessment of on Readings in writing, such as the Standards for the Assessment of Reading and Writing (rev. ed., 2009), the Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing (2011), the NCTE Beliefs about the Teaching of Writing (2004), and Catalysts Used in Cracking Essay, the Framework for 21st Century Curriculum and Assessment (2008, 2013). In the broadest sense, these guidelines contend that good assessment supports teaching and learning. Specifically, high-quality assessment practices will. encourage students to become engaged in literacy learning, to reflect on Essay on Readings Political, their own reading and writing in productive ways, and to set respective literacy goals; yield high-quality, useful information to inform teachers about curriculum, instruction, and the assessment process itself; balance the need to assess summatively (make final judgments about the quality of student work) with the need to assess formatively (engage in ongoing, in-process judgments about Catalysts Used what students know and can do, and on Readings Development, what to How Outsourcing the Economy Essay, teach next); recognize the complexity of literacy in Essay in, today’s society and reflect that richness through holistic, authentic, and varied writing instruction; at their core, involve professionals who are experienced in teaching writing, knowledgeable about students’ literacy development, and is social networking sites, familiar with current research in literacy education. A number of effective practices enact these research-based principles, including portfolio assessment; teacher assessment teams; balanced assessment plans that involve more localized (classroom- and on Readings Political, district-based) assessments designed and administered by Essay classroom teachers; and “audit” teams of teachers, teacher educators, and writing specialists who visit districts to review samples of student work and Essay in Development, the curriculum that has yielded them. We focus briefly here on portfolios because of the extensive scholarship that supports them and the positive experience that many educators, schools, and school districts have had with them. Engaging teams of Taking a Look Ad Essay teachers in evaluating portfolios at on Readings in Political Development, the building, district, or state level has the Affects the Economy Essay, potential to honor the challenging expectations of the CCSS while also reflecting what we know about effective assessment practices. Portfolios offer the in Development, opportunity to.

look at student writing across multiple events, capturing growth over time while avoiding the limitations of “one test on one day”; look at the range of writing across a group of students while preserving the individual character of each student’s writing; review student writing through multiple lenses, including content accuracy and use of resources; assess student writing in How Outsourcing the Economy Essay, the context of local values and goals as well as national standards. Just as portfolios provide multiple types of data for assessment, they also allow students to learn as a result of engaging in the assessment process, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. Students gain insight about in Development their own writing, about ways to identify and describe its growth, and about how others — human readers — interpret their work. The process encourages reflection and goal setting that can result in dreams, further learning beyond the assessment experience. Similarly, teachers grow as a result of administering and on Readings in Political, scoring the portfolio assessments, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. This embedded professional development includes learning more about what is social networking sites typical levels of writing skill found at a particular level of schooling along with ways to identify and describe quality writing and growth in writing. The discussions about collections of writing samples and criteria for assessing the writing contribute to a shared investment among all participating teachers in the writing growth of all students. Further, when the Essay Political Development, portfolios include a wide range of artifacts from learning and writing experiences, teachers assessing the portfolios learn new ideas for classroom instruction as well as ways to design more sophisticated methods of assessing student work on a daily basis. Several states such as Kentucky, Nebraska, Vermont, and California have experimented with the development of the follower poem large-scale portfolio assessment projects that make use of teams of teachers working collaboratively to assess samples of in Political Development student work.

Rather than investing heavily in assessment plans that cannot meet the goals of the CCSS, various legislative groups, private companies, and educational institutions could direct those funds into dreams, refining these nascent portfolio assessment systems. In Political! This investment would also support teacher professional development and enhance the quality of instruction in classrooms — something that machine-scored writing prompts cannot offer. In 2010, the federal government awarded $330 million to two consortia of states “to provide ongoing feedback to teachers during the course of the school year, measure annual school growth, and move beyond narrowly focused bubble tests” (United States Department of Education). Further, these assessments will need to align to the new standards for learning in psychology, English and Development, mathematics. This has proven to be a formidable task, but it is achievable.

By combining the already existing National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessment structures for evaluating school system performance with ongoing portfolio assessment of student learning by educators, we can cost-effectively assess writing without relying on flawed machine-scoring methods. By doing so, we can simultaneously deepen student and educator learning while promoting grass-roots innovation at the classroom level. For a fraction of the cost in time and money of building a new generation of machine assessments, we can invest in rigorous assessment and teaching processes that enrich, rather than interrupt, high-quality instruction. Our students and Personality Essay, their families deserve it, the Development, research base supports it, and psychology, literacy educators and administrators will welcome it.