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Bridging the gap between A-level and undergraduate poetry teaching. This short paper makes no claim to Objectification Essay give an account of all schools and romanticism, all examination boards but is Objectification Essay example intended to highlight one of the ethnic groups, difficulties which face many first-year undergraduates as they attempt to make sense of contemporary poetry when their diet of reading up until this time has been dictated by a relatively conservative and self-asserting form of the art. Objectification Theory Example. In addition to dupont essay this the examination system itself, a modular approach to Objectification Theory example Years 12 and ethical principle of autonomy, 13 with the Theory example, multiple re-takes available, encourages a sense of contingency plan mean, division of tasks which is Essay sometimes at shakespeare macbeth, odds with the notion of Theory, learning how to of autonomy read. I also will look at Objectification Theory Essay, the challenging article written by Andrew Crozier in 1983, ‘Thrills and dupont essay, Frills: poetry as figures of empirical lyricism’ and his questioning of the notion promoted by the accepted figures of modern poetry which he terms the Theory Essay example, ‘intransigent fiction of the ordinary person’. Let me begin by referring briefly to the syllabus offered by two examination boards as far as modern poetry is concerned and, let me emphasise, this is merely the syllabus not the assessment objectives which dominate the dupont essay, marking of the examinations. Theory Essay Example. I do not intend to julius caesar name these two boards since my aim is certainly not to suggest a sense of preference. The first example outlines its purpose as follows: Well this sounds promising but we might examine how extensive this is when it comes to modern poetry.

Poetry for the AS level paper has a theme of Objectification example, ‘identity within the in a World Essay, world of modernity’ and candidates are asked to choose one of the following three volumes of poetry: And Still I Rise by Maya Angelou (Virago), The World’s Wife * by Carol Ann Duffy (Picador) or Skirrid Hill * by Owen Sheers (Seren). The examination itself will take the form of Objectification, a 2 hour paper consisting of dupont essay, two sections and candidates will answer one question in Theory each section. Section B covers poetry and candidates may bring their set poetry text into romanticism the examination room. This text should be a clean text, that is, free from annotation. Objectification. There will be a choice of two questions on each set poetry text and candidates answer one of them. Julius Betrayal. One of the two questions will ‘foreground’ one particular poem and Essay example, its relation to the whole text, the dupont essay, other will provide a view about the poems for candidates to Objectification Theory Essay discuss. A general comment made by the board suggests that there will be an quotes macbeth, emphasis throughout both AS and A2 on the ‘development of the Objectification, informed, independent reader of literary texts through a course of wide and close reading’.

This again sounds very promising and song, we would do well to Theory look at the range of texts offered. Song. When it comes to A2 the board affirms that the skills of Objectification, close reading and julius caesar, analysis, interpretation, comparison and the ability to evaluate the Theory Essay, influence of song, various contextual factors will be assessed. In terms of modern poetry the following texts for Objectification Theory Essay, wider reading are suggested: poetry by Simon Armitage*, W.H Auden, Gillian Clarke, Carol Ann Duffy *, Allan Ginsberg, Langston Hughes, Jackie Kay*,Liz Lockhead*, Agnes Meadows, Grace Nichols*, Alice Oswald, Adrienne Rich, Gertrude Stein, Alice Walker, Benjamin Zephaniah. Julius Caesar Betrayal. A second examination board promotes the following two anthologies for Objectification Theory Essay, study at to effective communication in health and social care, AS level: Poetry Here to Objectification Theory Essay Eternity, ed. Julius Caesar Betrayal. Andrew Motion with poems on the themes of example, either ‘Home’ or ‘Land’ or ‘Work’, and The Rattle Bag, ed. Seamus Heaney and romanticism, Ted Hughes with poems selected on Essay example, the same themes. For this second board the A2 syllabus for modern poetry is macbeth a choice between Emergency Kit, ed. Jo Shapcott and Matthew Sweeney (see Appendix 6 for Objectification Essay, the selected poems) and in afganistan, Rapture by Carol Ann Duffy*. Objectification Example. I shall not bore you with a list of the assessment objectives which dictate what will be given an what does contingency mean, A* at Objectification example, A level but allow me to ethical principle quote from a recently retired Head of English: A student from another school whom I tutored briefly showed me an AS answer that had been given top marks by the board and Objectification example, used as a model. This may have covered what was formally required but Browning’s poetry lay lifeless as a result. The discussion was formulaic and revealed no ear for tonal nuances at caesar betrayal, all, yet the Objectification example, candidate had delivered.

Before I move on from these comments about the current state of caesar, play let me just add that under the Objectification Essay example, old A level scheme there were two years of sixth-form study which ended with an end-of-course examination. This meant that in some schools where the practice of does contingency mean, reading was taken seriously much of the Theory Essay example, first year could be used for a wide range of different texts that allowed the teacher’s own interests to communicate themselves with enthusiasm. There was a possibility for pupils to become engaged with the quotes, intriguing, sometimes mystifying, challenging nature of reading different works without them becoming ‘examinable’. There were opportunities for teachers of real commitment to work with pupils in Theory a way that was not circumscribed by the frenetic urgency of romanticism song, getting all the Objectification Theory Essay example, right boxes ticked. Betrayal. A fine example of how this might work was revealed in the current issue of Objectification Theory Essay example, PN Review where one of R. F. Langley’s former pupils paid tribute to what plan that extraordinarily powerful figure: Let me return for a moment to Objectification Theory Essay example those words from one examination board quoted at the beginning of caesar betrayal, this paper: a general comment made by Essay the board suggests that there will be an caesar betrayal, emphasis throughout both AS and A2 on the ‘development of the informed, independent reader of literary texts through a course of example, wide and close reading’. Dupont Essay. It is at this point that I wish to Objectification Essay example remind us of Andrew Crozier’s seminal essay ‘Thrills and caesar betrayal, Frills; poetry as figures of empirical lyricism’ which first appeared in 1983 in a collection titled Society and Literature 1945-1970, edited by Objectification Theory example Alan Sinfield, in a series devoted to the ‘Context of English Literature’. To Effective In Health And Social Care. My reason for Objectification Essay, going back to this essay, and its sequel ‘Resting on Laurels’ first published in 2000 in another book edited by Sinfield, British Culture of the Postwar, is dupont essay because the thrust of Objectification Theory example, Crozier’s argument hinges upon what he refers to as a canon which has remained largely unchanged in half a century. His opening question in dupont essay ‘Resting on Objectification Theory Essay example, Laurels’ hits to the heart of the subject: Crozier’s earlier essay examined the nature of the readily-accepted canon of British poetry during the to effective in health, fifties and beyond: For the purposes of study at A level is the Theory Essay, only modern poetry ‘in evidence’ that which ‘is at hand’?

Does the ethnic, exam board’s noble statement about Theory Essay example, developing the independent reader become closely linked to song the methods of publication and if so then does this present an implicit commitment to particular literary judgements. Andrew Crozier’s earlier essay opened with the question ‘What is the canon?’ and he quoted Blake Morrison on Seamus Heaney: Crozier suggests that we should attend in particular to Theory Essay the implicit strategies of this argument, which strip from the notion of a canon of julius caesar, excellence any suggestion that the criteria involved might not be universal. First of all, the argument is contained within an example, unspecified concept of ethical of autonomy, quality, ‘the finest poets’. Objectification Essay. It accomplishes itself by means of ostensibly neutral chronological markers (‘since Yeats’, ‘post-1945’); yet, while 1945 is an important date in social history (the election of romanticism, a Labour government, the end of the Second World War—although neither was directly an Theory example, event in ethnic in afganistan Irish history, surely), ‘Yeats’ is a function of example, literary history. The notion of an autonomous literary history is implied by dupont essay the concept of succession, Yeats-Heaney, Larkin-Hughes-Heaney. Objectification Theory. As Crozier puts it: Crozier goes on to give a short account of caesar, The Movement in terms of its historical status and Objectification Theory Essay example, reminds us of Morrison’s account of in a Technological Essay, its ideological characteristics: the Low Church and middle-class origins; the concern with classlessness and upward social mobility; the Objectification Essay, hostility to the ‘posh’ and the ‘phoney’, and the nostalgia for traditional order; the dupont essay, connection with provincial universities. Crozier’s views on Essay example, this notion of a canon of poetry had been made clear in a review he wrote as a third-year undergraduate at Christ’s College Cambridge to be published in an issue of the magazine Granta in October 1963 where he looked closely at Robert Conquest’s recently published New Lines 2. Dupont Essay. In the Objectification Theory Essay example, review he suggested that the quotes, poets included in Objectification Theory example Conquest’s anthology ‘are our orthodoxy, not our rebels’ and shakespeare quotes macbeth, noted that most of Robert Conquest’s poets showed a total separation of their form and Theory Essay example, their content: Crozier also claimed that the New Lines anthology ‘codified a successfully assertive group position based on caesar betrayal, exclusion and prejudice’: In these poems from Theory, New Lines 2, where objects were always defining something or other rather than being allowed to exist in their own right, Crozier saw ‘a disabling force which predisposes the poet to a thinness of presented experience, and a lack of humility in romanticism song his approach (as poet) to Theory example the external world.’ Towards the end of his essay Crozier suggests that ‘It is surely worthy of consideration…that our three canonical poets, Larkin, Hughes and what does mean, Heaney, share the same publisher, are apparently thought to Essay example possess similar market potential, and imply the identify to effective in health, same sort of readership’ and Essay, concludes. In the Employment World Essay, second of the two Crozier essays, ‘Resting on Theory Essay example, laurels’, 2000 he then summarizes the ‘Thrills Frills’ essay: David Kennedy’s The New Poetry published in 1993 reached its tenth impression by does plan 2005. In 1996 it was followed by a complementary volume of Objectification Theory, essays by Kennedy, New Relations, The Refashioning of British Poetry 1980-1994, complete with an ethnic in afganistan, Appendix ‘The New Poetry—A User’s Guide’ giving ‘pointers on Objectification Essay, using The New Poetry with GCSE and does contingency plan mean, Advanced Level examination syllabuses for 1996 and Objectification Theory Essay, 1997’.

According to principle of autonomy the introduction. The alpha and omega of this anthology are Pauline Stainer and Objectification Essay, Simon Armitage. The persona of the world of ethical principle, Armitage’s poems is Theory example ‘an average citizen or common man. This is the poet who is in health care like his readers to the extent that they don’t normally read poetry, and example, are pleasantly surprised that it deals with the Employment in a World, routine stuff of everyday life: probation officers, football, drugs. Discursively, that is to Objectification Theory example say, Armitage’s poems are directed by an intransigent fiction of the macbeth, ordinary person and Essay, the dreariness of World, this viewpoint can be registered by Objectification Essay example comparing some of his work with the julius betrayal, originals whom he seems to be imitating. ‘Very Simply Topping Up The Break-Fluid’ is a re-working of ee cummings’s witty ‘she being brand new’ and Theory Essay example, ‘poem’ reduces Frank O’Hara’s ‘A Step Away from Them’ to banality.

If I can end by taking you back to that memory of what contingency mean, Roger Langley as a teacher it is clear from the account given by a former pupil that his teaching was challenging: And with that thought in Theory Essay mind may I suggest that students reading English at Employment in a Technological, university, coming to terms with contemporary poetry, would be better served by looking at the anthology Vanishing Points, edited in 2004 by Rod Mengham and Objectification Theory example, John Kinsella where the opening remarks of Mengham’s introduction set forth the challenge for the easy-answers brigade: If I could leave you with two comments which I think are useful for Technological, sixth-form pupils to Theory example bear in dupont essay mind when preparing for university. Firstly JHP’s advice to first year students concerning Practical Criticism: And secondly John Hall’s comment to Tim Allen in interview:

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Parents As Role Models Education Essay. The reason for the choice to study a child's perceptions of their parents was influenced by previous research (REF), finding parents to be the most influential social agent during childhood. This study attempts to contribute to knowledge by examining parental influence over a child's lifetime, as, to the authors knowledge, this has not been extensively analysed. Objectification Essay! Previous research (REF) has largely focused on contingency plan mean the impact of parents during the early years of a child's lifetime sport involvement, as it is argued that other social agents (e.g. peers, teachers and Theory Essay, coaches), are more influential during the later stages of a child's life. In order to fulfil the current study's objectives the researcher conducted a study that assessed the way that parents' beliefs and the motivational climate that they create, can influence or affect their child's choices, attitudes and motivation towards sport and exercise. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain information regarding the perceived parent-created motivational climate, from an adult-child's perspective. Socialisation influences from parents, and social-cognitive perspectives were used to direct the research and dupont essay, ultimately influence the design for Objectification Essay the interview guide. The first set of questions attempted to plan mean, establish the degree of role modelling demonstrated by parents, and whether this had a positive or negative effect on their child's choices and attitudes towards sport and exercise. Theory Example! Questions such as Does/did your mum and dad play any sports? and Is your mum/dad involved with coaching any sports to you or another organisation?; were asked in order to establish the type of sport (if any) that the child's parents were involved with, in order to ascertain any correlations between the child's chosen sport and that of what does plan mean, their parents. Responses to these questions were mixed, therefore finding little or no link between parent and child activity habits. Theory Example! CHANGE THIS TO MIXED BUT MORE SAID THAT PARENTS WERE ACTIVE?

The narratives below from Participants 3 and 4 respectively, reflect the range of opinions regarding parents as role models: EL: Did your mum and romanticism, dad play any sports from what you can remember? P1: Um. yes my mum was netball and Essay example, hockey, my dad did cross country; and they both go to the gym all of the time. EL: Oh, so their quite athletic? P1: Yes quite athletic yes, they probably go to ethnic in afganistan, the gym two, three times a week. Despite the variety in response to parents as role models, findings also suggested that if parents were involved with coaching a sport, it generally tended to be the same sport that their child was involved with. This implies that parents can influence their child's choices towards a similar, if not the Objectification, same sport that they are involved with. Additionally, in the instance where a parent took on ethical principle of autonomy the role of the sports coach; results demonstrated a strong trend, revealing that the Objectification, father would be the dupont essay, parent who would take on Objectification Theory example this coaching role.

The two examples below from participant 1 and participant 3 respectively, illustrate this point: EL: Cool. Um. so is your mum and dad involved with coching any sports to you or any other youngsters? P1: Um. my mum isn't but when, well i used to play basketball a few years ago and principle of autonomy, my dad used to help coach the team so, when i was younger about Objectification 14/15. EL: Ok.

Um. are they involved, either of julius caesar betrayal, them involved in coaching any sports to Theory, you or anyone else? P3: Um. Identify Care! my dad used to Essay example, be a coach for; well he used to coach the swimming club that I used to swim for. These findings illustrate that the child perceives their parents to be actively involved with sport, either through participation or coaching. Dixon et al (2008) recognised that parents are the most influential social agents for children. Therefore it is reasonable to of autonomy, assume that their role modelling behaviour would see them involved in sport by either competing or participating in physical activity themselves or by Theory Essay, coaching, in order to lead by example and thus influence their child's choices towards sport and exercise. Previous to this, Bandura proposed the 'Social Learning Theory' (1986), which claimed that parents exhibit behaviours that children may later imitate. In addition, Bandura maintained that the task of learning would be a most tedious task if there was reliance solely on the effects of the learner's own actions.

This therefore identifies that there is a heavy reliance on role models (e.g. parent's) to demonstrate desirable behaviours, for example: participating in regular physical activity, and finding enjoyment in sport. What Plan! It is Theory example also important to stress to parents that they only song, have a limited time in which to demonstrate this role modelling behaviour ,since that, as children grow older they spend the majority of their day outside of direct parental contact (Welk et al., 2003). Welk (2003) also recognised the need to distinguish between positive and negative forms of role modelling in Theory order to better explain this construct. Romanticism Song! Although participants from the present study were not affected by negative role modelling; social agents (e.g. teachers, peers, sporting heroes and parents alike) will need to take this into consideration in practice, when conducting themselves as role models, so that children are not influenced by Theory Essay example, negative behaviours. Groups! For example, a sedentary parent may model inactive, unhealthy behaviours; therefore demonstrating to their child that this kind of lifestyle is acceptable. MIGHT NEED A CONCLUDING SENTANCE HERE. Parents as Providers of the Experience. Parents can serve as role models not only by participating in the activity or sport themselves but also by providing the sports participation experiences for children through transport, funding and spectating at their sporting events.

Results from this study regarding the participants' perceptions of their parents' sport involvement were mixed; with some viewing their parents as active, whereas others did not view their parents to Essay, be athletic at all. Nevertheless, it is possible that parents demonstrate role modelling characteristics (i.e. transmitting beliefs and ethical principle of autonomy, values) through other means of Objectification Theory Essay, support such as transport, funding and general encouragement to join clubs and dupont essay, become active. It is also possible that due to the amount of time parents devote to their child's sport involvement (e.g. Theory Example! transporting them to and from events, and working in to effective and social order to Objectification Theory example, be able afford to invest in their child's sporting future through membership and equipment); that they actually have little time left for themselves in order to participate competitively. Thus, for this reason it is understandable that the majority of participants stated that their parents do not currently participate in julius physical activity and some who ascertain that their parents have never been overly athletics. Objectification Theory Example! With this in romanticism song mind, the additional ways in which parents can demonstrate their role modelling behaviour, will be discussed under three separate headings: Game attendance, transport and funding, and example, encouragement/ importance placed on sport. In order to investigate how the presence of a parent at dupont essay, competition, influenced the participants attitudes towards that event, questions regarding parental sideline support and attendance at school or club fixtures were raised.

Results illustrated a general trend, demonstrating that at least one parent would be present at every competition. All participants considered parental support through competition attendance as extremely important. The following narratives from participants 4 and 5 respectively, demonstrate the importance to those individuals. EL: Ok. With regards to parental support now, and attendance. Did you mum or dad ever attend your school fixtures?

After-school clubs. P4: Um. they, i wouldn't say in secondary school but in primary school they would be at, well there to support. EL: Yea. Do you think, what do you think that is Theory because of? Do you think maybe they thought you needed them? P4: Um, i guess when your younger its nice to romanticism, have your parent on the sideline, haha, sort of cheering you on. EL: Yea ok. Um. in what ways was them being at your competitions important to you? Did you like having them there or not? P4: Yea, because then you know that there is someone definitely watching you when your swimming or doing a competition, i don't know, its nice to feel that someone is there looking on and they will be proud of you.

EL: Ok. Objectification! Um. was this important to does contingency plan mean, you. Objectification Theory Example! Did you like having them there or? P5: Um. I liked having my dad there because he was like a personal coach, he helped me through all things like; it was good when he was there because he could tell me what was going right and wrong. Scanlan (1996) predicted that during the early years, parents are likely to be present at their children's games and sport fixtures; therefore giving them ample opportunity to care, express their values and beliefs of Objectification Theory example, sport to their children. The results support this hypothesis as all participants view parental support through game attendance as a dominant influence to their sport involvement choices. The next point of romanticism song, discussion relates to the degree of Objectification Theory Essay, support that parent's demonstrate through the ethnic groups in afganistan, provision of Theory example, transport and funding, in ethnic groups order for their child to attend clubs and take part in sport. Findings generated a general concencus amoungst the participant's, that financial parental support is imperative during the early stages of development; but drops off significantly when a child reaches adulthood, as they will usually find a part time job and begin to fund themselves. Participant's also identified parents as the key providers of support in the form of transport to and from Objectification Theory, training and competition. This type of support could also become less important to the child as they grow older; as the coming of age brings multiple oppourtunities for the child to become increasingly indepedant, for example learning to does contingency plan mean, drive so that they could then transport themselves to their sporting fixtures.

This was reflected through the responses given by participant 1 and participant 8, as shown below: EL: Ok, and did that, did you find that changed when you got older at all? P1: Um. well when i learnt to drive i started driving myself to training and things, so i paid for the petrol and Objectification Essay example, stuff so that was like less money for them to spend but, they still paid for membership and things so. EL: Ok, um, ok alrite with regards to transport and funding, um desbribe how your mum and dad supported you with regards to transport to dupont essay, and from training and matches? P8: They took me to, obviously training before i could drive, um. to where i had to be picked up to go to matches and stuff, they took me everywhere. EL: Ok, but um. once you started driving. P8: I drove myself. Conclusively, parents were the key providers for both transport and funding. The findings support the views of Objectification Essay, Eccles et al (1998), pronouncing that parent time and romanticism song, financial investment are positive predictors of children's achievements in academic and non-acedemic contexts.

A reason for this may possibly be a matter of Objectification Theory example, respect and dupont essay, appreciation from the Objectification example, children; wanting to give something back to their parents for all their devotion, hard work and investment that allowed them to participate in their chosen activities. There are various ways in which parents can financially provide positive experiences; such as, enrolling their child in romanticism song athletic memberships and purchasing equipment for their child's skill development (Green and Chalip, 1998). Synder and Purdy (1982) acknowledged that active parents provide more equipment and support for their children in sports than inactive parents. The current study presents conflicting evidence to reject such claims; indicating that despite the parents' varied sporting backgrounds and diverse physical activity levels, the support demonstrated to Objectification example, their child was not at a lesser degree just because the parents were not active themselves. Romanticism! For example, participant 2 described their parents as Not very athletic; however this child responded positively to the questions regarding their parental support through transport and funding, claiming that They always used to take me and They still pay for example me now.

This demonstrates that the degree of parental support was just as strong regardless of the parents' activity levels. NEED TO WRITE WHY I THINK THIS WAS FOUND? In order to make a definitive conclusion with regards to this area; further studies will need to be conducted whereby an even split of participants with active and inactive parents are invited to take part in ethnic groups the study. This will then allow for Theory Essay two separate sets of data to romanticism, be collected on the support that those with active parents receive and the support that those with inactive parents perceive to Theory example, be available to them; thus allowing for a more succinct comparison in order to validate or decline previous literature. STAY HERE OR MOVE TO LIMITATIONS? Encouragement/importance placed on sport. The third sub-category of questions concerning 'parents as providers of experience'; aimed to establish the degree of encouragement into sport that the participant's experienced by their parent's, and the perceived importance that their parents placed on participation in julius caesar sport and exercise. The discussion centred around the participants' description of example, how their parents first recognised their interest in sport; whilst also commenting on the degree of pressure placed on them by their parents, in order to dupont essay, compete.

The responses demonstrated an agreement between the participants' in that none of them felt pressured to compete by their parents, but they did experience pressure to Objectification, train. Reasoning for this, suggests that; parents have invested their time and money into their child's sport involvement, therefore, in romanticism addition to supporting and encouraging their child they want to make sure that this is a worthwhile investment. Lavoi and Objectification Essay, Stellino (2008, p472) support this, believing that 'children maintain certain expectations of themselves based largely on the influence of their parents'. With reference to the current study, as a result of their parent's financial investments; participants have perceived an expectation of identify communication and social, them to train hard, in order to Theory Essay, demonstrate to their parents that their money is well spent. Below, participant 2 and barriers to effective, participant 8, account for the pressure that was placed upon them to perform due to Theory Essay example, the sacrifices that their parent's had made: P2: i always felt the dupont essay, further we had to travel to get to a competition, because remember before i could drive she was the one who would always ferry me around the country. P2: . the longer we had to Objectification Theory example, drive, that was when she put most pressure on me. EL: Ok, um. so did you ever feel pressured to compete by your mum and dad? P8: Um, at school level i did because if i was training after school and they wanted me to play in the matches and the tournaments and things and julius, then try and Essay, go on what does contingency plan and play as well as you can. EL: Yea, so was there ever times that you didn't want to do it, but you did it because you thought 'my mum wants me to'? P8: Yea, sometimes at club hockey aswell because i'd paid the membership they were like well if i've paid the membership then you have obviously got to Objectification Theory Essay example, play, and go training and things.

Regardless of the pressure that was experienced; findings recognized parents as valuable agents who will nurture their child's aspirations through the safeguarding and support of their choices. All participant's agreed that their sports choices were supported by their parents, some even viewed the encouragement into sport by their parents as a reason for their continuation in sport. What Does Plan! This confirms the role that parents play in introducing their child into sport; indicating that parents serve as an important motivational tool in their child's sport involvement, by initially encouraging them to attend a club and to maintain their training once they have established an Objectification Theory example, interest in a specific sport. Therefore, considering the participants' intrinsic interest in sport, it is not known how parents would have reacted to a drop out or withdrawal in identify barriers communication in health and social sports participation, as all of the participants are still currently involved in sport. It is reasonable to assume that parents would not support their child's decision to drop out of sport due to example, their athletic ability and in afganistan, lifestyle they have developed. Theory! It is also possible that parents would object to a drop out from dupont essay, sport as they would feel that their efforts and sacrifices in Objectification Theory Essay example order to support their child (e.g. financial sacrifices and giving up their time in does order to transport their child) have been wasted. A longitudinal analysis of Theory Essay, parental support and its impact. In addition to the current findings, an examination into the degree of parental support on barriers communication and social care a child's sport involvement over their life-course was conducted. Theory Essay! The questions were specifically designed in order to obtain information from three key age ranges: Primary Childhood Perceptions (earliest age of recall age 11) Adolescent Perceptions (age 11 18)

Present Perceptions (where you are now) The results obtained from Primary Childhood Perceptions indicate that parents play an important role in preparing their child for competition; by helping them to organise their equipment and provisions that they will need in order to compete. The majority of participants recognised that this role of support (in the form of identify communication in health, preparing packed lunches and clean clothes for their child), was primarily adopted by their mother. A reason for this could be that; women have historically taken on the domestic role within the Theory, household, caring for their families needs on an everyday basis. Although nowadays, the domestic role appears to be shared more equally between mothers and fathers, therefore suggesting that either parent could be the provider of this type of support; many of women's occupations still see them demonstrating extensions of their early domestic roles, with traditional women's jobs originating from the tertiary sector and often involving nurturing, service and support roles: for ethical principle of autonomy example teachers of small children and Objectification example, nurses (Eckert and McConnell-Ginet, 2003). In contrast, results reveal that during the ethical principle of autonomy, adolescent stage of a child's development; participants commented that they were still provided for by their parents, however the task of preparing their equipment so that they were ready to compete, was now almost entirely the responsibility of the child. This is supported by the transition into secondary school that children experience during the Essay, adolescent stage of romanticism song, their development; as this too will increase a child's independance, for instance, increased management over their school and homework tasks (Brannen, Heptinstall and Bhopal, 2000). This is reflected in practice, whereby coaches can give older children the Objectification example, responsibility over certain tasks during the training session; for example to organise a game or skill practice. Dupont Essay! Responsibilities can also be shared with regards to a person's role within the team, for example team captain. With reference to competition attendance, participants noted that at least one of their parents would always be present.

It was not found that one parent would be present more than the other; although it was noted that fathers tend to Theory example, take on julius caesar more of Objectification Theory example, a coaching role, whereas, mothers (although still there to support), would socialise with other parents. QUOTES AS EXAMPLES. The results also disclose that parents are not as vocal during the communication in health care, primary stage of their childhood competitions, compared to those events during the adolescent stage. Objectification Theory Essay Example! Results established that during the primary age of childhood, parents would focus primarily upon the fun and enjoyment obtained from partaking in physical activity; whereas as their child got older, they would become more outcome focused. Nevertheless, participants still perceived their parents to adopt an principle of autonomy, enjoyment focused attitude, but their focus on Theory example winning was now much greater than the younger years. SAY SOMETHING HERE ABOUT PARENTS KNOWING THAT THEIR CHILD ALREADY ENJOYS THE ACTIVITY BECAUSE OF THE CONTINUED INVOLVEMENT FROM WHEN THEY WERE YOUNG. Parents are particularly influential in encouraging children to romanticism, participate in sport and. Although this study reproduces certain findings from previous investigations, it also adds further understanding to the impact of Theory Essay, parent-child socialisation upon an adult-child's sport involvement. The study differentiates itself from romanticism, much of the Objectification Theory example, previous studies by examining how early childhood socialisation experiences shape an adult's choices and in afganistan, behaviours towards sport.

Findings clearly indicate that parental influence through socialization is critical; as parents can communicate their beliefs about what is valued as important, and; as children are positively influenced by what their parents value, they are more likely to take steps in Objectification Essay example order to carry out such activities. This also confirms that socialisation is a two-way process between provider and recipient (Greendorfer Bruce, 1991; Nixon, 1990). Welk et al., (2003) observed constant trends in what does contingency plan mean their data; suggesting that active parents are more likely to be supportive and involved in their child's efforts at being physically active, compared to Essay, inactive parents. However, it is important to recognise that the individuals who took part in the current study were all sports students who naturally had an intrinsic interest in sport and an understanding and appreciation for the importance of of autonomy, regular physical activity. Thus, even though parental encouragement and support during their lifetime sport involvement has been proved to be indispensible, it was also recognised that for some, the interest may have already been there due to the natural sporting tendencies that the participants' possessed.

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Writing an Essay? Here Are 10 Effective Tips. Honestly, throughout most of high school and college, I was a mediocre essay writer. Every once in a while, I would write a really good essay, but mostly I skated by Objectification Theory, with B’s and A-minuses. I know personally how boring writing an romanticism, essay can be, and also, how hard it can be to write a good one. Writing an essay? Don’t pull your hair out.

Here are 10 tips to write a great essay. Photo by Stuart Pilbrow (Creative Commons) However, toward the end of my time as a student, I made a breakthrough. I figured out how to Theory example not only write a great essay, I learned how to dupont essay have fun while doing it . Here are a few reasons: You’d rather be scrolling through Facebook. Objectification Theory Essay! You’re trying to write something your teacher or professor will like. Ethnic! You’re trying to get an A instead of writing something that’s actually good . You want to do the least amount of work possible. The biggest reason writing an essay is so hard is because we mostly focus on those external rewards like getting a passing grade or our teacher’s approval. The problem is Objectification example that when you focus on external approval it not only makes writing much less fun, it also makes it significantly harder.

Because when you focus on external approval, you shut down your subconscious, and the subconscious is the source of your creativity. What this means practically is that when you’re trying to barriers to effective in health and social care write that perfect, A-plus-worthy sentence, you’re turning off most of Essay, your best resources. Just stop. Stop trying to write a good essay (or even a “good-enough” essay). What Does Contingency Mean! Instead, write an interesting essay, write an essay you think is fascinating. And when you’re finished, go back and edit it until it’s “good” according to your teacher’s standards. Yes, you need to follow the Objectification Theory Essay example guidelines in your assignment.

If your teacher tells you to write a five-paragraph essay, then write a five-paragraph essay! However, within those guidelines, find room to express something that is uniquely you . I can’t guarantee you’ll get a higher grade (although, you almost certainly will), but I can absolutely promise you’ll have a lot more fun writing. Ready to get writing? Here are my ten best tips for having fun while writing an essay that earns you the communication in health care top grade! Every story is about conflict and change, and the truth is that essays are about conflict and change, too!

The difference is that in an essay, the Theory Essay conflict is between different ideas , the change is in the way we should perceive those ideas. That means that the best essays are about surprise, “You probably think it’s one way, but in reality, you should think of it this other way.” See tip #3 for dupont essay more on Theory this. 2. Before you start writing, ask yourself, “How can I have the most fun writing this?” It’s normal to what does contingency plan mean feel unmotivated when writing an essay. I’m a writer, and honestly, I feel unmotivated to Theory example write all the dupont essay time. Objectification Essay Example! But I have a super-ninja, judo-mind trick I like to use to help motivate myself. Here’s the secret trick: One of the romanticism interesting things about your subconscious is that it will answer any question you ask yourself. So whenever you feel unmotivated to Essay write your essay, ask yourself the following question: How much fun can I have writing this?”

Your subconscious will immediately start thinking of strategies to make the julius betrayal writing process more fun. Objectification Theory! Here’s another sneaky question to ask yourself when you really don’t want to write: How can I finish this as quickly as possible? 3. As you research, ask yourself, “What surprises me about this subject?” The temptation, when you’re writing an essay, is to write what you think your teacher or professor wants to romanticism song read. Theory Example! Don’t do this . Barriers Communication In Health And Social Care! Instead, ask yourself, “What do I find interesting about Objectification Theory Essay this subject? What surprises me?” If you can’t think of anything that surprises you, anything you find interesting, then you’re not searching well enough, because history, science, and literature are all brimming over dupont essay with surprises. When you look at how great ideas actually happen, the story is always, “We used to think the world was this way. Objectification Theory Example! We found out we were completely wrong, and ethical, that the world is actually quite different from what we thought.”

As you research your essay topic, search for this story of surprise, and Objectification, don’t start writing until you can find it. (By the way, what sources should you use for research? Check out tip #10 below.) 4. Overwhelmed? Just write five original sentences. The standard three-point essay is really made up of just five original sentences, surrounded by supporting paragraphs that back up those five sentences. If you’re feeling overwhelmed, just write five sentences. Song! Here’s what they might look like: Thesis: While most students consider writing an essay a boring task, with the right mindset, it can actually be an enjoyable experience. Objectification Theory! Body #1: Most students think writing an essay is romanticism song tedious because they focus on external rewards.

Body #2: Students should instead focus on internal fulfillment when writing an Objectification, essay. Body #3: Not only will focusing on internal fulfillment allow students to ethical principle of autonomy have more fun, they will write better essays. Conclusion: Writing an essay doesn’t have to be simply a way to earn a good grade. Objectification Essay! Instead, it can be a means of finding fulfillment. After you write your five sentences, it’s easy to barriers communication fill in the paragraphs they will find themselves in. Now, you give it a shot!

In college, I discovered a trick that helped me go from a B-average student to an A-student, but before I explain how it works, let me warn you. This technique is powerful , but it might not work for all teachers or professors. Use with caution. As I was writing a paper for a literature class, I realized that the Objectification Essay articles and books I was reading said what I was trying to say much better than I ever could. So what did I do? I just quoted them liberally throughout my paper. Betrayal! When I wasn’t quoting, I re-phrased what they said in my own words, giving proper credit, of course. I found that not only did this formula create a well-written essay, it took about half the time to write. When I used this technique, my professors sometimes mentioned that my papers were very “source” heavy. However, at the same time, they always gave me A’s. Like the five sentence trick, this technique makes the writing process simpler.

Instead of putting the main focus on Objectification Theory Essay example writing well, it instead forces you to caesar research well, which some students find easier. 6. Write the Theory body first, the introduction second, and the conclusion last. Introductions are often the hardest part to write because you’re trying to groups summarize your entire essay before you’ve even written it yet. Instead, try writing your introduction last, giving yourself the body of the paper to figure out the main point of Theory, your essay. 7. Most essays answer the question, “What?” Good essays answer the “Why?” The best essays answer the “How?” If you get stuck trying to make your argument, or you’re struggling to dupont essay reach the required word count, try focusing on the question, “How?” For example: How did J.D. Salinger convey the theme of inauthenticity in The Catcher In the Rye ? How did Napoleon restore stability in France after the French Revolution? How does the research prove girls really do rule and Theory, boys really do drool?

If you focus on how, you’ll always have enough to write about. Essay writing can be a dance. You don’t have to stay in dupont essay one place and Objectification Theory example, write from beginning to ethical principle end. Give yourself the freedom to write as if you’re circling around your topic rather than making a single, straightforward argument. Then, when you edit, you can make sure everything lines up correctly. 9. Here are some words and phrases you don’t want to use. You (You’ll notice I use a lot of you’s, which is Theory great for a blog post. Ethical Of Autonomy! However, in Objectification Essay an essay, it’s better to omit the second-person.) Cliches Some That Things To Be verbs. A note about caesar “I” : Some teachers say you shouldn’t use “I” statements in your writing, but the truth is that professional, academic papers often use phrases like “I believe” and “in my opinion,” especially in their introductions.

Wikipedia isn’t just one of the top 5 websites in Objectification Theory example the world, it can be a great tool for plan research. However, most teachers and professors don’t consider Wikipedia a valid source for use in essays. However, here are two ways you can use Wikipedia in your essay writing: Background research. If you don’t know enough about Objectification Theory Essay your topic, Wikipedia can be a great resource to quickly learn everything you need to dupont essay know to get started. Find sources . Check the reference section of Wikipedia’s articles on your topic. While you may not be able to cite Wikipedia itself, you can often find those original sources and site them . The thing I regret most about high school and college is that I treated it like something I had to do rather than something I wanted to Objectification Essay do. The truth is, education is an opportunity many people in julius betrayal the world don’t have access to. Essay Example! It’s a gift, not just something that makes your life more difficult.

I don’t want you to make the mistake of just “getting by” through school, waiting desperately for summer breaks and, eventually, graduation. How would your life be better if you actively enjoyed writing an essay? What would school look like if you wanted to suck it dry of all the gifts it has to what does contingency plan mean give you? How about you? Do you have any tips for writing an essay? Use tip #4 and Objectification Essay, write five original sentences that could be turned into an essay. When you’re finished, share your five sentences in the comments section. And remember, have fun! Good pointers, Joe. I could have used this advice 50 years ago when I was in college.

I’m sure it would have been a great help. Thanks Adelaide! Me too! Ironically, this essay was published right after I completed all my work for my English BA. #128578; Overall, this is pretty good advice– why NOT write a fun essay? You know the professors are reading not only the papers of your classmates, but also the essays of students in their other classes. I have also used wikipedia as a way to find general information or additional citations. In Afganistan! I have also tried a variation of #4 and Objectification Theory Essay example, #8, where you jot down some ideas to focus the ethical principle essay before filling the paragraphs out. It’s how I write in general.

It’s so much easier to write that way, since otherwise if I try to Theory Essay example write straight through, I just start editing and what does contingency plan, stop writing. I do differ on #6, though. I have to write the introduction first– otherwise, I can’t lay out the other paragraphs. Theory Example! The intro is where my thesis is, and the beauty of julius caesar, a word processor is Objectification example that it is easy to dupont essay go back and Theory Essay, just rewrite the thesis if it’s not totally working. Dupont Essay! But even with this help, there are professors (in several areas besides English, like history, psychology, and art) who love my writing, and classes where most people including myself are getting Bs, and nobody in the class knows who are getting the As. You could write the BEST essay ever, but it’s just not for THAT professor. Sometimes it felt like the trick was learning how to write an essay for a particular professor who wouldn’t really tell you want they wanted, and was just trial and error to figure out what they wanted. Those are just my thoughts since I actually felt like I had something to say on one of these helpful articles. #128578; As anon native English speaker Can I borrow other writers’ phrases , sentences or expressions for my story especially I need to use the Essay Dictionary sometimes,without being scandalous .or turned down (did I used it correctly ) And while Iam reading I discover a new wide variety of vocabulary which I admire a lot . Unfortunately, that would be plagiarism, Maha. Sorry! So why do we have to ethnic in afganistan read a lot before we start writing ,if it isn’t or couldn’t consider to be a dictionary?

I looked for Plagiarism in the dictionary ;I found it is stealing ideas but I didn’t talk about Objectification Theory example that .I talked about the words that are used , be sure I have my own ideas .Example:stepped away walked; that one ( writer ) used one of the romanticism previous verbs to get someone went away from some one else , and I want him to get away from a door for example or a phone ,what’s wrong ? Hi Joe, Great points. I wish I had paid closer attention in school. I did not have the desire or the opportunity to go to college but I have written all of my life and just now realizing I can be a writer and publish on my own. OK – using tip [I can’t remember how to do the hashtag and I only have fifteen minutes so I don’t want to go and Theory Essay example, look it up, so…] ‘hashtag’ 4, to dupont essay write five original sentences that could be turned into Theory an essay…

Using an essay writing prompt when you have no need to write an julius betrayal, essay can be beneficial in many ways. Writing in any form allows, in my opinion, the writer to express thoughts and create a piece of writing. Personally, I think an essay about writing essays could be interesting and fun, and almost certainly challenging; though it’s possible I’ve had too much coffee this morning and am failing to grasp the purpose of this prompt… either way, I’m writing – and Theory Essay, writing is good for me. It’s making me smile. That was only principle four sentences but one of example, them was pretty long and fragmented. And I didn’t use my fifteen minutes up so now I have time to.

Thanks for to effective in health and social care the tips, Joe. Objectification Theory Essay Example! I don’t have occasion to write a lot of essays these days, but I do need to write tech specs and internal white papers fairly regularly. Here is a five-sentence skeleton from my “day job.” Information technology as a career has traditionally been considered a bastion for technofiles who have little to what does contingency mean offer beyond tweaking computer programs, but true success in Theory Essay modern IT requires a well-rounded world view and the ability to effectively interact with and influence others. While previous generations of technology professionals may have been able to succeed by learning one or more core technologies, today’s fast-changing tech landscape requires a nimble mind in julius betrayal order to remain relevant. Beyond the Theory example need to ethnic groups learn quickly and often, IT staff in the 21st century must be able to communicate effectively with stakeholders in all areas of the business. In fact, today’s technology professionals are in Objectification Theory Essay a position to positively transform their organizations by translating powerful technological capabilities into consumable information that business influencers can understand and embrace.

The days of choosing a career in IT because you want to hide away in julius caesar an office and write obscure software are over. The technology leaders of today must work in partnership with our customers to effect real competitive advantages. This sounds like an Essay, essay I would enjoy reading, and I’m not even an IT person. Thanks, Erica. Maybe I’ll write the full thing some day. Thanks for ethnic groups in afganistan the amazing post #128578; Really great points .. One more tip – ask the right question and give the Theory Essay right answer. Dupont Essay! When it comes to Essay example essay writing – asking the right questions is a main thing.

I get many confused looks whenever I tell people I have a degree in English yet hated writing papers in song college. I wish I had taken the time to learn how to write one properly, so then they might not have sucked all the fun out of my life back then. I struggled to get Cs on my papers (granted, I usually waited ’til the night before to write them – such a bad habit for me). Anyway, I took a stab at the prompt and Objectification Theory example, here are the results: Title: Why The World Needs More Adoptive Families. Thesis: Adoption can be a rewarding and beneficial experience, despite its own unique challenges. Body #1: Even though being raised by communication, biological parents is the ideal, the reality is that adoption is likely the Objectification Theory Essay example best option for children who are already waiting for a permanent family. Body #2: Thousands of children age out foster care each year without the julius support system of a stable family. Body #3: Supporting adoption is example a Biblical mandate, regardless of one’s personal ministry calling. Conclusion: Adoption isn’t for everyone, but the need is groups great enough that more families must step up to meet it.

Great post to read, keep on updating new posts. I have read similar article on custom essay writing service, just go through with them also. Great tips to Objectification Theory example creative writing… Writing or composing is a craftsmanship, while composing, put conclusions toward the starting: Think of a transformed pyramid when you compose. Become acquainted with point in dupont essay the first passage, then develop it. Prepare to Objectification Theory Essay example have your mind blown. I got these tips from paper composing administrations which is the reason I have succeeded in life. Joe thank you for giving me great deal of help to writing an identify to effective communication in health care, authentic essay.

It is Objectification Theory hard to find a reliable college essay website these days due to the surge of websites claiming to dupont essay write the best essay for college admissions. In my opinion turning an essay into Objectification Theory example a great story will be the winning point for any candidate. Have you heard about first writing service. In Afganistan! It provides a lot of useful papers, and help students to get higher mark, because here work only a high-qualified writer. Objectification Theory Example! Just check it, you might be interested.

I think it’s nice to do a checklist for those, who a starting to write essay #128578; And for those who have not enough time to finish -i recommend Really fast and what plan mean, professional. Just grab, all what you already have and go there. I’m very happy to Objectification Theory Essay read about college essay papers.

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If you want tp write well such articles and essay, you can find a lot of themes on this site I hate writing essay’s. Joe, thank you so much for dupont essay this! I was in a bit of a writing slump and Objectification Essay, this was exactly the read I needed. I want to say that this is really good article that helps me to write my essay. Because as for me essay is so hard. Romanticism! But after reading this I understand that this is not so hard. When I need help to write a paper It can be done by I want to say that this is really good article that helps me to write my essay. Because as for Objectification Theory me essay is so hard. But after reading this I understand that this is not so hard.

When I need help to write a paper It can be done by Excellent tips you have provided to write an essay. I used to get worried about plan writing essay and I was actually looking for essay rewriting services online but after reading your post, I will try myself first. Thanks. Everybody try to write best essay.If i write best essay,i will try to best essay help on myself.So, help of Essay, myself is dupont essay best help. Would you mind if I will make link on your artilce from Objectification Theory Essay our website – ? Hi, guys, I’ve released free tool for generating topics for essays. Can you test it? Writers Celebrate this Halloween week with us.

Thank you for your wonderful tips on writing an essay. How do u suggest we gather information for an essay for example, a school essay(narrative, argumentative and reflective) how about an what plan, opinion essay what advice would you give me. I am happy I came by this post at Essay, the right time. Thank you for does contingency plan mean the good work. Objectification Example! may the Lord bless you. I’m so glad to see you used Wikipedia as source tool. As someone that is more of a technical writer, research scientist/business man and who sells his work in the form of technical reports and occasional publications – I am a huge proponent of julius betrayal, Wikipedia. Theory Example! There is no better way for the average person to research a subject (and that is a fact, see below).

I am always saddened when I run into plan some severely handicapped uninformed soul who thinks that Wikipedia is not a valid source because it isn’t on paper. Few people take the time to Objectification Theory Essay read the julius caesar betrayal comparison studies that have been done regarding the accuracy of Wikipedia and Essay, other encyclopedic sources – and none of which are 100% accurate and or unbiased. The first of such comparisons was done by Nature in 2005: “For its study, Nature chose articles from both sites in a wide range of romanticism, topics and sent them to what it called “relevant” field experts for peer review. Objectification Theory Essay Example! The experts then compared the dupont essay competing articles–one from each site on a given topic–side by side, but were not told which article came from which site. Theory Essay Example! Nature got back 42 usable reviews from its field of experts. In the end, the journal found just eight serious errors, such as general misunderstandings of vital concepts, in the articles. Dupont Essay! Of those, four came from each site. They did, however, discover a series of factual errors, omissions or misleading statements. All told, Wikipedia had 162 such problems, while Britannica had 123.”

Since 2005 there have been several other comparisons and Wikipedia fairs very well in Theory all. Dupont Essay! One article I found in Forbes also reveals a curious phenomenon, conservative personality types tend to have a general bias against Wikipedia – and are also uninformed as to Objectification Theory Essay example accuracy. Not unlike conservative college professors who have biases against in afganistan, even high quality online courses. Essay! Never underestimate the limitations of the conservative personality type. Here are some the references I’ve found: Conservative bias and Wikipedia.

I love your thinking. Wikipedia is identify communication in health a great site. Objectification Example! It provides directions and the general knowledge from a broad perspective. Many thanks for your references. I shall dig deeper and develop my writing skills. Do you love mom? You. really should.

Mom is the one who loves you. Here are some reasons why I LOVE. My mom gives me food. She gave birth to me. She loves me and likes me a lot…. Song! She gives me clothes. She lets me live. She helps me learn how to type. She wants me to Theory Essay example be smart. She. gives me discipline.

My mom is the best mom in to effective communication and social the world. Always look up to Theory example your. mom unless she is on drugs or something. Dupont Essay! You should always love your mom. She’s. the one who went through pain for you.

She’s awesomeness thing you could ever. (My son’s hilarious essay for all to Objectification example view!) Also, bear with him because he is just starting. hahaha, great post. It reminds of caesar, me when I was young. Hey Joe ! Thank you for your wonderful advices. I struggle a lot during essay writings but if I use your tips correctly, I’m sure I will get better results. Thanks a lot Joe #128578; I totally agree with you 100 percent. I hate writing in APA.

The citing. The reference page has to be perfect. Getting my Masters was so frustrating at times. Essay! I had to write a 30 page thesis. At least with essays, you don’t have to if it doesn’t apply. Dupont Essay! When helping my son with his we had a title page and cited only if necessary and providing a reference page. His teacher loved that because he is in Objectification middle school.

The paper was really professionally written. He got a solid A. Hey,if you hate APA – feel free to identify communication in health and social adress our writing centre We would be glad to provide you with the first-class writing help any style you need. P.S. Hope, I am not late #128578; Thank you, so much! i want you to want me joe. you the real mvp. This is the best advice on essays I’ve read in a long time. I’m about to write an essay and am a bit rusty.

However, I’ve written a few over the course of my studies and the ones that got the best marks were the ones where I applied the sort of techniques you write about here… thanks for the refresh! I read the whole thing in Theory Essay a woman’s voice oops! But great tips! Will be using those tomorrow! This is great. We just apply the romanticism song tips together with other sweetness to provide the Theory Essay best writing experience in what does plan mean our work. This is a real inspiration man, keep up that same spirit. I started reading this instead of doing my essay… i got an Objectification Essay example, essay due tommorow morning and yet here i am. I am having so much trouble writing my essay and identify barriers to effective communication in health and social care, even though these are great points and i can probably use them, I cant get my brain to use them. I really need help and i don’t even know how to Objectification Essay example begin to ask.

Thanks this helped a lot. I like how easily you describe the whole essay writing process. Dupont Essay! If you are interested at its continuation, you may read one more article pertaining to essay writing. Theory Essay! Click on to read the entire piece! Great points. Just a question, is it okay if we use let’s give it a try as a suggestion at the end of conclusion paragraph?Thanks. Very good points. Actually writing essay is a very difficult task to principle of autonomy students. Your points will help those students. Essay Example! Wikipedia is a good reference. Nice tips Joe!

I would also advise using this nice tool to choose a topic of the dupont essay paper. Great article! Helps me get past my fear of writing for grad school. Well done, Joe. You’ve successfully made, both my day and essays, better in Essay example every way. Thank you. Hi guys , long time could not understand how to song essay writing , and probably would never have been able to if i do not accidentally found this site , who may be interested come in, it really helped me.

long time could not understand how to essay writing , and probably would never have been able to if i do not accidentally found this site, who may be interested come in, it really helped me. Hello guys) long time could not understand how to essay writing , and Objectification Theory example, probably would never have been able to if i do not accidentally found this site, who may be interested come in, it really helped me. Amazing details, still students find it difficult to implement these tips while writing their essay, so they can ask for help from experts. Students can visit for best essay assignment help. We offer the ethical best quality essay writing with guaranteed plagiarism free guarantee and on-time delivery of work.

I really enjoyed how amazingly you noticed the micro changes and wrote. them in broader way. I found this as an informative and captivating. post, so I think it is Theory Essay very helpful and principle of autonomy, acquainted. I would like to. thank you for the endeavor you have made in Theory Essay this piece.

Maybe u should help me to writer and essay and how to does contingency plan write a mind map. It was a wonderful piece of art by you. It is awesome to read. Thanks for the valuable information. I hope you will keep posting such blogs in future. Sometimes it happens that not all the people like writing precis or essays, so what to Essay example do? What if i dont know how to write, but if i write bad i will get F for does contingency plan exam or i will not get my job? Hi Joe, thanks for the pointers they are really helpful with writing an essay (which I struggle with); but what about writing an exemplification essay? Writing an Objectification example, essay is ethical principle not easy, these are some useful hints and tips on how to construct and write the best essay possible. These simple steps will guide you through the essay writing process: • Decide on your topic.

• Prepare an outline or diagram of your ideas. • Write your thesis statement. • Write the body. Write the main points. Objectification! Write the sub points. … • Write the ethical introduction. • Write the Objectification Theory conclusion.

• Add the final changes. • Read More At htpps:// Writing is a skill that can be learned and with continuous practice it can be mastered and dupont essay, with no time you graduate to be a professional writer. The above ten points forms an important foundation for writing convincing and captivating essays.Academic. Papers Writing Help. Essay writing has been a major challenge to Objectification Essay many students. For one to come up with a great essay, you need to engage experienced writers. You have shared very helpful essay writing ideas. For reliable Admittance essays writing , contact us and you will never regret. Writing is my favorite hobbie and ethical principle, these tips are very helpful.

Thanks! Global warming is Objectification being ignored by massive companies who emit most of the contingency plan mean carbon dioxide, world leaders must act to stop them or there would not be another future. These companies emit over half the carbon dioxide over example a year period are choosing to ignore Global Warming. Governments must put sanctions on these companies and increase their tax rate unless they switch to what plan mean another renewable source. Global Warming is getting worse and worse and it is only a matter of time that the governments of these companies started putting a stop to it. Do you accept guest post here? I have a site that I think it’s close related to this post.

Would that be possible? Joe, I really like how unique and Essay, interesting your angle on essay-writing is. Identify Barriers To Effective Communication In Health And Social! It’s unlike many other “standard” online essay-writing articles. Hear, hear! If anyone wants to Theory example check out an even more thorough analysis of essay-writing, please check us out at our YT channel to julius caesar betrayal see us write essays from scratch to Objectification final draft:;list=PLfgdZqI9ksaigRzvFFXb1_c1BHJoisTQN. this helped. thanks! Great suggestions! I applied your ideas and identify barriers communication and social care, I got an A from a super harsh teacher. I’d give this a 9/10! Writing a perfect essay is not a easy task. It is so difficult to write perfect,creative,informative and Objectification Theory, quality essay.

The essay also. reveals what you can do when you have time to think and work on groups in afganistan a writing project. Your tips are very helpful for writing a quality essay. Thanks. This is a good piece overall, but leading with the idea of Bs and A minuses as mediocre is Theory Essay so unhelpful. Those are very good grades that most students would kill for. They are good grades if you are a mediocre student.

For those striving to get into an Ivy League school or other good colleges/careers, at least an principle of autonomy, A is needed in every class. You have made a strong statement here. In our writing service also, we adhere to Essay all these points. In fact, we strike a positive note to serve our customers with all our facilities and julius caesar, skills buy cheap dissertation available with us. great discussion for your article and giving all knowledge it It Company. I am only at Tip #2 and can already feel my “inner writer” coming back to life. I’ve been torturing myself for so long — many new ideas and perspectives to Objectification Theory Essay example share and nothing but dread at the thought of the actual writing. I was always such a “good student”, and by the time I finished grad school I no longer enjoyed either reading or writing.

Pretty sad statement, even sadder that the ill effects have lasted three decades. The only writing advice I’ve read so far basically boils down to: it’s work, you just have to do it, set aside a specific time and force yourself…. Julius Betrayal! all about as appealing as my mother’s shoe leather lamb chops. I can’t thank you enough for your approach. I think it’s going to work for Objectification me, and just know I am immensely grateful beyond what words can express. Caesar! Yes!

I love to write an essay but when I get bored uk assignment help. Also I want to advise listening music when you are writing an essay. That’s what I found on Theory example youtube: I think, it will be usefull for everebody ^_^ I want to ask Joe whether it is possible to post this article on our blog? Our readers will enjoy to read these 10 Effective Tips. I’m struggling with an essay right now, I should have started it like 6months ago and I just couldn’t do it … even with the help of everyone around me.

Though, reading your article, it gives me hope ! This is possibly the most useful article I have read. After severe procrastination lasting days you have reminded me about identify barriers to effective communication what I need to do I have finally managed to get myself into Objectification Theory Essay the right mental state for writing. You may not see this but massive thanks #128578; Writing is one of my hobbies as well, but it’s just so frustrating when you brainstorm and groups in afganistan, then the person that grades your paper returns it to Objectification Theory Essay example you with a lower score than you deserved. I would like to ethical principle see them try. Objectification! One thing I did noticed is dupont essay that boring topics may reflect the writing style.

When the topic is interesting that’s when the grades sky-rocket. I was always very difficult to write essays, articles. It became easier to work with your advice, thank you. You can check for plagiarism your unique text on the blog. Best Professional Writing Essay Services – Very helpful article. Objectification Example! I wrote essays at the university myself. But there were times when for some reason it could not be done.In this situation, I looked for help from friends, teachers, books, the Internet or a special writing service. For example – But it’s best to do it yourself. The main thing is to julius properly monitor your time. Hey dude, you just “unstuck” me.

Thank you, I was trying to at least set the framework for a Didactics in Philosophy essay and Objectification Theory, you give me that initual impulse. Thank you ! Thanks for sharing such a great article which is drafted so perfectly. dissertation writing services Hope for such more articles from you in future. Thanx for sharing such useful post keep it up. The leading assignment help UK firm offers state of the art services to its clients with a promise of delivering all the required work well within the dupont essay deadline.

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21 Basic Resumes Examples for Objectification, Students and New Graduates. Written by Neil O’Donnell. Published July 5th, 2017. Neil O’Donnell, CPCC is a nationally certified career coach whose experience includes over 15 years of career counseling experience in addition to his having written thousands of résumés and cover letters. Working with professionals around the caesar betrayal globe, Neil helps recent graduates and Theory Essay, seasoned professionals alike in achieving their career dreams. Let’s face it, writing résumés is a daunting task, especially for undergraduates or recent college or high school graduates.

Admittedly, one of the biggest complaints I often hear from song, such entry job seekers is that no one showed them how to write a résumé or curriculum vitae. Would it make you feel better to know that most teachers and Objectification Theory Essay, professors don’t honestly know how to write a good résumé? Truthfully, most colleges have a career center, which students are repeatedly informed about, but students rarely utilize the services at such centers before or after graduation. Hello! All graduates should make contact with their alma mater’s career center, because such centers usually offer free or low-cost résumé writing, basic resume examples, and dupont essay, interview preparation services! That said, let’s get to the heart of the issue.

How do you write a good résumé for typical undergraduate/new graduate needs? Here are 4 basic resume examples, guidelines, and templates to help you out. Objectification Theory Essay. 1. Sample Resume for an Internship. Most internships require a student provide a résumé and cover letter, but students often are frightened by this as they usually don’t have any experience related to the internship. Most employers are not expecting you to have extensive experience because an internship is caesar betrayal usually the first experience students have in their field. Objectification Essay Example. As for the structure of a résumé for ethical, internships, much of the design is consistent with my previous guidance. However, a few things of are more routine when it comes to an internship résumé. First, as a person seeking an internship often has little or no professional experience, volunteer experience can be vital. Because, such experience can show a hiring manager or internship coordinator that you are a go-getter.

You’d be amazed at the amount of employers across most fields place a great deal of value on volunteer experience, especially since a lot of volunteer responsibilities connect with the Theory example responsibilities of dupont essay professionals. For instance, if you volunteered at a foodbank, you would likely perform a mix of Objectification example duties from handling inventory, keeping records of where food was shipped, and dupont essay, interacting with those in needs by providing directions on where to go to obtain food. Such experience translates into customer service and office operations experience. Considering that MOST interns end up doing a lot of Objectification Theory filing work and call monitoring, the volunteer experience is huge. In addition to professional and dupont essay, or volunteer experience, I recommend internship seeking individuals include a summary of qualifications section (placed before the experience section) to identify skills they have that best match with the job and/or highlight skillsets that suggest the would-be intern would excel in the workplace (aka not be lazy). Many of Theory Essay us have had nightmare experiences with interns. So, any qualifications that could point towards you being a dedicated worker will likely help your case. In the julius qualifications section, also include coursework you completed that is relevant to the major/internship setting. For a business major seeking sales/accounting experience, it would be prudent to list courses you completed that connect with business, accounting, statistics, and Objectification Theory Essay example, economics. See the ethnic included Internship résumé for a full example. 2. Sample Resume for Objectification Theory Essay example, a Part-time Position.

College students need to pay bills while professionals making little more than minimum wage need to ethical principle find ways to make ends meet. This is Objectification Theory Essay often where a part-time job comes into contingency, play. Part-time jobs most often are connected to the service industry, though sales, medical tech, and administrative jobs often fill this void as well. In most of these instances, training on the job is key so a relevant degree is not usually necessary (although pursuing a relevant degree could provide an advantage. For part-time work, it is Objectification Essay example important to keep a few things in mind. First, if you have an advanced degree (a Masters or higher), you should consider dropping that from the résumé. Because, employers might see your advanced degree and figure you will only ethnic in afganistan, stay long enough until you find something better (better pay or better benefits). Also, if you have extensive experience, you should limit what is on Theory, your résumé to caesar the last ten years.

Too much experience may also suggest to an employer that you won’t be there long. Undergraduates and recent high school graduates don’t usually have these issues, but older workers seeking employment (especially after a layoff), could very well find themselves battling such hurdles. Again, including a ‘Summary of Qualifications’ section is Essay example a good idea when seeking part-time work as it can highlight skillsets you have relevant to the work being completed. For part-time jobs, especially those in ethical principle the service industry, your education can be placed at the end (and in many cases, it should be last as pursuit of a college degree may make a hiring manager hesitate in Theory hiring you for fear that you are only going to be there a short time. Lastly, as with the internship résumé, those with little experience should consider including volunteer experience to help fill up one full page for the résumé. See the example for groups in afganistan, an individual seeking part-time work as a sales associate, positions many undergraduates seek out while in Essay example college. 3. Sample Resume for an Entry Level Job. Again, applying for entry-level positions, a hiring manager is not going to expect applicants to have extensive experience.

For recent college graduates, including a list of relevant coursework is a good thing to consider as employers like to hiring individuals with up to dupont essay date knowledge relevant to Essay the field, particularly in tech fields. Song. I also believe listing relevant technological proficiencies is Objectification crucial as many older employers often have limited experience in ethnic computer programming and repair. As someone who has always efforted to stay on top of Objectification Theory example technological advancements, I can attest to principle the fact that tech-proficient individuals are a hot commodity. For those with a great deal of experience and advanced degrees who are seeking an example, entry-level position, drop the what does contingency mean advanced degree and Theory example, only include last ten years of experience. 4. Basic Sample Resume for groups in afganistan, No Experience. For those without any experience, building a résumé is not so easy. Things that can help in such situations are volunteer experience, relevant coursework from school, and a job objective. Frankly, most of us who are professional résumé writers do not use job objectives, but when in need of filling a page, an objective can come in handy. Objectification Theory Example. Just make certain your resume objective is focused on the job you are applying to (i.e. In Afganistan. “To obtain a line cook position at the Cityview Restaurant). Adding a summary of qualifications section where you highlight your computer proficiencies and “soft” skills can help as well (soft skills including thriving in a team environment, conflict resolution, good communications skills, and organization). If you participated in activities at Objectification Theory high school or college, including those experiences could also be a great addition, especially if you served in a position such as president, treasurer or secretary.

For those with no experience, staying at your first job for julius caesar betrayal, a few years is important to Essay example build a foundation for future success. Getting a new job every year looks bad on a résumé and will hurt your chances of ethical principle of autonomy being hired in the future. Armed with this advice, know that every field/major requires a different focus on what to highlight in a résumé, particularly with regards to skillsets. Theory. Asking a professor for what plan, an example of her/his résumé would provide a good foundation to start with. Additionally, the following samples offer a glimpse at what a solid résumé would look like.

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. Theory Essay Example. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion.

Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. Does Contingency Mean. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. Theory Essay Example. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious.

Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the julius caesar, great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. Theory Essay. It is the dupont essay, human response to those elements in the life and Objectification, environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is ethical principle of autonomy, derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’.

The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. Theory. The second root refers to plan mean the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the Objectification Essay example, supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of romanticism song all religions. Central to all religions is the Objectification Theory Essay, concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to plan mean their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter.

Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to Objectification grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and barriers in health and social care, the feelings of Objectification Essay example awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and does plan, prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of Essay example beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the mean, known and beyond the Objectification Theory, controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the dupont essay, term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and Objectification Essay, some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.”

Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is dupont essay, difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to Objectification deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. What Contingency Plan. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to Objectification Theory very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of romanticism song mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of Objectification Theory example preserving the values of life. While it is betrayal, possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life.

According to Objectification Theory Essay Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. Groups In Afganistan. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. Theory Essay Example. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of what does plan mean a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the example, “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers.

These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Ethical Principle. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. Objectification. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses.

Sacred things are symbols. What Does Mean. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of Essay animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. Romanticism. It is Objectification Essay example, believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles.

The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the dupont essay, behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the Theory, end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of dupont essay Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana.

The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of Theory Essay beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and caesar, early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean.

Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the Objectification Theory Essay, empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Romanticism. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour.

Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in Essay unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is ethnic, enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Essay Hindu society.

Religion performs its function of integration through social control. Caesar Betrayal. It regulates the conduct of individuals by Objectification Essay, enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to barriers communication in health and social knit the Theory, Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the principle of autonomy, foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and Objectification Theory Essay example, virtuous are some of the barriers to effective and social care, social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires.

All the religions have preached love and non-violence. Objectification Theory Essay. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of dupont essay Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them.

It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against Objectification Theory God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Contingency Plan Mean. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and Theory, assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to what does plan mean religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of Theory Essay example religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture.

The priests laid the foundations of medicine. What Contingency. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of Theory charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment.

In this world man often suffers disappointment even in ethical the midst of all hopes and achievements. Theory Essay. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and what contingency mean, striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to Theory Essay example make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to communication in health and social care bear his frustrations and Objectification, encourages him to accept his lot on betrayal, earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled.

Through unity with the Theory example, infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and does, his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by Objectification Essay example, religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class.

For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and dupont essay, Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. Objectification Theory. O’ Dea and identify to effective and social care, others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes:

According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the Theory, society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and ethical principle, conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms.

2. Hampers the Objectification Essay example, Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to does plan mean grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at Objectification Essay example, interest, despite the great functional need of identify barriers to effective care this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and Essay, leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility.

For example, a good number of people in India prefer to julius betrayal take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of Objectification Theory Essay development religion has supported and ethnic groups, promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and Essay, suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the dupont essay, existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of Theory example religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the song, sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions.

It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the Theory Essay example, welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people.

It creates a gap among them. Principle Of Autonomy. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to Objectification example the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and to effective in health and social care, misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to Objectification Essay example the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12.

Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from ethnic groups discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and Theory Essay, potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion.

For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to does contingency plan mean merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is Theory, not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for caesar betrayal belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world.

Man is the Objectification Theory, world of man, the contingency plan mean, state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in Objectification Theory the form of principle of autonomy worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to Theory example project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against romanticism song which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for example their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”.

Marx’s criticism of religion is dupont essay, thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of example heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for what does plan all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the Objectification Theory Essay, highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. Ethical Principle. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and Objectification, minor, in others relatively rapid and julius, major.

Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and Essay, eternal. Hence, there is also an element of barriers care censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of Theory Essay example religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Principle. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach. Objectification Example. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism.

It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions.

As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and ethical, other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Objectification Example. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the ethnic groups in afganistan, social changes brought about by Objectification example, urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and ethical principle of autonomy, practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the Objectification Theory, working class in Western societies. Religion in julius caesar Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on Objectification Essay example, social values. It has tried to dupont essay reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge.

As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for Essay the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and romanticism, the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Essay example, Hindus. No doubt we are moving from barriers to effective in health and social care religiosity to secular way of life.

But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Objectification Essay Example. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the romanticism song, influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of Theory mankind were very much influenced by to effective communication in health and social, it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and Objectification Theory Essay example, music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance.

This movement is sometimes referred to care as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of example modern science and Protestantism, not from dupont essay a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the Objectification example, domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional.

Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and in afganistan, social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only Theory example explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. What Does Mean. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the Objectification Essay, sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in does contingency mean modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary.

But there is the difficulty in finding the Objectification Theory Essay example, other, for identify to effective communication and social it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is Objectification Theory Essay example, typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in song public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at Theory, one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind.

In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for ethnic groups in afganistan all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in Objectification Theory Essay example the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in ethical the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to Essay the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the romanticism song, matter cannot be settled that easily. Objectification. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the caesar, word. Essay Example. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India.

The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by julius caesar, neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and Theory Essay, dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is ethnic, standardly used in Objectification Essay talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the what contingency, practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality).

Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on Theory Essay, the part of the care, State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to Objectification Theory religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of to effective communication in health and social decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism.

There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of Objectification example religious influence on what does contingency, men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of Theory Essay example secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and identify to effective in health, desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs.

People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of Essay example religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the ethnic in afganistan, modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality.

Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of Essay factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of julius betrayal secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in Objectification Essay example different forms in various contemporary societies.

Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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Essay on the Mechanism of Cell Division (mitosis meiosis) Cell division was first studied by Prevost and Dumas (1824) when they described cleavage in fertilized egg of Objectification Theory example, Frog. Identify Barriers To Effective And Social! Rudolf Virchow (1855, 1859) gave cell lineage theory that new cells arise by division of pre­existing one-omnis cellulae cellula. Strasburger (1873) found that new nuclei develop from pre existing ones. The details were worked out by Strasburger (1875) and Objectification Essay Flemming (1879). The term of mistosis was coined by Flemming (1882). Meiosis was studied by Sutton (1900) and to some extent by Strasburger (1888) and caesar betrayal Winiwater (1900).

The term meiosis was coind by Farmer and Moore (1705). The agents which stimulate cell division are called mitogens e.g. Objectification Essay Example! cytokinins and some steroids. There are some agents which inhibits cell division. They are called mitotic poisons, e.g. Ethnic Groups! azides, cyanides, colchicine etc. Cell cycle is Objectification, a series of cyclic changes through which a cell passes during its growth and ethical principle divisions. Time interval between two successive divisions is called generation time.

Cell cycle has two parts: long non-dividing I-phase and short dividing M-phase. It is complex of changes that occur in newly formed cell before it is able to divide. Interphase has three stages. (a) G -Phase. In this, first growth or post mitotic gap phase, the cell and its nucleus grow in size. Example! RNA and dupont essay protein (including histone) synthesis occurs.

(b) S-Phase. Chromosomes replicate. Therefore it is Objectification example, called invisible stage of song, M-phase. (c) G 2 -Phase. Essay Example! It is the second growth or pre- mitotic gap phase where macro- molecules including protein tubulin are synthesised for cell division. A new centriole pair is barriers communication in health, formed. It is the phase of cell division.

Cell division consists of nuclear division of Objectification Essay, karyokinesis and protoplast division or cytokinesis. Cell division or M-phase is of three types-amitosis, mitosis, meiosis. (Direct Division, Robert Remark, 1841). During amitosis, nucleus elongates, constricts in romanticism song, the middle divides directly into two daughter nuclei. This is followed by division of cytoplasm through constriction, e.g. cartilage cells, degenerate cells. It is also called somatic division, because it occurs during formation of somatic or body cells. Mitosis is studied in plants in the regions of meristems, e.g. stem tip, root tip (onion 2n = 16). In animals it is studied in bone marrow, skin, base of nails etc. Mitosis is equatorial division in which a parent cell divides into two identical daughter cells; each of which contains the same number and kind of chromosomes as are present in Objectification Theory Essay example, the parent cell.

Mitosis occui in two steps, karyokinesis cytokinesis. It is the stage of nuclear division (indirect nuclear division) which is continuous but is identify barriers to effective in health care, divided into four stages for the sake of convenience-prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. In early prophase, the Objectification Essay, chromatin fibres condense to julius caesar, form elongated chromosomes. The nucleus appears as ball of wool. Centrosome has already divided. The daughter centrosome begins to Objectification Theory, move away from each other. In mid prophase, chromosomes shorten and become distinct with each having two chromatids attached to narrow point called CENTROMERE.

The centrosomes develop astral rays and migrate farther. In late prophase, the ethical of autonomy, centrosome reaches the poles, form asters and Essay begins to develop spindle fibres. Nucleolus degenerates and song nuclear envelope starts breaking. In plant cells, centrosomes are absent, spindle fibres develop without them. A bipolar spindle is produced. It is anastral (without asters) in plants and ainphiaster in animals. Spindle is observable with the Objectification, help of polarising microscope. Spindle has three types of fibres (I) Continuous (pole to pole) (II) Discontinuous (come out of one pole but do not reach the other pole, (III) Chromosome Fibre (Fibres that attach chromosomes to spindle poles. Each spindle fibre is what contingency plan mean, made of 4-20 microtubules.

The middle part of spindle having the maximum diameter is called equator. Chromosomes move to the equatorial plane and form equatorialor metaphasic plate with their centrosomes attached to both the poles by chromosomal fibres. Colchicine arrests cell division at Objectification, metaphase stage. Metaphase is the best time to see chromosomes. The centromere of each chromosome divides. Dupont Essay! This converts the two chromatids. into daughter chromosomes each being attached to the spindle pole of its side by independent chromosomal fibre.

The chromosomes move towards the spindle poles. The two pole-ward moving chromosomes of each type remain attached to each other by interzonal fibres. Ultimately, two groups of chromosomes come to lie at the spindle poles. The spindle fibres shorten one third to one fifth of the original length. Chromosome again unfold, elongate forming chromatin fibres.

Nucleolus, nucleoplasm and nuclear envelope appear form ER so that two daughter nuclei are formed. Dinomitosis is the Objectification Essay example, type of nuclear division found is dinoflagellates in which the nuclear envelope persists. Microtubular spindle is not formed. Chromosome move while attached to inner membrane of nuclear envelope. Karyochorisis : Intranuclear spindle is formed with spindle pole bodies (SPBs) developing at the two ends.

It is the process of separation of the cytoplasm. In animal cells, there is constriction at the equator that finally results in the separation of the daughter cells. It is plan, of two types. The cell membrane constricts and develops a centripetal furrow or cleavage in the middle. Objectification Theory Essay! The furrow deepens and divides the parent protoplast into ethical of autonomy two uninucleate protoplasts or cells. Cleavage is the usual method of cytokinesis in Objectification Essay example, animal.

It also occurs in some lower plants where wall material is deposited in the furrow between the two daughter protoplasts. It occurs in plants vesicles having pectic compounds and other wall materials appear in the middle of persisting spindle called 'Phragmoplast'. They fuse and form a film or cell plate with membrane on either side. This divides the parent binucleate cell into two daughter uninucleate cells. Cell plate grows centrifugally and functions as middle lamella.

Primary wall is identify barriers to effective in health care, deposited on its either side by the two daughter protoplasts. Meiosis is a special type of cell division present in germ cells of sexually reproducing organisms. Sexual reproduction occurs by way of sexual cells or gametes (eggs sperms), which after fertilization constitute the Zygote. Meiosis consists of single duplication divisions. In animals and lower plants, meiosis is terminal or gametic (i.e., it occurs before the formation of the gametes). In the male, four haploid sperms are produced, in female, one ovum and three polar bodies are produced. In most plants, meiosis is intermediary or sporic i.e. it occurs sometime between fertilization and the formation of gametes). Cells in meiosis are called Meiocytes. Meiosis is divided into division I and II. In division I, there is a long prophase of which the stages are preleptonema and leptonema, zygonema, pachynema, diplonema and diakinesis.

Meiosis I is the actual reduction division which is also called heterotypic division (the two chromatids of a chromosome often become different due to crossing over.) (a) Prophase I : It is Objectification Essay, longest phase which is dupont essay, complex and divisible into five stages-leptotene, zygotene,pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis. (Leptonema). Chromatin fibres condense and form chromosomes. The chromosomes often show chromomeres. They may also develop baset like arrange­ment called bouquet stage (diverging from a common point lying near centrosome). Chromosome number is diploid where there are two chromosomes of each type called 'homologous chromosomes'.

Their chroma­tids are not clear because of the development of nucleoprotein core between them. (Zygonema). Homologous chromosomes join laterally in Theory, the process of synapsis (Montgomery, 1901 )lsyndesis to form bivalents. The two chromosomes of communication in health care, a bivalent are held together by nucleoprotein core. The whole structure is example, called 'Synaptonemal Complex' (Moses, 1956). SC is composed of two lateral arms (which appear in each homologous at the end of leptonema) and a medial element.

At the time of julius betrayal, paring the packing of Objectification Theory Essay example, DNA is 300/1 and there is only 0.3% matching between homologous DNA. Pairing starts a random, but telomeres are generally inserted at the nuclear envelope. What Contingency Plan Mean! The 0.2 µm space between homologous chromosomes is occupied by the SC. This may have the appearance of a ladder, with bridges crossing the medial element. The main component of this complex is protein. The macromolecular organization of Objectification Essay example, meiotic chromosomes is similar to that of mitotic ones with a 20-30 nm chromatin fiber composed of nucleosomes. In early prophase, the fibres make discrete loops that coalesce in dense foci, where the lateral arms of SC are deposited. Ethical Of Autonomy! The packing of there loops increases throughout meiotic prophase, and some RNA transcription may be seen in certain loops corresponding to active nucleolar genes. The nonsister chromatids of a bivalent may exchange segments in the process of Theory example, crossing over.

However, individual chromatids are not clear. In this pairing is romanticism song, complete and Objectification Theory chromosomes become shorter thicker. The number of chromosomes has been halved (i.e. bivalents or tetrads). Each tetrad has four kinetochores (two homologous and two sisters). During pachynema, two homologous chromatids exchange segments at a molecular level (recombination). The SC appears to stabilise the pairing thus enabling the interchange. At pachynema the SC may show the recombination nodules or bars, which may be actual sites of crossing over. (Diplonema). During diplotene the paired chromosomes begin to separate, but they are held together at julius betrayal, the chiasmata (points of interchange or crossing over). Chiasmata (first seen by Johanssen, 1909) or nucleoprotein attaching points occur at places between the homologous chromosomes. There is at least one chiasma per bivalent chromosome.

At diplonema, the SC is shed from the Theory example, bivalents. At each chiasma, there is a piece of SC that ultimately disappears and is replaced by identify barriers care a chromatin bridge. Diplonema may last for Objectification example months or years. In this the chromatids become clear. Each bivalent now appear as tetrad. Chiasmata shift towards the chromosome ends (terminalisation). Nucleolus degenerates. Nuclear envelope breaks at principle of autonomy, places.

A spindle begins to Objectification Essay example, develop with centrioles in animals without centrioles. There is reduction in the number of chiasmata and further contraction. This is followed by prometaphae, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I. A bipolar fibrous spindle appears in the area of nucleus. It has asters at the two poles in animal cells (amphiaster) while the same are absent in plant cells (anastral). The chromosome pairs shift to groups in afganistan, the equator of spindle forming two or double metaphasic plate with the help of their centromeres. Each chromosome gets attached to Essay, spindle pole of its side by a chromosome fibre. Chiasmata disappear completely and the homologous chromosomes separate. The process in called disjunction. The separated chromosomes (univalents) show divergent chromatids and are called dyads.

They move towards the spindle poles and ultimately form two groups of haploid chromosomes. Chromosomes elongate. Nucleolus, nucleoplasm and nuclear envelope appear over each chromosome group forming nuclei. During the interphase between the two meiotic divisions there is no replication of the chromosomes, and division II is very similar to mitosis, by the end of which each nucleus has a haploid number of chromosomes composed of single chromatids. The fact that in meiotic division I there is separation of homologous kinetochores (and chromatids) and in division II the sister kinetochores (and chromatids) are separated, can be explained by the orientation of kinetochores, which determines nucleation and preferential polarization of microtubules. It is homotypic or equational division which is meant for maintaining the haploid number and separating the two chromatids of a chromosome which have become different due to crossing over. DNA replication is absent. The chromatin fibres shorten to form chromosomes. Nucleolus and nuclear envelop break down. Spindle in formed in the area of each nucleus.

Both telophase I and prophase II are omitted in some organisms where anaphase I directly leads to metaphase II; e.g. Identify Barriers Communication And Social! Trillium. Chromosomes come to lie at the equator of the spindle forming a single metaphasic plate. The centromere of Theory Essay example, each chromosome gets attached by both its surfaces to the spindle poles of their sides by distinct chromosome fibres. Centromere of each chromosome divides into groups in afganistan two. This separates the two chromatids of Objectification example, a chromosome into two independent daughter chromosomes. Each daughter chromosome is attached to spindle pole of its side by a chromosome fibre. Chromosomes move towards the spindle poles forming two groups. Since there were two spindle, a total of in health, four groups are formed. The four groups of chromo­somes organise themselves into four haploid nuclei.

Cytokinesis may occur after each division (successive type) or simultaneously at the end of meiosis. It is Objectification Theory Essay, generally through cleavage. In case of dupont essay, plants, wall material is deposited in the furrows. Cytokinesis gives rise to four haploid cells. In all organisms 'Meiosis' takes place at Objectification Theory example, the time of julius caesar, gamete formation. 4 haploid cells are produced as a result of meiosis in a diploid cell. Objectification Theory! The product of meiosis gives rise to gametes after metamorphosis some of them may be viable or nonviable.

The object of ethical principle, reduction division is as follows: (a) To keep the chromosome number same in daughter cells. (b) To keep the parental characters in daughter cells. (c) This division enables the cells to pass from one generation to another. (d) In the sporophytic generation, the number of chromosome is 2x i.e. Theory Essay Example! diploid and passes into gametophytic generation, reduction in number of chromosomes take place so that each of the gametophytic generation has got only x number of chromosomes.

So this phenomenon is most essential for completing a life history of a plant. (e) Fertilization duplicates the chromosome number but meiosis halves it to maintain the chromosomal balance in all organisms. (f) At the time of chiasmata formation, the exchange of chromatid material causes a combination of new characters. Of Autonomy! Thus meiosis helps in bringing about Objectification Essay variation in song, population. Meiosis may last for Objectification Essay 50 years in groups, human female as the number of oocyte in a new born female is about one million.

By the age of 07 years, there are some 300,000 oocytes left while only 400 reach maturity between 12 50 years. Objectification Essay! Thus meiosis may last upto 50 years. This may explain the increase in incidence of chromosonal aberrations with the increasing age of mother. While in ethnic groups, human male, meiosis starts after puberty. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and Objectification Essay preserved by principle users like you.

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