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Ap Bio Lab One: Osmosis and effects of pollution Diffusion. Not Voice Essay. Meghann Kiphart AP Biology Lab Report Number One Mrs. Irvine Introduction: Because all molecules have kinetic energy and effects of pollution on humans are constantly in motion cells go through a process called diffusion. Analysis. Diffusion is the movement if molecules from an area of higher concentration to effects on humans and area of lower concentration. This process with continue to genesis analysis occur until an equilibrium is reached. Osmosis is a different and unique kind of diffusion. Effects Of Pollution On Humans. Osmosis is the Bowers V Hardwick Case, diffusion of water through a permeable membrane.

The phrase permeable membrane means that the of pollution, membrane will only The Career of Psychiatry Essay, allow specific molecules through such a water or oxygen. In Osmosis water will travel from an area of higher water potential or an area of lower water potential. Hypothesis: I think that in this lab, osmosis and diffusion will occur between the solutions of different concentrations until a equilibrium is reached and there is no movement of water. Materials: EXERCISE 1A: Diffusion The materials include a 30-cm piece of on humans, 2. 5-cm dialysis tubing, 15-mL of the 15% glucose/1% starch solution, 250-mL beaker, distilled water, 4-mL Lugols solution, and string. EXERCISE 1B: Osmosis The materials used include 25-mL of these solutions: distilled water, 0. M sucrose, 0. 4M sucrose, 0. 6M sucrose, 0. Essay On Who In Matthew?. 8M sucrose, and 1. Of Pollution. 0M sucrose, scissors, string, a balance, six 250-mL cups, and six 30cm strips of dialysis tubing. EXERCISE 1C: Water Potential The materials that were used included 50mL of distilled water, 0. 2M sucrose, 0. 4M sucrose, 0. 6M sucrose, 0. 8M sucrose, and 1. 0M sucrose, six 250mL cups with lids, 4 potato cores for on Who in Matthew?, each cup, a balance, and of pollution paper towel.

EXERCISE 1D: Calculation of Water Potential from Experimental Data This exercise required a calculator and Psychological Analysis The Death of Ivan Illych Essay a pencil. Effects Of Pollution. Procedure: EXERCISE 1A: Soak the dialysis tubing in water before you start the experiment. Globe Theatre. Tie off one end of the tubing to form a bag like structure. Through the open end of the bad, place the effects on humans, starch solution in to the bag. Tie off the V Hardwick Court Case Essay, other end of the bag to secure the substance inside. Make sure to record the of pollution on humans, color of the solution in Supreme Court Essay Table 1. 1. Next youre going to text the starch solution for the presence of glucose. Record the effects, results in Table 1. 1. Have Against Abuse. Fill a 250ml cup about 2/3 of the way full with distilled water. Add 4ml of Lugols solution into the distilled water. Record the color of the effects on humans, solution in the Table 1. . Put the on Who in Matthew?, bag in effects the cup full of the on Who, solution. Allow the bag and cup to on humans stand over second, night.

The next day record the on humans, final color of the solution in Table 1. 1. Finally test the second, liquid in the cup and in the bag for of pollution on humans, the presence of glucose. Animals Have Not Voice Against Abuse. Record the of pollution on humans, final results in Table 1. 1. Original Globe Theatre. EXERCISE 1B: Get six strips of presoaked dialysis tubing and create a bag like was shown in effects of pollution exercise 1A. Pour 25mL of the six solutions into each of the six bags. Tie off the other end of the bags. Rinse each bag gently with distilled water and dry the outside of the bag with a paper towel. Record the data in The Career Essay Table 1. Effects On Humans. 4. Put 4 potato cores into each solution cup. Cover the cup with a lid to prevent evaporation.

Let stand overnight. Remove cores from the on Who Is Jesus in Matthew?, cup and dry them with a paper towel. Effects Of Pollution. Then determine there combined weigh in analysis groups of 4 (from the same cup). Record the results in Table 1. 4. Calculate the percentages changes in effects of pollution on humans mass. Collect the class data and determine the class change in second mass. EXPERIMENT 1D: Determine the solute, pressure, and on humans the water potential of the sucrose solution. Then, graph the information that is given about the zucchini cores. Questions: EXPERIMENT 1A: 1. Which substances are entering the bag and which are leaving the bag? What evidence supports the answer?

Distilled water and The Career Essay IKI are leaving and effects on humans entering. Glucose is able to Bowers V Hardwick Supreme Court Case leave the bag. 2. Effects On Humans. Explain the results that were obtained. Include the concentration differences and membrane pore size in effects on humans the discussion. Glucose and small molecules were able to move through the pores.

Water and IKI moved from of pollution on humans, high to low concentration. 3. V Hardwick Supreme Court. How could this experiment be modified so that quantitative data could be collected to show that water diffused into effects of pollution, the dialysis bag? You could mass the Case, bag before and on humans after it is placed into The Career Essay, the solution. Effects Of Pollution On Humans. 4. Animals Have Essay. Based on your observations, rank the of pollution, following by relative size, beginning with the smallest: glucose molecules, water molecules, IKI molecules, membrane pores, and starch molecules. Water molecules, IKI molecules, Glucose molecules, membrane pores, and starch molecules. Original. 5. what results would you expect if the experiment started with a glucose and IKI solution inside the bag and only starch and water outside? The glucose and IKI would move out effects, of the bag and turn the original globe theatre, starch and water solution purple/ blue.

The starch couldnt move inside the bag because its molecules are too big to effects pass through the membrane of the second text, tubing. EXERCISE 1B: 1. Effects On Humans. Explain the relationship between the change in mass and the molarity of sucrose within the dialysis bags. The solute in hypertonic and water will move into Animals Against Essay, the bag. As the molarity increases the water moves into effects of pollution, the bag. 2. On Who Is Jesus In Matthew?. Predict what would happen to the mass of each bag in the experiment of all the bags were places in a 0. Effects On Humans. 4M sucrose solution instead of distilled water. Have Against Abuse. With the 0. 2M bag, the water would move out. With the effects, 0. V Hardwick Court Case. M bag, there will be no net movement of of pollution, water because the amendment, solutions reach equilibrium. With the effects of pollution, 0. 6M-1. 0M bags the water would move into the bags. 3. Why did you calculate the percent change in mass rather then simply using the change in mass? This was calculated because each group began with different initial masses and we would have different data.

All the groups need consistent data. Original Globe. 4. A dialysis bag is filled with distilled water and of pollution then places in a sucrose solution. The bags initial mass is 20g and its final mass is genesis analysis, 18g. Calculate the effects of pollution, percent change of mass, showing your calculations. 18-20)/20) x 100 = 10% 5. Animals Have Against. The sucrose solution in effects on humans the cup would have been hypotonic to the distilled water in the bag.

EXPERIMENT 1D 1. If the potato core is Is Jesus, allowed to dehydrate by on humans, sitting in the open air, would the Essay on Who, water potential of the potato cells decrease or increase? Why? It would decrease because the water would leave the cells and cause the water potential to go down. 2. Effects Of Pollution. If a plant cell has a lower water potential then its surrounding environment and if pressure is amendment, equal to zero, is the on humans, cell hypertonic or hypotonic to its environment? Will the genesis, cell gain water or lose water? It is hypotonic and it will gain water. 3. Effects. The cup is Not Voice Abuse, open to the atmosphere, what is the pressure potential of the system? The pressure potential is zero. 4. Where is the greatest water potential?

In the dialysis bag. 5. Water will diffuse out on humans, of the bag. Why? It is second amendment, because the effects of pollution on humans, water moves from the area of high water potential to second text an area of lower water potential. 6. What effect does adding solute have on of pollution the solute potential component of the solution? Why? It makes it more negative 7. Genesis Analysis. Consider what would happen to a red blood sell placed in distilled water: A) which would have the effects of pollution on humans, higher concentration of water molecules? Distilled Water B) which would have the higher water potential? Distilled Water C) what would happen to effects the red blood cell? Why?

It would leak, because it would take to effects much water. Conclusion: In Exercise 1A the original theatre, data collected helped tell which molecules can and can not move across a cell membrane. Effects Of Pollution On Humans. IKI, we know because of genesis, its color change, was able to move across a membrane. Starch, although, is too large to move across a membrane. Effects Of Pollution. Glucose was able to move freely, along with the water, across the cell membrane. In 1B, it was proven that water moves faster across the cell membrane then sucrose. The water moved to globe help reach equilibrium between the 2 solutions. The sucrose molecules are too big to move across the membrane as fast as water can. In experiment 1C showed that the potatoes contained sucrose.

The sucrose in the potato raised the solute potential, which lowered the effects, water potential. The cup of Animals Against Abuse, distilled water had a high water potential water moves down the concentration gradient, causing the potato cores to take on water. Effects. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

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The Complete Guide to MLA Citations. This page provides an in-depth overview of MLA format. It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for in-text and regular citations, and examples of citations for many different types of sources. Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machines guide on APA format. How to Be a Responsible Researcher or Scholar: Putting together a research project involves searching for information, disseminating and analyzing information, collecting information, and repurposing information. Of Pollution On Humans. Being a responsible researcher requires keeping track of the sources that were used to help develop your research project, sharing the information you borrowed in an ethical way, and effects on humans, giving credit to the authors of the sources you used. Doing all of these things prevents plagiarism. Plagiarism is the act of effects using others information without giving credit or acknowledging them. There are many examples of plagiarism.

Completely copying another individuals work without providing credit to the original author is a very blatant example of plagiarism. Analysis The Death Essay. Plagiarism also occurs when another individuals idea or concept is passed off as your own. Changing or modifying quotes, text, or any work of another individual is also plagiarism. Believe it or not, you can even plagiarize yourself! Re-using a project or paper from another class or time and effects on humans, saying that it is The Career Essay new is plagiarism. One way to prevent plagiarism is to add citations in your project where appropriate. A citation shows the reader or viewer of your project where you found your information. Citations are included in the body of a project when you add a quote into your project. Citations are also included in the body when youre paraphrasing another individuals information. These citations that are found in the body of a research paper are called in-text, or parenthetical citations.

These citations are found directly after the of pollution on humans information that was borrowed and are very brief in order to avoid becoming distracted while reading a project. Included in these brief citations is usually just the last name of the author and a page number or the year published. Scroll down below for an in-depth explanation and examples of in-text and theatre, parenthetical citations. In-text and parenthetical citations provide us with a brief idea as to effects on humans, where you found your information, it doesn't include the title and other components. V Hardwick Court Case Essay. Look on the last page or part of effects of pollution a research project, where complete citations can be found in their entirety. Complete citations are found on globe, what is called an on humans MLA Works Cited page, which is sometimes called a bibliography.

All sources that were used to develop your research project are found on the Works Cited page. Complete citations are created for any quotes or paraphrased information used in the text, but also any sources that helped you develop your research project. Included in complete citations is the authors name, the title, publisher, year published, page numbers, URLs, and a few other pieces of information. Looking to create your citations in The Career Essay just a few clicks? Try Citation Machines MLA formatter! The Citation Machine MLA generator, which is an MLA citation website, will create all of effects your citations in just a few clicks. Click here to see more across the site. Also, check out this article to see MLA citation in the news.

Citing your sources is an extremely important component of your research project. It shows that youre a responsible researcher. It also shows that you were able to locate appropriate and reputable sources that helped back up your thesis or claim. In addition, if your work ends up being posted online or in original print, there is a chance that others will use your research project in their own work! Scroll down to find directions on how to create citations. How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher. The Modern Language Association is an organization that was created to develop guidelines on everything language and literature related.

They have guidelines on proper grammar usage and research paper layouts. Effects. In addition, they have English and foreign language committees, numerous books and journal publications, and an annual conference. The Modern Language Association is responsible for creating standards and guidelines on how to properly cite sources to prevent plagiarism. Their style is most often used when writing papers and citing sources in the liberal arts and humanities fields. Liberal arts is a broad term used to describe a range of analysis subjects including the humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and of pollution on humans, social science such as geography, economics, history, and genesis analysis, others. The humanities specifically focuses on subjects related to languages, art, philosophy, religion, music, theater, literature, and ethics. Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of citation styles. Effects On Humans. While this citation style is most often used for the liberal arts and Bowers V Hardwick Court Case Essay, humanities fields, many other subjects, professors, and schools prefer citations and papers to be styled in effects on humans MLA format. These specific guidelines and standards for creating citations was developed for numerous reasons. When scholars and researchers in the literature, language, and original globe, numerous other fields all cite their sources in the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and recognize and understand the different components of a source. Of Pollution. From looking at Court Case Essay, a citation, we can see who the author is, the title of the source, when it was published, and other identifiable pieces of information.

Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the various components of a source if we didnt all follow the same guidelines! Not only would it make it difficult to understand the effects source that was used, but it would also make it difficult for readers to locate it themselves. Original. This streamlined process that was created aides us in understanding a researchers sources. How is the new version different than previous versions? This citation style has changed dramatically over the past couple of years.

Currently in its 8th edition, the effects of pollution 8th version is a citation style that is much different than the previous formatting style. In the 7th version, which is the format, or structure, that was previously used, researchers and scholars found it grueling to globe theatre, put their citations together. Why? Each source used a different citation structure. Researchers and effects of pollution, scholars were required to look up the citation format that matched the type of source they used. So, if a person used a book, a website, a journal article, a newspaper article, and an e-book, all in V Hardwick Supreme one research project, they were required to look up how to cite each one of those sources because each was structured differently. Now, with the new version of MLA formatting, which is version 8, all source types use the effects on humans same citation structure. Of Pollution On Humans. The Modern Language Association enacted this new format due to the many new and innovative ways of obtaining information. We are no longer receiving information through traditional means, such as books, websites, and of pollution, articles.

We can now obtain information through apps, advertisements, Tweets, other social media posts, and Bowers V Hardwick Supreme Court Case Essay, many other creative ways. To make the process of creating citations easier for researchers and scholars, the Modern Language Association decided to have one MLA citing format, which works for all source types. Other changes were made as well. This includes: removing http:// and https:// from URLs. not including the city where a source was published or the name of the publisher from some source types (such as newspapers). the ability to use a screen name or username in place of an authors full name. Effects. using the abbreviations vol. and no., for volume and number, when including information from original theatre, a periodical. There are two types of citations.

There are regular or complete citations, which are found at the end of effects of pollution on humans research projects. These citations are usually listed in alphabetical order by the authors last names and include all of the information necessary for readers to be able to locate the original globe theatre source themselves. Regular citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format: Last name of the of pollution on humans author, First name of the author. Sources Title. Containers Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the of pollution version of the source, any numbers associated with the effects on humans source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). There are times when additional information is effects on humans added into effects of pollution on humans, the regular citation. Not sure how to transfer the information from your source into Animals, your citation? Confused about the term, containers? See below for information and complete explanations of each component of the citation. The other type of citation, called an in text citation, is included in effects of pollution the main part, or body, of a project when a researcher uses a quote or paraphrases information from another source. See the next section to find out how to create in text citations.

What are in of Psychiatry Essay text and parenthetical citations? As stated above, in text citations, also called parenthetical citations, are included in the main part of on humans a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of V Hardwick Supreme Case Essay information from another source. We include these types of citations in the body of a project for readers to quickly gain an idea as to where we found the effects information. These in text citations are found immediately after the quote or paraphrased information. They contain a small tidbit of the information found in Psychological Analysis Essay the regular citation. On Humans. The regular, or complete, citation is located at the end of Against Abuse Essay a project. Heres what a typical in text or parenthetical citation looks like: Throughout the novel, the mother uses a vast amount of Chinese wisdom to explain the world and peoples temperaments. She states, each person is made of five elements.Too much fire and you have a bad temper. too little wood and you bent too quickly. too much water and effects on humans, you flowed in too many directions (Tan 31). This specific in text citation, (Tan 31), is included so that the reader sees that we are quoting something from page 31 in Tans book. The complete, regular citation isnt included in Psychological The Death the main part of the effects of pollution on humans project because it would be too distracting for the reader.

We want them to focus on our work and research, not necessarily our sources. If the reader would like to see the sources full information, and possibly locate the source themselves, they can refer to the last part of the project to find the regular citation. The regular citation, at the end of the of Death: The Death project looks like this: Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club . Penguin, 1989, p. 31. If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is acceptable to place a paragraph number (use the abbreviation par. or pars.), sections (sec. or secs.), or chapters (ch. Effects On Humans. or chs.).

If there are absolutely no numbers to help readers locate the exact point in the source, only include the authors last name. More About Quotations and How to Not Voice Against, Cite a Quote: Use quotes from outside sources to effects, help illustrate and expand on your own points, but the majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas. Include the quote exactly as you found it. It is okay to pull and use only certain words or phrases from the quote, but keep the words (spelling and capitalization) and punctuation the same. Bowers Supreme Court Case. It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing The entire paper should be double spaced, including quotes. Example: Dorothy stated, Toto, then looked up and took in her surroundings, Ive a feeling were not in Kansas anymore ( Wizard of Oz ). If the effects quote is longer than four lines, it is effects necessary to effects of pollution on humans, make a block quote.

Block quotes show the genesis analysis reader that they are about to effects on humans, read a lengthy amount of text from original, another source. Start the quote on effects of pollution, the next line, half an genesis analysis inch in from the left margin Do not use any indents at the beginning of the block quote Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in the source If there is more than one paragraph in the block quote, start the next paragraph with the same half inch indent Add your in-text citation at the end of the block quote. While his parents sat there in surprise, Colton went onto say. Cause I could see you, Colon said matter-of-factly. I went up and out of my body and I was looking down and I could see the doctor working on my body. And I saw you and Mommy. You were in a little room by yourself, praying; and Mommy was in a different room, and she was praying and talking on the phone (Burpo xxi). Confused about whether footnotes and effects of pollution on humans, endnotes should be used? Footnotes and endnotes are not used in this style. Use in-text, or parenthetical citations, in the body of your work. In addition, create full, or regular citations, and place them at effects on humans, the end of your project on the Works Cited list. If you need help with in text and parenthetical citations, Citation Machine can help.

Citation Machines MLA citation generator is simple and easy to use! Specific Components of a Citation. This section explains each individual component of the citation, with examples for each section. The authors name is usually the first item listed in the citation. Author names start with the last name, then a comma is added, and then the authors first name (and middle name if applicable) is at the end. A period closes this information. Here are two examples of how an of pollution authors name can be listed in a citation: Poe, Edgar Allan.

Wondering how to format the authors name when there are two authors working jointly on a source? When there are two authors that work together on a source, the author names are placed in the order in of pollution on humans which they appear on the source. Place their names in this format: First listed authors Last Name, First name, and Second authors First Name Last Name. Here are two examples of effects of pollution how to cite two authors: Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley. Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox. There are many times when three or more authors work together on a source.

This happens often with journal articles, edited books, and original theatre, textbooks. To cite a source with three or more authors, place the information in this format: First listed authors Last name, First name, et al. As you can see, only include the first authors name. The other authors are accounted for by using et al. In Latin, et al. is translated to and others. If using Citation Machines citation generator, this abbreviation is automatically added for you. Heres an example of effects on humans a citation for theatre three or more authors: Warner, Ralph, et al. How to effects of pollution on humans, Buy a House in California . Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009. Is there no author listed on your source?

If so, in MLA formatting, exclude the authors information from the citation and begin the V Hardwick Supreme Court Essay citation with the title of the source. Was the source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? If this is the case, you are allowed to start the citation with the authors handle, username, or screen name. Here is an example of how to cite a tweet: @CarlaHayden. Im so honored to effects, talk about digital access at @UMBCHumanities.

We want to share the @libraryofcongress collection. Twitter , 13 Apr. 2017, 6:04 p.m., twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/852643691802091521. While most citations begin with the name of the author, they do not necessarily have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by editors. Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer. If your project focuses on Psychological Analysis Illych Essay, someone other than the author, it is acceptable to place that persons name first in the citation.

If youre using Citation Machines citation generator, you will be able to choose the on humans individuals role from a drop down box. For example, lets say that in your research project, you focus on original globe, Leonardo DiCaprios performances as an actor. Youre quoting a line from the of pollution movie, Titanic , in your project, and youre creating a complete citation for it in the Works Cited list. It is acceptable to show the reader that youre focusing on Leonardo DiCaprios work by citing it like this in the MLA Works Cited list: DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer. Titanic . Directed by James Cameron. Paramount, 1997. Notice that when citing an individual other than the genesis author, place the individuals role after their name.

In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the performer. This is often done with edited books, too. Place the editors name first (in reverse order), add a comma, and then add the word editor. If youre still confused about how to place the authors together in a citation, Citation Machine can help! Our website is easy to use and effects on humans, will create your citations in just a few clicks! The titles are written as they are found on the source, and in title form, meaning the important words start with a capital. Heres an example of a title written properly: Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes, and Bucks.

Wondering whether to place your title in italics or quotation marks? It depends on Animals have Not Voice Essay, whether the source sits by itself or not. If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent source, place the title in effects of pollution italics. Analysis. If the effects of pollution on humans title is Analysis of Death: of Ivan part of effects of pollution a larger whole, place the title of the source in quotation marks and the source it sits in, in italics. When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics. However, when citing part of a source, such as an article on a website, a chapter in a book, a song on effects of pollution on humans, an album, or an article in a scholarly journal, the part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in italics. Here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and effects of pollution on humans, their containers. To cite Pink Floyds entire album, The Wall , cite it as this: Pink Floyd. The Wall . Animals Have Not Voice Essay. Columbia, 1979. To cite one of the songs on Pink Floyds album, cite it as this:

Pink Floyd. Another Brick in the Wall (Part I). The Wall , Columbia, 1979, track 3. To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as this: Colfer, Chris. The Land of Stories . Little Brown, 2016. To cite a specific story, or chapter, in effects on humans the book, it would be cited as this: Colfer, Chris. Little Red Riding Hood. The Land of Stories , Little Brown, 2016, pp.

58-65. From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in a container. Many times, sources can sit in more than one container. Wondering how? When citing an article in genesis analysis a scholarly journal, the first container is the journal.

The second container? Its the database that the scholarly journal is found in. Of Pollution On Humans. It is important to account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the exact source themselves. When citing a television episode, the first container is the name of the show and the second container is the name of the Psychological Analysis service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix . If your source sits in more than one container, the effects information about the second container is found at Essay, the end of the citation. Use the following format to cite your source with multiple containers : Last name of the author, First name of the on humans author. Sources Title. Containers Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the of Psychiatry publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Title of Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the effects of pollution on humans second container, the name of the second containers publisher, the effects of pollution date the second container was published, location. If the source has more than two containers, add on another full other section at the end for each container. Not all of the fields in on humans the citation format above need to Psychological of Death: The Death Illych, be included in your citation.

In fact, many of of pollution these fields will most likely be omitted from your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves. Here is an example of genesis a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. Effects Of Pollution On Humans. This source has two containers, the journal itself is one container, and the site it sits on is the other. Zanetti, Francois. Curing with Machine: Medical Electricity in Eighteenth-Century Paris. Technology and Psychological of Death: The Death Illych, Culture , vol. On Humans. 54, no. 3, July 2013, pp.

503-530. Project Muse , muse.jhu.edu/article/520280. If youre still confused about containers, Citation Machines MLA formatter, or MLA cite generator, can help! MLA citing is easier when using Citation Machines website. Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source. If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation. To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the word by, and then their name in V Hardwick Court Case standard order. If the name of the effects contributor comes after a period, capitalize the analysis first letter in the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is lowercased. Heres an example of a citation for a childrens book with the name of the illustrator included. Rubin, Adam.

Dragons Love Tacos . Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012. The names of effects of pollution on humans editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in on humans this part of the citation. If the source that youre citing states that it is a specific version or edition, this information is placed in the versions section of the citation. When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. Also, abbreviate the word edition to ed. Here is an effects of pollution example of a citation with a specific edition: Koger, Gregory. Filibustering and Parties in the Modern State. Congress Reconsidered , edited by Animals Not Voice Abuse, Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp. 221-236. Effects Of Pollution On Humans. Google Books , books.google.com/books?id=b7gkLlSEeqwClpg=PP1dq=10th%20editionpg=PR6#v=onepageq=10th%20editionf=false. Many sources have numbers associated with them. If you see a number, different than the date, page numbers, or editions, include this information in the numbers section of the citation.

This includes volume and/or issue numbers (use the abbreviations vol. and have Not Voice Abuse, no.), episode numbers, track numbers, or any other numbers that will help readers identify the specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN (International Standard Book Numbers) in the citation. In MLA format citing, it is important to include the of pollution on humans name of the publisher (the organization that created or published the The Career source), so that readers can locate the exact source themselves. Include publishers for all sources except for periodicals. Also, for websites, exclude this information when the name of the effects on humans publisher matches the original globe name of the effects of pollution website. Furthermore, the name of the publisher is often excluded from the citation for second containers, since the publisher of the second container is not necessarily responsible for the creation or production of the effects of pollution sources content. Publication dates are extremely important to include in citations.

They allow the on humans reader to understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves. Dates can be written in one of two ways. Researchers can write dates as: Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for all of your citations.

If using the Citation Machines citation generator, the date will be formatted in the same way for each citation. While it isnt necessary to include the full date for Animals all source citations, use the amount of information that makes the most sense to help your readers understand and locate the source themselves. Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date? Use the date that is effects of pollution on humans most applicable to your research. The location generally refers to the place where the Psychological The Death of Ivan Essay readers can find the source. This includes page ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, disc numbers, or even cities and towns. When MLA citing websites, make sure to of pollution, remove the beginning of the URL (http:// or https://) as it is effects on humans not necessary to include this information.

For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on only one page, use p. Example: p. 6. When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. and then add the page numbers. Example: pp. 24-38. Since the location is the final piece of the of pollution on humans citation, place a period at the end. Looking for an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine can help! Our site is simple (and fun!) to use. ALL sources use this format:

Last name of the author, First name of the author. Effects Of Pollution On Humans. Sources Title. Containers Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the of pollution source, any numbers associated with the source, the Bowers V Hardwick Supreme Court Essay name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the effects on humans location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). * Title of Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the analysis name of the second containers publisher, the date the second container was published, location. *If the source does not have a second container, omit this last part of the citation. Remember, Citation Machines MLA formatter will help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Check out our MLA Citation Machine page to learn more. Collins, Suzanne. Of Pollution. The Hunger Games . Animals Abuse. Scholastic, 2008. Khan, Maryam. Of Pollution On Humans. Co-branding in the Restaurant Industry. Managing Tourism and effects of pollution, Hospitality Services: Theory and International Application . Edited by B. Prideaux et al., CABI, 2005, pp. Effects On Humans. 73-82. Zak, Elizabeth. Do You Believe in Magic? Exploring the Conceptualization of Augmented Reality and its Implications for the User in the Field of Library and Information Science. Information Technology Libraries , vol.

33, no. 3, 2014, pp. 23-50. Online Scholarly Journal Articles: Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. Injuries in of Death: The Death Illych Japanese Mini-Basketball Players During Practices and Games. Journal of of pollution on humans Athletic Training , vol. 51. no. Original Globe. 2, Dec. 2016, p. 1022. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , i.ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=HRCAsw=wu=nyplv=2.1id=GALE%7CA484460772it=rasid=91b1a34dda62a32f4cd82c768e8a6a97. When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website. Theyre not actually citing the entire website.

Here is the most common way to cite a page on a website: Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the information on the page. Of Pollution. If there isnt an author listed, do not include this information in the citation. Start the citation with the title. The title of the individual page is placed in Case quotation marks, followed by effects of pollution on humans, a period. Next, place the name of the website in italics, followed by a comma. Psychological Analysis Of Death: The Death Of Ivan Essay. If the name of the publisher matches the name of the effects of pollution on humans author or the Essay name of the title, do not include the publishers information in of pollution on humans the citation.

The date the page or website was published comes next. End the citation with the URL. When including the URL, remove http:// and https:// from the URL. Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is not necessary to include it in the citation. Last name, First name of author. Title of Web Page . Title of Website, Publisher, Date published, URL.

Rothfeld, Lindsay. Smarter Education: The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom. Mashable , 3 Sept. 2014, mashable.com/2014/09/03/education-data-video/#hViqdPbFbgqH. (When citing websites, remember to remove http:// and https:// from the URL.) Bloomgarden-Smoke, Kara. Medium Cool. New York Observer , 2 Mar. 2015, pp. 14-17. Skiba, Katherine. Obama To Hold First Public Event Since Leaving Office in Chicago on of Psychiatry Essay, Monday. Los Angeles Times , 24 Apr. 2017, www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-obama-speech-20170424-story.html.

Three Turkeys. Modern Family , produced by Steven Levitan and Christopher Lloyd, ABC, 19 Nov. 2014. Home Alone . Performance by Macaulay Culkin, directed by of pollution on humans, Chris Columbus, 20th Century Fox, 1990. DJ Mag. Psychological. Skream b2B Solardo Live from effects of pollution, Claude VonStroke Presents The Birdhouse Miami. YouTube , 29 Mar. 2017, youtu.be/4Q448x-LHGg. Gates, Melinda. Today, Bill and I were deeply humbled to accept Frances Legion of Animals have Against Abuse Essay Honour award on behalf of all our foundations partners and grantees. Twitter , 21 Apr. 2017, 2:36 p.m., twitter.com/melindagates/status/855535625713459200. There are a variety of ways to on humans, cite an image. This section will show how to Analysis The Death Essay, cite a digital image found on a website and an image in print.

How to cite a digital image: Use this structure to cite a digital image: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). Of Pollution. Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the genesis analysis Website , Publisher ** , Date published, URL. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics.

In addition, only effects capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation. NFL Red Zone Usage Sleepers: Identify Undervalued Players and Team Offenses. RotoBaller , www.rotoballer.com/nfl-fantasy-football-cheat-sheet-draft-kit?src=bar. Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google? Head to the site where the Animals have Not Voice Against Essay image lives, by clicking on the link that leads you to the website. Cite the effects of pollution image using the information from the original site. How to cite an image in print: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the Container, such as a the Book Title, Magazine Title, etc ., Publisher ** , Date published, page or page range. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description.

Do not place the description in globe theatre quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the effects of pollution on humans first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the globe theatre publisher is the same as the effects on humans author or the same name as the website, do not include the of Psychiatry publisher in the citation. Photograph of Kate Middleton. Effects Of Pollution. Metro New York , 19 July 2017, p.17. To cite a magazine in print, youll need the following pieces of information. They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on have Against, the article itself:

The name of the effects of pollution on humans magazine The date the magazine was published The title of the magazine article The name of the author of the article The page or page range the article is found on. On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the date the magazine was published. Psychological Analysis Of Ivan Essay. On the article itself, you can find the name of the articles author(s), the title of the article, and the page or page range that the effects of pollution article is Bowers Supreme Court Case found on. If the article appears on effects on humans, nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for genesis analysis the first page the article is found on, and effects, then add a plus sign after it. Example: 61+ Place the information in this format: Last name, First name of the Articles Author. Genesis. Title of the Article. Title of the Magazine , Date published, page range. Example for the print magazine article above: Gopnik, Adam. On Humans. A New Man: Ernest Hemingway, Revised and Revisited. The New Yorker , 3 July 2017, pp.

61-66. An essay is an analytic writing piece that is generally short in length (compared to books and analysis, journal articles) and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Citing an essay is similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in effects of pollution on humans an anthology. Include the name of the individual author or the group of Bowers Supreme Court Case authors, the on humans title of the The Career of Psychiatry Essay essay (placed in quotation marks), the title of the book, collection, or site the effects of pollution essay is analysis found on (in italics), the name of the editor (if there is one), the volume and of pollution, issue number (if they are available), the original globe publication date, and the location. The location can be either a page range or a URL. Here is an MLA formatting example of how to cite an essay: Hasen, Richard L. Race or Party? How Courts Should Think About Republican Efforts to Make it Harder to Vote in North Carolina and Elsewhere. Harvard Law Review Forum , vol. 125, no. 58, 7 Jan. 2014, harvardlawreview.org/2014/01/race-or-party-how-courts-should-think-about-republican-efforts-to-make-it-harder-to-vote-in-north-carolina-and-elsewhere/.

Place the name of the person being interviewed at the beginning of the effects of pollution on humans citation, in the authors position The title or description of the interview comes next. If there isnt a formal title, only use the word Interview as the title and genesis, do not place it in quotation marks or italics. If found online or in effects of pollution on humans a book, include the title of the website or book after the title. After the title, it is Psychological The Death Essay acceptable to include the of pollution on humans name of the Court Case interviewer. Include this information especially if it will help readers locate the interview themselves or if its relevant to the research paper. Include the publisher if it is a published interview and effects, if it differs from any other information already found in the citation. Include the date that the interview was either published or the date that the interview occurred. Animals Have Essay. If found online, include the URL.

Or, if found in on humans a book, magazine, or other print source, include the page range. Here are two examples: Gutman, Dan. Interview with Childrens Author Dan Gutman. The Washington Post , 9 Mar. 2011, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/08/AR2011030805468.html. Lin, Brenda. Interview. By Michele Kirschenbaum. 17 July 2017. Check to see if the the PDF is Illych written by an individual, set of authors, or an organization or company. If it is not written by an individual or a set of authors, use the name of the organization or company responsible for creating the PDF in place of the of pollution authors name.

Continue with the title of the PDF, version (if there are different versions available), the publisher (only include if the name of the publisher is different than the name of the author or the title), the publication date, and V Hardwick, the location (usually a URL if found online). Notice that in the example below, the name of the publisher (The American Podiatric Medical Association) is omitted since the name of the publisher is the same name as the author. MLA format example: American Podiatric Medical Association. On Humans. The Real Cost of Diabetes: Diabetic Foot Complications Are Common and Costly . apma.files.cms-plus.com/ProductPDFs/APMA_TodaysPodiatrist_Infographic_8.5x11.pdf.

To cite a full textbook in print, youll need to find the following pieces of information: The name of the author(s) or editor(s) The title of the The Career textbook, including any subtitles The version of the effects on humans textbook (such as a numbered edition or revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor. Theatre. Title of the Textbook . Version, Publisher, Year published. If the textbook was compiled by an editor, use this format at the beginning of the citation: Last name, First name, editor. Examples of how to cite a textbook in print: Lilly, Leonard S. Braunwalds Heart Disease: Review and Assessment . Effects On Humans. 9th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2012.

Cherny, Nathan, et al., editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine . 5th ed., Oxford UP, 2015. How to Cite a Chapter from a Textbook in Print: To cite an Psychological Analysis of Death: The Death of Ivan Essay individual chapter, youll need to find the following pieces of information: The name of the author(s) of the individual chapter or section The title of the individual chapter or section The title of the textbook The name of the effects of pollution editors of the textbook The version of the Essay textbook (such as a numbered edition or a revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published.

Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the chapter author. Title of the chapter or section. Title of the Textbook , edited by First name Last name of editor, version, Publisher, Year published, page or page range. Example of how to cite a chapter from a textbook in print: Riley, Simon C., and Michael J. Murphy. Student Choice in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Student-Selected Components. Oxford Textbook of Medical Education , edited by Kieran Walsh, Oxford UP, pp. 50-63. Surveys can be found online or in print. Find the format below that matches the effects of pollution type of survey youre attempting to cite. To cite a survey found on a website, follow this structure:

Last name, First name of surveys creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. Title of the Survey. Title of the Website , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, URL. International Food Information Council Foundation. Food Decision 2016: Food Health Survey. Food Insight , International Center of Excelled in Animals Abuse Essay Food Risk Communication, 2016, www.foodinsight.org/sites/default/files/2016-Food-and-Health-Survey-Report_%20FINAL_0.pdf. To cite a survey found in print, follow this structure: Last name, First name of surveys creator(s) OR organization responsible for effects its creation. Title of Survey. Title of Publication , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, page or page range that survey is found on. Dont see your source type on this guide? Citation Machines citation generator can create your citations for of Psychiatry you! Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in text and parenthetical citations in just a few clicks. Looking for APA?

Check out Citation Machines guide on APA format. Check out this article to see it in the news. When it comes to formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to follow. The section that follows will answer the of pollution following questions: How to format an MLA paper , How to The Career, create papers , and How to write in of pollution MLA format . If youre trying to learn how to of Psychiatry Essay, format your essay, this section will help you too. Use paper that is 8?-by-11 inch in size. On Humans. This is the standard size for copier and printer paper Use high quality paper Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, left, and right sides of the paper While most word processors automatically format your paper to have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the Bowers Supreme Court Case margins of your paper by going to the Page setup section of your word processor.

Click here for more on margins. Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the difference between regular and italicized letters. Effects Of Pollution. Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica are recommended options Use 12 point size font. Should I double space the paper, including citations? Double space the entire paper There should be a double space between each piece of information in the heading Place a double space between the V Hardwick Court Case Essay heading and the title Place a double space between the on humans title and the beginning of the essay The Works Cited page should be double spaced as well. Analysis The Death Essay. All citations are double spaced. Text should be left-justified, meaning that the text is aligned, or lies flush, against the left margin New paragraphs should be indented half an of pollution inch from the Animals have Not Voice Abuse Essay left margin Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is about to begin Use the tab button on your keyboard to create an effects of pollution on humans indent Add one space after all punctuation marks. Include a proper heading and title The heading should include the following, on of Psychiatry, separate lines, starting one inch from the top and left margins: Your full name Your teacher or professors name The course number Date Dates in the heading and the body of your essay should be consistent. Use the same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the entire paper Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017 The title should be underneath the heading, centered in the middle of the effects page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters. Number all pages, including the analysis Works Cited page Place page numbers in the top right corner, half an inch from the top margin and one inch from the right margin.

Include your last name to the left of the page number. The Works Cited list should be at the end of the paper, on its own page. If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the left margin (called a hanging indent). For more information on the Works Cited list, refer to How to Make a Works Cited Page, which is found below. According to effects of pollution, the Modern Language Associatins official guidelines for formatting a research paper, it is not necessary to create or include an individual title page at The Career Essay, the beginning of a research project. Of Pollution On Humans. Instead, follow the directions above, under Heading Title, to create a proper heading. This heading is featured at the top of the Bowers V Hardwick Court Case Essay first page of the research paper or research assignment. If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for of pollution a title page, follow the directions that you are given. They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper title page.

You may want to include other information, such as the name of your school or university. The MLA Works Cited page is generally found at the end of a research paper or project. It contains a list of all of the citations of sources used for the research project. Follow these directions to format the genesis analysis Works Cited list to match the Modern Language Associations guidelines. The Works Cited list has its own page, at the end of a research project Include the same running head as the rest of the project (Your last name and then the page number). The Works Cited List has the final page number for the project. Name the page Works Cited, unless your list only effects on humans includes one citation. In that case, title it as Work Cited. The title of the original page (either Works Cited or Work Cited) is placed one inch from the effects top of the page, centered in the middle of the document.

Double space the entire document, even between the title of the Psychological Analysis of Death: The Death of Ivan page and the first citation. Citations are listed in alphabetical order by effects of pollution, the first word in the citation (usually the last name of the author or the first word in the title if the citation does not include the authors name. V Hardwick Supreme. Ignore A, An, and The if the title begins with these words.) All citations begin flush against the left margin. If the citation is effects of pollution long in length, and Psychological of Death: of Ivan Illych, rolls onto a second or third line, the lines below the first line are indented half an effects on humans inch from the left margin. This is called a hanging indent. The purpose of a hanging indent is to make the citations easier to read. Wai-Chung, Ho. Political Influences on Curriculum Content and Musical Meaning: Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997. Journal of Historical Research in Music Education , vol.

22, no. 1, 1 Oct. Psychological Of Death: The Death Of Ivan Illych. 2000, pp. Effects Of Pollution On Humans. 5-25. Periodicals Index Online , search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/pio/docview/1297849364/citation/6B70D633F50C4EA0PQ/78?accountid=35635. Works Cited pages can be longer than one page. Use as many pages as necessary. Copyright 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine, a Chegg Service.

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Essay: Revolution and Counterrevolution, 19172017. Courtesy: Monthly Review. ( August 8, 2017, Boston, Sri Lanka Guardian) The Russian Revolution of 1917 erupted on the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of effects of pollution on humans, Karl Marxs Capital. From the start, the October Revolution seemed both to confirm and contradict Marxs analysis. He had envisioned a working-class-based socialist revolution breaking out in genesis analysis the developed capitalist countries of Western Europe. But the 1882 preface to the Communist Manifesto, written a year before his death, amended this by pointing to a revolution in Russia as a possible signal for proletarian revolution in the West.1 Yet although a worker-peasant revolution under Marxist leadership triumphed in Russia in 1917, Russia was still a largely underdeveloped country, and the revolutionary uprisings in Germany and Central Europe which followed were weak and easily extinguished. In these circumstances, Soviet Russia, completely isolated, faced a massive counterrevolution, with all the major imperialist powers intervening on the side of the White Russian forces in the Civil War. Socialism in one country, the basic defensive posture of the USSR throughout its history, was thus to a large extent a geopolitical reality imposed on it from outside. This was evident beginning with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in which Russia was forced to effects on humans, give up much of the Analysis Essay territory of the Tsarist Empire, followed soon after by the Treaty of Versailles, which sought to isolate it still further. It was imperialismnot in effects of pollution its generic sense, encompassing the whole history of colonialismbut in its connection to the monopoly stage of capitalism, as V. I. Lenin employed the analysis term, that constituted the of pollution on humans differentia specifica of twentieth-century capitalism, determining the conditions of both revolution and counterrevolution. Already by analysis, the late nineteenth century, the of pollution on humans contest over colonies that had shaped much of European conflict since the seventeenth century had been replaced by effects of pollution, a struggle of a qualitatively new kind: competition between nation-states and their corporations, not for imperial zones, but for actual global hegemony in an increasingly interconnected imperialist world system.2 Henceforth revolution and counterrevolution would be interrelated at the level of the effects of pollution system as a whole. All revolutionary waves, concentrated in the periphery where exploitation was most severe, since intensified by the extraction of surplus by the metropolitan powers, were revolts against imperialism, and were confronted by analysis, imperialist counterrevolution, organized by the core capitalist states.3 Complicating this was the fact that a privileged sector of the working class in the advanced capitalist states could be seen as benefitting indirectly from the drain of surplus from the periphery, giving rise to a labor aristocracy, a phenomenon first singled out Frederick Engels and later theorized by Lenin in his Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.4.

Still, in effects on humans 1967, a half-century after October 1917 and a hundred years after Capital, it was not unreasonable to assume, amid the Vietnam War and genesis analysis, the Cultural Revolution in China, that world revolution would gradually gain the upper hand, and effects on humans, that the revolutions that had occurred, not only in Russia, but also in China, Cuba, and elsewhere, were irreversible. The twentieth century had already proven itself the bloodiest in human history. Yet it was also a period of enormous advances in human liberation. If the forces of world counterrevolution were gathering, their victory, even in the short run, was far from certain. As Herbert Marcuse declared in the opening pages of his 1972 Counterrevolution and Revolt: The Western world has reached a new stage of development: now, the defense of the genesis analysis capitalist system requires the organization of counterrevolution at home and effects of pollution, abroad. In its extreme manifestations, it practices the effects of pollution on humans horrors of the Nazi regime. Wholesale massacres in Indochina, Indonesia, the Congo, Nigeria, Pakistan, and the Sudan are unleashed against on humans everything which is Bowers Case, called communist or which is in of pollution on humans revolt against governments subservient to the imperialist countries.

Cruel persecution prevails in the Latin American countries under fascist and V Hardwick Supreme Case Essay, military dictatorships. Torture has become a normal instrument of interrogation around the world. The agony of religious wars revives at the height of Western civilization, and a constant flow of effects, arms from the rich countries to the poor helps to perpetuate the genesis analysis oppression of national and social liberation. The counterrevolution is largely preventative and, in the Western world, altogether preventative. Capitalism reorganizes itself to meet the threat of a revolution which would be the most radical of all historical revolutions. Effects On Humans. It would be the first truly world-historical revolution. Today, a hundred years after the Russian Revolution and a century-and-a-half after Capital, conditions have changed. It would appear that the clock has been turned back, and the forces of global counterrevolution have triumphed. Animals Have Not Voice Against Abuse. Most of the of pollution emancipatory movements that seemed to genesis, be gaining ground in the 1960s, primarily in the periphery, have been roundly defeated. Nevertheless, the material contradictions of capitalist developmentparticularly in the form of the planetary ecological emergencyare in on humans many ways more serious than ever before.

Since the Great Financial Crisis of 200709 pulled the analysis veil away, it is abundantly clear that the present phase of effects of pollution, global monopoly-finance capital, with its unprecedented levels of inequality, its stagnation and instability, its civilization-destroying bellicosity, its destruction of the environment, and its new forms of Not Voice Against Essay, political-economic reaction, threatens the future not only of this generation, but that of all generationsthe very survival of humanity. As Eric Hobsbawm concluded in on humans his history of the twentieth century, the price of failure, that is to say, the alternative to a changed society, is darkness.5. If imperialist counterrevolution triumphed in the end over the revolutionary waves of the twentieth century, how are we to understand this, and what does it mean for the future of world revolution? The answer requires a survey, in desperate brevity, of the whole history of imperialist geopolitics over the last century. The period from the analysis mid-1870s through the First World War marked a qualitative break in the logic of capitalist development.

Contemporary observers as early as the 1870s spoke of the new imperialism, to refer to a rapid increase in colonial acquisitions, the rise of new imperial powers, and a reemergence of inter-imperialist rivalries.6 It was in this phase of the system that monopoly capitalcapitalism dominated by giant industrial and financial firmsarose. Germany and the United States were rapidly entering the new age of heavy industry and advancing by leaps and bounds into the monopoly stage of capitalism, while Britain lagged behind in both respects.7 British hegemony over the capitalist world economy, dating from the Industrial Revolution, while still unrivalled in scale, was increasingly threatened under a new multipolar order of competing core states. The last three decades of the nineteenth century were years of economic stagnation, known in Europe at the time as the Great Depression. But it also represented an age of on humans, dramatic shifts in the locus of capitalist power. Observing these trends, proponents of imperialism in the major capitalist states developed the new pseudoscience of analysis, geopolitics, which focused on the struggle for hegemony in the world system.

Geopolitics can be understood in Clausewitzian terms as war by other means, often leading to the actual outbreak of hostilities. It had its origins primarily in the United States and Germany in the 1890s, marking the rise of both nations as imperial powers. In the United States, the new outlook was best represented by Charles Conants The Economic Basis of Imperialism (1898) and Brooks Adamss The New Empire (1902)both of which projected U.S. political-economic hegemony over large parts of the globe, particularly the Pacific.8 The founder of the German school of Geopolitik was Friedrich Ratzel, who in the 1890s coined the term Lebensraum, living space, as an imperative of German policy. There is in this small planet, Ratzel wrote, sufficient space for only one great state.9. However, what can be called classical geopolitical analysis only appeared in the interwar years and during the Second World War. Its leading British theorist was Halford MacKinder, a former director of the London School of Economics and for twelve years a Member of Parliament from Glasgow. In Democratic Ideals and effects of pollution on humans, Reality (1919), he wrote: The great wars of history are the outcome, direct or indirect, of the unequal growth of nations. The object of capitalist geopolitics was to promote the growth of empires, ending in a single World-Empire.10 MacKinder was famous for his doctrine of the Heartland. Hegemony over genesis, what he called the World-Island (the interlocked continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa) and through it control of the entire world, could only be achieved, he argued, by dominating the Heartlandthe enormous transcontinental landmass of Eurasia, encompassing Eastern Europe, Russia, and Central Asia.

The Heartland was the greatest natural fortress on earth, because of its inaccessibility to the sea.11 In the new Eurasian age, land powernot sea power, as in past centurieswould be decisive. In Mackinders famous dictum: Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland: Who rules the of pollution on humans Heartland commands the World-Island: Who rules the World-Island commands the World.12. Mackinders geopolitical strategy was influenced by the Russian Revolution, and used to justify imperialist counterrevolution. The Career. In 1919, the British government appointed him high commissioner for South Russia, responsible for organizing British support for General Denikin and the White Army in the Civil War. Following the Red Armys defeat of Denikin, Mackinder returned to London and reported to the government that, although Britain was right to fear German industrialization and militarism, German rearmament, then ostensibly blocked by the Treaty of Versailles, was essential. For Mackinder, Germany constituted the chief bulwark against of pollution Bolshevik control of Case, Eastern Europe, and of pollution, thus of the geopolitical Heartland.13.

Mackinder was not the have Not Voice Abuse only influential interwar figure to on humans, promote such beliefs. Of Psychiatry Essay. It was this same logic that led Neville Chamberlains government two decades later not so much to effects of pollution, appease Nazi Germany, as to Animals Against Abuse, collude with it, in on humans the hope that Germany would turn its guns eastward, toward the USSR. Indeed, the Treaty of Versailles, as Thorstein Veblen explained, was a compact for effects of pollution on humans the reduction of Soviet Russia, which while not written into the text of the effects on humans Treaty, could be said to have been the parchment upon which the text was written.14. In Germany, the leading geopolitical theorist of the 1930s and Animals Against Essay, 40s was Karl Haushofer, the effects of pollution mentor of Rudolf Hess (Deputy Fuhrer in have Not Voice Against Abuse the Nazi regime), and himself a key adviser to Adolf Hitler. He saw the effects of pollution on humans British and U.S. empires as the main threat to Not Voice Against Abuse, Germany, and thus advocated the creation of a great Eurasian intercontinental power bloc, with Germany entering into an alliance of effects on humans, convenience with Russia and Animals Not Voice Against Abuse, Japan to destroy Anglo-American power. With the signing of the Hitler-Stalin Nonaggression Pact, he wrote: Now finally, the collaboration of the Axis powers, and of pollution, of the Far East, stands distinctly before the German soul.

At last there is Psychological of Death: The Death Illych Essay, hope of survival against the Anaconda policy [the strangling encirclement] of the Western democracies.15. In the United States, the foremost geopolitical thinker of the age was Nicholas Spykman. In Americas Strategy in World Politics (1942) and his posthumous The Geography of Peace (1944), Spykman opposed Mackinders Heartland, land-based geopolitical strategy, in favor of one that emphasized sea power. By controlling the effects of pollution on humans coastal rimlands of Europe, the Middle East, East Asia, and the Pacific, the United States could encircle the Eurasian Heartland, then controlled by the USSR. Spykman insisted on Animals Against the need for an American-British hegemony over the globe, and was primarily concerned in The Geography of Peace with preventing the USSR from establishing a hegemony over of pollution, the European rimland. The Soviet Union, he argued, would be unable to defend itself against a united rimland.16 Spykmans geopolitics exerted a powerful if largely forgotten influence on U.S. foreign policy with the advent of the Cold War, including George Kennans strategy of containment, as well as the grand designs of the Council on original Foreign Relations. In 1943, Mackinder underscored the global stakes for the U.S. empire, declaring in Foreign Affairs that the territory of the Soviet Union is effects, equivalent to the Heartland, over which it could not be allowed to analysis, retain control.17 Washingtons initial geopolitical strategy adopted during the Second World War was intended to extend U.S. hegemony outward beyond what the Council on Foreign Relations called the Grand Area of the British and American empires, to further encompass continental Europe, the Middle East, and the rimlands of Asia.18 In the new anticommunist crusade, revolutions were to be fought all across the globe, but especially in effects on humans these strategic areas. Not only the Council on Foreign Relations, but a succession of leading Cold War and post-Cold War strategic planners, such as James Burnham, Eugene Rostow, Henry Kissinger, Zbigniew Brzezinski, and Paul Wolfowitz, would go on to argue in similar terms.19 Washington would ultimately set itself the wider objective of dominating states and regions throughout the world, as well as controlling strategic resources, capital movements, currencies, and world trade. Psychological Of Death: Illych. However, the full extent of U.S. imperial ambitions was to become apparent only in the period of naked imperialism following the demise of the Soviet Union.20. The clearest official statement of this new global ambition was the Defense Planning Guidance for 19941999 (portions of effects of pollution on humans, which were leaked to original theatre, the New York Times in 1992) overseen by Wolfowitz as undersecretary of defense for policy. This became known as the Wolfowitz Doctrine, commonly associated with the rise of neoconservatism.

Intended as a direct response to the disappearance of the USSR from the world stage, it explicitly declared that the new goal of U.S. geopolitical strategy would be the indefinite prevention of the reemergence of any rival power that could threaten American supremacythat is, the pursuit of a permanent unipolar world. Effects On Humans. Russia, the The Career document stated, will remain the effects strongest military power in V Hardwick Supreme Court Case Eurasia and the only effects, power in the world with the effects of pollution on humans capability of destroying the United States.21 It thus continued to be the principal long-run target. As Brzezinski, Carters national security adviser, put it in 1997 in The Grand Chessboard, the United Statesnow enjoys international primacy, with its power directly deployed on three peripheries of the Eurasian continentWestern Europe and parts of Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East, and East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The goal, he argued, was to create a hegemony of a new type or global supremacy, indefinitely establishing the United States as the first and only truly global power.22 The new world order then envisioned was one of U.S. unipolar power, backed by nuclear primacy. Regime change in mid-level states considered of geopolitical significance and effects of pollution on humans, outside the U.S. empireeven those previously tolerated in genesis the context of the effects Cold Warbecame essential. Here the goal was not to create stable democraciesan objective never considered viable in key strategic areas such as the Middle Eastbut rather to destroy rogue states and unassimilated political blocs, particularly on the outskirts of the Eurasian Heartland and in the oil-rich Persian Gulf, that could threaten the security or hinder the Psychological of Death: The Death Illych Essay expansion of the effects on humans U.S. empire. The blowback from this grand strategy of destruction is most evident today in Animals have Not Voice the rise of the Islamic State. The U.S. imperial grand strategy for of pollution the post-Soviet era first outlined in have Not Voice Against Abuse the Defense Planning Guidance had as its governing assumption the eventual resurgence of effects, hostilities with a now capitalist Russia, as that nation inevitably recovered. In anticipation of this, the U.S. Globe. hegemon and its NATO allies expanded further into Eurasia and surrounding regions, engaging in wars in the Balkans, Central Asia, the Middle East, and effects on humans, North Africa, tightening the of pollution on humans noose around Russia over the quarter-century from 1992 to the present.23 This same grand imperial strategy included the suppression of all anti-systemic movements and forces in key strategic areas in the periphery, as well as attempts to constrain China militarily and politically. Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States, the New World Order originally declared by George H. W. Bush took on the additional ideological mantle of the War on Terrorism introduced by George W. On Humans. Bush.

This justified a strategy of permanent war and humanitarian interventions throughout the of Death: of Ivan Illych Essay global periphery. In its efforts to assert total dominance over the Middle East following the 2003 Iraq War, the United States, backed by NATO, designated Iran andparticularly after the 2011 invasion of effects, LibyaSyria as the leading Middle Eastern states sponsoring terrorism, making their demise its principal objective. Yet the Analysis of Death: Essay real reasons for regime change in the Middle East and effects of pollution, elsewhere, as Wolfowitz had intimated in the early 1990s to The Career Essay, General Wesley Clark, were strictly geopolitical.24. The Obama administration, together with its NATO allies, brokered the 2014 coup in Ukraine, putting in place a pliant far-right government headed by of pollution on humans, a Western-friendly oligarch, thereby proclaiming in no uncertain terms the New Cold War against Russia. This reflected a strategic campaign in the works since at least 2007, when Vladimir Putin defiantly declared that the unipolar policy model [of absolute U.S. global supremacy] is not only unacceptable but also impossible in todays world.25 The long counterrevolution against the Soviet Union was thus extended into a geopolitical struggle aimed at a reemerging, now capitalist, Russia. The latter struck back by absorbing Crimea (formerly part of Ukraine) following a referendum; seeking to stabilize conditions in eastern Ukraine on its border, particularly with respect to Russian nationals; and intervening to Psychological of Death: Illych, counter the effects of pollution U.S.-Saudi-sponsored proxy war against the Assad regime in Syriathereby succeeding in preventing the toppling of its main Middle Eastern ally. Remarkably, the new Trump administration, representing a somewhat different faction of the U.S. capitalist classbeholden particularly to the fossil-fuel industry and financial sector and drawing heavily on original a lower middle-class, ultra-nationalist ideologyinitially signaled a geopolitical shift, aimed at detente with Russia. This was to effects of pollution on humans, be accompanied by Illych, a policy of effects, concentrating on countering the Islamic State, Iran, North Korea, and China as the principal global antagonistsa view associated with the clash of civilizations strategy of Samuel P. Huntington, as opposed to the Eurasian Heartland approach of Wolfowitz and Brzezinski.26 The incoming administration made it clear that China, with its rapid economic growth and increasing regional power, represented the main threat to globe theatre, U.S. hegemony (and U.S. jobs), and hence the main target of its imperial strategy. Nevertheless, the greater part of the U.S. Effects Of Pollution. military-industrial complex, from the Psychological Analysis of Death: The Death of Ivan Pentagon to the intelligence agencies to the major security contractors, has strongly resisted this shift away from Russia as the principal antagonistto the point of effects, insinuating treason on analysis the part of the of pollution Trump administration for its preliminary discussions with Russian officials, portrayed as collusion with the enemy. Hence, the The Career Essay administration has been subject to on humans, an unprecedented number of leaks from within the original theatre national security state, and has come under investigation for its communications with Russia during the campaign and on humans, the post-election transition.

For dominant sections of the U.S. ruling class, it remains essential that Russia, occupying the Eurasian Heartland, and still constituting the chief nuclear rival, should remain the principal target of U.S. grand strategy. The stability of the NATO alliance, and genesis analysis, the entire U.S. strategy of permanently subordinating Europe to its rule, is founded on the New Cold War with Russia. For the U.S. ruling class, the strength of the U.S. economy, the supremacy of the dollar, and hence the financial power of Washington, are all seen as dependent on U.S. global primacy. Although U.S. GDP growth and that of the other core capitalist countries has stagnated, with the West losing ground economically to a rapidly developing China, the effects increasingly irrational geopolitical strategy coming out of Washington still has as its objective a unipolar world order.

This is to be leveraged by an array of strategic assets, including the combined weight of the triad alliance of the United States and Canada, Europe, and Japan under U.S. leadership; geopolitical dominance; military and V Hardwick Essay, technological power; and financial supremacy via the dollar. The aggressiveness of this imperial strategy can be seen in the U.S. pursuit of absolute dominance in nuclear weapons capabilities under the rubric of the modernization of all three legs of effects, its nuclear arsenal. The object is to take full advantage of the fact that a weakened Russia fell behind for years in maintaining and modernizing its own nuclear weaponry, allowing the of pollution on humans United States to pull decisively ahead. U.S. nuclear strategy is effects of pollution on humans, now predicated on the death of MAD (Mutual Assured Destruction), that is, the demise of the entire system of deterrence.27 Those formulating U.S. strategic doctrine increasingly believe that the Analysis of Death: Essay United States is currently capable, while using only a small part of its nuclear arsenal, of destroying enough nuclear weapons of an opponent in a first strike (or counterforce attack)even in the case of Russiato prevail in a nuclear confrontation. In short, Pentagon planners now believe the of pollution United States has attained strategic primacy in nuclear weapons capability.28 This would make a first strike against Animals have Not Voice Against Abuse any enemy on Earth thinkable for the first time since 1945, when Truman ordered the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, resulting in of pollution hundreds of thousands of civilian casualtiesin what was a political rather than a military decision, and the first real act of the Cold War.29 Ominously, with the imminent death of MAD, the other side too, in any period of nuclear tensions, has greater incentive to strike first, lest it be destroyed completely by a U.S. hegemon no longer restrained by fears of of Death: of Ivan Illych Essay, its own destruction in the event of a first strike on its part.30. An essential feature of effects, imperialism, Lenin wrote, is the rivalry between a number of great powers in the striving for hegemony.31 Such dangers are redoubled over the long run when one capitalist nation, as in the case of the United States in the twenty-first century, seeks to create a unipolar world or superimperialist order. In the second half of the twentieth century, the United States showed itself to be the worlds most destructive nation, killing millions in wars, invasions, and counterinsurgencies across the globe.32 This bloody legacy continues into the present: over a single Labor Day weekend, on September 35, 2016, the United States dropped bombs on or fired missiles at effects, six largely Islamic countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Syria, and Yemen. In 2015, it dropped a total of over 22,000 bombs on Iraq and Syria alone.33 No country opposed to the United States can afford to underestimate the level of violence that could be directed at it by the U.S. hegemon.

In the twentieth century, revolutions were as much a product of resistance to imperialism as of class struggle. On Humans. They most often broke out, as Lenin observed, in the weak links of the imperialist world system.34 Inevitably, they were met with counterrevolution organized by the great powers of the capitalist core. Even a small uprising was likely to be seen as a threat to world capitalist rule, and was usually crushed with brutal force, as in The Death of Ivan Illych Ronald Reagans massive 1983 invasion of the tiny island of Grenada, or the covert war against the Sandinistas in Nicaragua. The dominant ideology invariably blames the enormous human cost of this warfare on the revolutions themselves, rather than on imperialist counterrevolutions, which are rapidly erased from historical memory. In 1970, MR editors Harry Magdoff and Paul Sweezy were invited to the inauguration of Chilean President Salvador Allende, who had been democratically elected as the of pollution on humans head of Not Voice Against Abuse, a Popular Unity government, which promised to introduce socialism in Chile, starting with the nationalization of U.S. corporate assets in the countrys major industries. Magdoff and Sweezy were longtime friends of Allendes, and their analysis at the time of effects of pollution on humans, his inauguration focused on the dangers arising from the close connections between the United States and the Chilean military, suggesting the Psychological Analysis The Death Essay strong likelihood of a military coup to be sponsored by Washington and carried out by Chiles praetorian guard. Imperialism, they warned, respects no rule of law where challenges to the existing order are concerned.

And indeed, a bloody seizure of effects of pollution, power, led by of pollution, General Augusto Pinochet and engineered by the United States, occurred three years later, taking the life of effects of pollution on humans, Allende and thousands of others.35. All of original globe theatre, this reaffirms the historical truth that there can be no socialist revolutionhowever it should arisethat is not also forced to confront the reality of counterrevolution. Indeed, in judging revolution and counterrevolution over on humans, the last century, particular stress must be put on the strength and virulence of the counterrevolution. The struggles and errors of the revolutionists are only to be seen in the context of this wider historical dialectic. From history textbooks to the mainstream news media, the Animals have Against Abuse dominant ideology in effects of pollution on humans the West today presents the Supreme Case Essay Russian Revolution of of pollution on humans, 1917 as an utter failure from beginning to end. The USSR, we are told, collapsed under the Bowers Court Case weight of effects of pollution on humans, its own internal inefficiencies and irremediable defectsthough these accounts often claim almost in Bowers Court Essay the same breath that it was U.S. power and military might that won the Cold War. Of Pollution On Humans. It is undeniable that the history of the USSR was rife with historical tragedies and The Career of Psychiatry Essay, social and economic contradictions. Effects Of Pollution On Humans. Much of the enormous human potential that the Russian Revolution unleashed was exhausted in the devastating Civil Warin which the White Russian forces were directly supported by troops and arms from the West. The Soviet Union later fell prey to Joseph Stalins extreme collectivization and Animals Not Voice Abuse Essay, brutal purges.36.

Nevertheless, the USSR over its history also underwent extraordinary industrial development, the conditions of the working class generally improved, and the population enjoyed certain economic securities lacking elsewhere. It was the Soviet Union that saved the West in the Second World War, beginning with the dramatic defeat of the Wehrmacht at Stalingradthe turning point of the warand the victorious westward march of the Red Army (though the war also took a huge toll: the USSR lost more than twenty million people). The Soviet Unions very existence inspired movements for human liberation in the third world. With the growth of the Soviet bloc and the regions economic and technological accomplishments, the position of the USSR in the world seemed secure well into the 1970s. Its central planning system, despite certain inefficiencies and a tendency to degenerate into an overly bureaucratized command economy, offered a new and in many ways successful approach to economic and social development in effects on humans noncapitalist terms. But the USSR failed to analysis, carry forward the socialist revolution. The postrevolutionary society that emerged generated its own bureaucratic ruling class, the nomenklatura, which had arisen from the inequities of the system.

The USSRs stubborn refusal to allow independent development in Eastern Europe (albeit viewed as a necessary buffer zone against Western invasion) was made clear in the Soviet invasions of effects of pollution on humans, Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968.37. In the end, the USSR lost its inner dynamism, relying too much on extensive (the forced drafting of labor and resources) rather than intensive development (dynamic productivity from technological innovation and the unleashing of creative forces). It was exhausted by a decades-long military, political, and economic contest with the Psychological Analysis of Death: of Ivan Illych West, forced to compete in a massive arms race that it could ill afford.38 For all their superficial promise, Mikhail Gorbachevs misconceived and indeed disastrous glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) policies massively undid the system, rather than reforming it. Although the effects of pollution on humans loss of Supreme Essay, Eastern Europe, symbolically marked by the fall of the Berlin Wall, contributed to effects of pollution, this unraveling, it was the Soviet nomenklatura that proved to be the systems final undoing, as numerous representatives of the V Hardwick Case Soviet power elite and a corrupted privileged intelligentsia, in alliance with Boris Yeltsin and the West, chose to dissolve the post-revolutionary state from abovebelieving that their own individual and class interests would be better promoted under capitalism.39. Yet in of pollution on humans spite of effects of pollution on humans, all of this, the of pollution on humans experience of the USSR, as the first major socialist break with the capitalist system, continues to inspire and to inform revolution in the twenty-first century. Hugo Chavezs Bolivarian Revolutionthough it took an entirely different form and is now itself imperiled by a counterrevolution supported by the United Statescould hardly have been imagined without the Soviet example.40 The USSRs extraordinary economic, technological, and cultural achievements are not easily erased in the historical memory.41.

The world capitalist crisis of the late twentieth century eventually engulfed the core capitalist nations themselves as they sank from the 1970s on of Psychiatry Essay into economic stagnationpartly counteracted by the financialization of accumulation in effects the 1980s and 90s, which, however, ended with the bursting of the housing bubble in 200709. With the full onset of stagnation since the Great Financial Crisis, the positions of the working class and lower-middle class in the advanced capitalist states have plummeted. Inequality has reached its highest level in history, both within nations and globally. So severe is this seemingly endless crisis that it has destabilized the state within the core capitalist countries. The ruling classes of the Psychological Analysis of Death: The Death of Ivan Illych various capitalist countries have responded to effects of pollution, the growing popular disenchantment by resurrecting the radical right as a kind of ballast for Animals Against Essay stabilizing the of pollution system. Effects On Humans. Neoliberalism has thus partially given way to neofascism, or what may prove to effects, be a neoliberal-neofascist (or center right/radical right) alliance. Animals Not Voice Against. In the United States, science itself is rejected as a threat to capitalism, with climate-change denial now the official stance of the Trump White House.42 The destruction of reason is thus complete.43. Reactionary forces have of course gained the upper hand many times before in the history of the class struggle, only to give rise to new revolutionary waves. Commenting on the defeat of the 1848 revolutions in Europe, Engels observed in Germany: Revolution and Counter-Revolution: A more signal defeat undergone by the continental revolutionary partyor rather partiesupon all points of the effects line of battle, cannot be imagined. But what of that? Everyone knows nowadays that wherever there is a revolutionary convulsion, there must be some social want in the background, which is prevented, by outward institutions, from satisfying itself.

If, then, we have been beaten, we have nothing else to do but to begin again from the beginning.44. Although the Bowers historical conditions have been transformed many times over, these sentiments still ring true. Given todays ever more desperate need for social change, it is necessary to begin again from the beginning, creating a new, more revolutionary socialism for the twenty-first century. Effects Of Pollution. Massive, democratic, egalitarian, ecological, revolutionary change in both center and Bowers Supreme Case, periphery represents the only truly human future. The alternative is the death of all humanity. ?Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Preface to the Second Russian edition of the Manifesto of the Communist Party, in effects of pollution Teodor Shanin, ed., Late Marx and the Russian Road (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983), 13839. ?The analysis differs here from genesis, most world-systems theory, which sees the successive hegemonies of the Dutch, the effects British, and the United States within the world-economy as essentially the of Death: of Ivan Essay same, denying the distinctiveness of the effects of pollution monopoly stage of capitalism. ?For a history of revolutionary waves in the periphery up until the 1980s see L. S. Stavrianos,Global Rift: The third world Comes of Age (New York: Morrow, 1981). ?Frederick Engels,The Condition of the Working Class in England(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 324; V. I. Lenin,Imperialism, the Highest State of Capitalism(Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1939),1314, 10608. Essay. On the shift of revolution to the third world and its impact on effects of pollution Marxian theory, see Paul M. Psychological Of Death: The Death Essay. Sweezy,Modern Capitalism and Other Essays(New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972), 14765.

?Eric Hobsbawm,The Age of Extremes (New York: Vintage, 1994), 585. ?R. Effects Of Pollution. Koebner and original, H. Effects On Humans. D. Schmidt,Imperialism: The Story and Supreme Essay, Significance of a Political Word, 18401960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965), 175. ?E. J. Hobsbawm,Industry and Empire (London: Penguin, 1969), 17293. ?Charles A. Conant, The Economic Basis of Imperialism,North American Review 167, no. 502 (1898): 32640.

?Ratzel quoted in Robert Strausz-Hupe,Geopolitics: The Struggle for Space and on humans, Power (New York: Putnam, 1942), 31. ?Halford Mackinder,Democratic Ideals and Reality (New York: Holt, 1919), 12. ?Halford Mackinder, The Round World and the Winning of the Peace,Foreign Affairs 21, no. Animals Against. 4 (1943): 601. ?MacKinder,Democratic Ideals and Reality, 186.

?Brian W. Blouet,Halford Mackinder (College Station, TX: Texas AM University Press, 1987), 17277. ?Thorstein Veblen,Essays in Our Changing Order (New York: Viking, 1943), 464. ?Christopher Hitchens, Chamberlain: Collusion, Not Appeasement,Monthly Review 46, no. 8 (January 1995): 4455; Clement Leibovitz,The Chamberlain-Hitler Deal (Edmonton, CA: Editions Duval, 1995). ?Nicholas John Spykman,Americas Strategy in effects of pollution on humans World Politics (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1942), 19, 45860;Geography of Peace (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1944), 43, 57. ?Halford Mackinder, The Round World and the Winning of the effects on humans Peace, 598. ?Noam Chomsky, The Cold War and the Superpowers,Monthly Review 33, no.

6 (November 1981): 110; Gabriel Kolko,The Politics of effects of pollution, War (New York: Random House, 1968). ?See John Bellamy Foster, The New Geopolitics of Empire,Monthly Review 57, no. 8 (January 2006): 914. ?John Bellamy Foster, Naked Imperialism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2006). ?See Foster, The New Geopolitics of Psychological of Death:, Empire, 912; Diana Johnstone, Doomsday Postponed? in Paul H. Johnstone,From MAD to Madness: Inside Pentagon Nuclear War Planning (Atlanta, GA: Clarity, 2017), 27577. ?Zbigniew Brzezinski,The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives (New York: Basic, 1997), 3, 10, 3039. ?Richard N. Haass, The New Thirty Years War, Project Syndicate, July 21, 2014, http://project-syndicate.org. ?General Wesley K. Clark,Dont Wait for the Next War (New York: PublicAffairs, 2014), 3740. ?Putin quoted in Johnstone, Doomsday Postponed? 277. ?Samuel P. Huntington,The Clash of Civilizations (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2011).

?Johnstone, Doomsday Postponed? 275. ?Johnstone, Doomsday Postponed? 27884; Keir A. Lieber and Daryl G. Effects. Press, The New Era of Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence, and Conflict,Strategic Studies Quarterly 7, no. 1 (2013): 314, The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy,Foreign Affairs 85, no. 2 (2016): 4254; Hans M. Kristensen, Matthew McKenzie, and Theodore A. Potsoi, How US Nuclear Force Modernization is Undermining Strategic Stability: The Burst-Height Compensating Super-Fuze,Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1, 2017. ?The dropping of atomic bombs was a geopolitical rather than military act, since the Japanese had already offered to enter negotiations for surrender. The United States, however, sought an immediate and unconditional surrender, to stop the Russian advance in globe Asia and to signal the immensity of U.S. military power. Of Pollution. Use of Essay, atomic bombs against Japan was opposed at the time by the top generals and admirals within the U.S. military. As Diana Johnstone has argued: the targets were not military, the of pollution on humans effects were not military. See Diana Johnstone, The Dangerous Seduction of Absolute Power, in Johnstone, ed.,From MAD to Madness, 1530; Gar Alperovitz,The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb (New York: Vintage, 1996).

?Johnstone, Doomsday Postponed? 27884; Cohn Hallinan, These Nuclear Breakthroughs Are Endangering the World,Foreign Policy in Focus, April 26, 2017. ?On casualties from U.S. warfare in the periphery, especially those of civilians, see John Tirman,The Deaths of effects on humans, Others: The Fate of on humans, Civilians in Americas Wars (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 31636. On the history of The Career of Psychiatry Essay, U.S. military interventions from 1945 through the 1980s, see Gabriel Kolko,Confronting the of pollution Third World (New York: Pantheon, 1988). ?Parts of this paragraph were taken from Notes from the Editors,Monthly Review 68, no. 6 (November 2016): inside covers.

See Missy Ryan, A Reminder of the Permanent Wars,Washington Post, September 8, 2016; Micah Zenko, How Many Bombs Did the United States Drop in 2015? Council on Foreign Relations blog, January 7, 2016, http://blogs.cfr.org; Tom Engelhardt, You Must Be Kidding: The Exasperating, Never-Ending Sprawl of American Empire,In These Times, September 23, 2016. ?Harry Magdoff and Paul M. Sweezy, Peaceful Transition to Socialism?Monthly Review 22, no. 8 (January 1971): 118; Notes from the Editors,Monthly Review 22, no. V Hardwick Supreme Essay. 7 (December 1970): inside covers. ?Ian C. D. Moffat,The Allied Intervention in effects on humans Russia, 19181920 (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015). ?See Stephen Cohen, The Breakup of the Soviet Union Ended Russias March to Democracy,Guardian, December 12, 2006; Moshe Lewin,The Soviet Century(London: Verso, 2005), 348, 385; Samir Amin,Russia and the Long Transition from globe theatre, Capitalism to Socialism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2016), 5758; Paul M. On Humans. Sweezy,Post-Revolutionary Society (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1980), 11333. ?Harry Magdoff and Psychological of Ivan Essay, Paul M. Sweezy, Perestroika and the Future of Socialism,Monthly Review 41, no.

10 (March 1990): 113 and effects of pollution on humans, 41, no. Of Death: Of Ivan. 11 (April 1990): 17. The USSR operated on its production possibilities curve, relying on full capacity production, while monopoly-capitalist economies like the of pollution United States operated below their production possibilities curve, with substantial idle capacity. This meant that the former always faced a choice between guns and butter, while the latter was able to expand both guns and Essay, butterand indeed more butter because more guns. This understanding was the basis of military Keynesianism. On the role that U.S. military Keynesianism played in forcing the USSR into a damaging arms race, see John Bellamy Foster, Hannah Holleman, and effects of pollution, Robert W. Bowers V Hardwick Court Essay. McChesney, The U.S. Imperial Triangle and Military Spending,Monthly Review 60, no.

5 (October 2008): 29. ?Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the of pollution on humans conditions that led to the downfall of the Soviet state, but it was Yeltsin who carried out the coup de grace, going so far as to initiate an armed overthrow of the elected parliament, cheered on by the capitalist West. ?This is quite literally so, since many of of Psychiatry, Chavezs revolutionary ideas, as he often acknowledged, were drawn from Meszaross critique of the capital system, which encompassed the USSR, in Istvan Meszaros, Beyond Capital (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1995). ?See Amin, Russia and the Long Transition. ?See John Bellamy Foster, Trump and effects of pollution, Climate Catastrophe,Monthly Review68, no. 9 (February 2017): 117; Neofascism in the White House,Monthly Review68, no. 11 (April 2017): 130. ?Georg Lukacs,The Destruction of Reason(London: Merlin, 1980). ?Frederick Engels,Germany: Revolution and Counter-Revolution (New York: International Publishers, 1969), 910. John Bellamy Foster is the editor of original globe theatre, Monthly Review. Sri Lanka Guardian has been providing breaking news views for the progressive community since 2007.

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