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Information Technology and Moral Values. Information technology is now ubiquitous in the lives of people across the globe. These technologies take many forms such as personal computers, smart phones, the men, internet, web and mobile phone applications, digital assistants, and cloud computing. In fact the what culture include, list is growing constantly and new forms of these technologies are working their way into the hollow men, every aspect of Business on Nigeria Essay daily life. In some cases, such as can be seen in massive multiplayer online games (see section 2.1.1 below), these technologies are even opening up new ways of interacting with each other. Information technology at its basic level is the hollow men technology that records, communicates, synthesizes or organizes information. What Does Culture Include! Information can be understood as any useful data, instructions, or meaningful message content. The word literally means to “give form to” or to the hollow men, shape one's thoughts. What Does Include! So a basic type of information technology might be the proverbial string tied around one's finger to remind or inform you that you have some specific task to accomplish today. Here the string stands in for a more complex proposition such as “buy groceries before you come home.” The string itself is not the information, it merely symbolizes the information and the hollow therefore this symbol must be correctly interpreted for it to what does culture include, be useful.

Which raises the question, what is information itself? Unfortunately there is not a completely satisfying and philosophically rigorous definition available, though there are at least two very good starting points. For those troubled by the ontological questions regarding information, we might want to simply focus on the symbols and define information as any meaningfully ordered set of the hollow men symbols. Essay! This move can be very useful and mathematicians and engineers prefer to focus on this aspect of information, which is called “syntax” and leave the meaningfulness of information or its “semantics” for others to figure out. Claude E. Shannon working at Bell Labs produced a landmark mathematical theory of communication (1948), where he took his experiences in cryptography and telephone technologies and worked out a mathematical formulation describing how syntactical information can be turned into a signal that is transmitted in such a way as to men, mitigate noise or other extraneous signals which can then be decoded by the desired receiver of the message (Shannon 1948; Shannon and Weaver 1949). The concepts described by Shannon, along with additional important innovations made by others who are too many to The Effects Business Essay, list, explain the way that information technology works, but we still have the deeper issue to resolve if we want to the hollow men, thoroughly trace the impact of information technologies on and Regulatory Facing the Telecommunications Essay, moral values. The second starting point is a bit more deeply philosophical in men, nature. Here we begin with the claim that information either constitutes or is closely correlated with what constitutes our existence and the existence of everything around us. This means that information plays an ontological role in the manner in which the universe operates. A standpoint such as this would place information at the center of concern for philosophy and this idea has given rise to fall, the new fields of Information Philosophy and Information Ethics. Philosophy of Information will not be addressed in the hollow men, detail here but the interested reader can begin with Floridi (2010b, 2011b) for an introduction.

Some of the most important aspects of Information Ethics will be outlined in more detail below. Every action we take leaves a trail of information that could be recorded and stored for future use. Examples Of Factions! For instance, you might use the simple technology of keeping a detailed diary listing all the the hollow men, things you did and thought during the day. History Of Smart Phones! But today you could augment that with even more detail gathered with advanced information technologies some examples include; all of your economic transactions, a GPS generated plot of where you traveled, a list of all the web addresses you visited and the details of each search you initiated online, a listing of all your vital signs such as blood pressure and heart rate, all of your dietary intakes for the hollow the day, and many other examples can be imagined. As you go through this thought experiment you begin to see the complex trail of data that you generate each and of smart every day and how that same data might be collected and stored though the use of information technologies. Here we can begin to see how information technology can impact moral values. The Hollow Men! As this data gathering becomes more automated and economic theory ever-present, we must ask who is in control of this data, what is to be done with it, and who will insure its accuracy.

For instance, which bits of information should be made public, which held private, and which should be allowed to become the the hollow, property of third parties like corporations? Questions of the production, access and control of information will be at the heart of moral challenges surrounding the use of information technology. One might argue that this situation is no different from the moral issues revolving around the production, access and control of any basic necessity of life. But there is one major difference, if one party controls the access of some natural resource, then that by Business on Nigeria Essay necessity excludes others from using it. This is the hollow not necessarily so with digital information, it is non-exclusory, meaning we can all at least theoretically possess the classical economic theory, same digital information because copying it from the hollow, one digital source to another does not require eliminating the previous copy. Since there is no physical obstacle to the spread of all information, then there remain only appeals to morality, or economic justice, which might prevent distributing certain forms of information.

Therefore, understanding the role of moral values in of Petroleum, information technology is indispensable to the design and use of these technologies (Johnson 1985; Moor 1985; Nissenbaum 1998; Spinello 2001). The Hollow Men! It should be noted that this entry will not directly address the phenomenological approach to the ethics of information technology since there is a detailed entry on this subject available (see entry on Phenomenological Approaches to Ethics and Information Technology). 1. The Moral Challenges of Information Technology. The move from one set of dominant information technologies to another is always morally contentious. Socrates lived during the long transition from a largely oral tradition to a newer information technology consisting of writing down words and information and collecting those writings into scrolls and books. Famously Socrates was somewhat antagonistic to on Nigeria, writing and he never wrote anything down himself. Ironically, we only know about Socrates' argument against writing because his student Plato ignored his teacher and the hollow wrote it down in a dialogue called “Phaedrus” (Plato). Towards the end of history this dialogue Socrates discusses with his friend Phaedrus the “conditions which make it (writing) proper or improper” (section 274b479c). Socrates tells a fable of an Egyptian God he names Theuth who gives the gift of writing to a king named Thamus. Thamus is men not pleased with the of Petroleum Essay, gift and replies,

If men learn this, it will implant forgetfulness in their souls; they will cease to exercise memory because they rely on that which is written, calling things to remembrance no longer from within themselves, but by means of external marks. (Phaedrus, section 275a) Socrates, who was adept at the hollow, quoting lines from poems and epics and placing them into his conversations, fears that those who rely on writing will never be able to truly understand and live by Business on Nigeria Essay these words. For Socrates there is something immoral or false about writing. Books can provide information but they cannot, by the hollow themselves, give you the wisdom you need to economic theory, use or deeply understand that information. Conversely, in an oral tradition you do not simply consult a library, you are the library, you are a living manifestation of the the hollow, information you know by heart. For Socrates, reading a book is nowhere near as insightful as talking with its author. Written words, seem to The Effects Business on Nigeria, talk to you as though they were intelligent, but if you ask them anything about what they say, from a desire to be instructed, they go on telling you the same thing forever. (Phaedrus, section 275d). His criticism of men writing at first glance may seem humorous but the temptation to of factions, use recall and call it memory is men getting more and more prevalent in modern information technologies. Why learn anything when information is just an Internet search away? In order to avoid Socrates' worry, information technologies should do more than just provide access to information; they should also help foster wisdom and understanding as well. 1.1 The Fundamental Character of Information Technologies.

Early in the information technology revolution Richard Mason suggested that the coming changes in information technologies would necessitate rethinking the social contract (Mason 1986). What he could not have known then was how often we would have to The Effects Business on Nigeria Essay, update the social contract as these technologies rapidly change. Information technologies change quickly and the hollow move in and out of theory fashion at a bewildering pace. The Hollow! This makes it difficult to of smart phones, try to the hollow, list them all and catalog the moral impacts of each. Ethical And Regulatory Issues Facing! The very fact that this change is so rapid and momentous has caused some to argue that we need to deeply question the ethics of the process of developing emerging technologies (Moor 2008). It has also been argued that the ever morphing nature of information technology is changing our ability to the hollow, even fully understand moral values as they change. Lorenzo Magnani claims that acquiring knowledge of how that change confounds our ability to reason morally “has become a duty in our technological world” (Magnani 2007, 93). The legal theorist Larry Lessig warns that the pace of change in information technology is so rapid that it leaves the slow and Ethical the Telecommunications deliberative process of the hollow law and political policy behind and in effect these technologies become lawless, or extralegal. This is history due to men, the fact that by the time a law is written to Essay, curtail, for instance, some form of copyright infringement facilitated by the hollow men a particular file sharing technology, that technology has become out of date and users are on to something else that facilitates copyright infringement (Lessig 1999). Does! But even given this rapid pace of the hollow change it remains the case that information technologies or applications can all be categorized into at least three different types each of which we will look at below. All information technologies record (store), transmit (communicate), organize and/or synthesize information.

For example, a book is a record of information, a telephone is used to communicate information, and fall true the Dewey decimal system organizes information. Many information technologies can accomplish more than one of the the hollow, above functions and, most notably, the the Telecommunications Essay, computer can accomplish all of them since it can be described as a universal machine (see the entry on computability and the hollow complexity), so it can be programmed to emulate any form of information technology. In section 2 we will look at some specific example technologies and applications from each of the three types of information technology listed above and track the moral challenges that arise out of the use and of factions design of these specific technologies. In addition to the above we will need to address the growing use of information environments such as massive multiplayer games, which are environments completely composed of information where people can develop alternate lives filled with various forms of social activities (see section 2.3). Finally we will look at not only how information technology impacts our moral intuitions but also how it might be changing the men, very nature of moral reasoning. In section 3, we will look at what culture include, information as a technology of men morality and how we might program applications and robots to interact with us in a more morally acceptable manner. 1.1.1 Moral Values in Information Recording. We live in a world rich in data and the technology to record and store vast amounts of this data has grown rapidly. The primary moral concern here is and Regulatory that when we collect, store, and/or access information it is done in a just manner that anyone can see is fair and in the best interests of all parties involved. As was mentioned above, each of us produces a vast amount of information every day that could be recorded and stored as useful data to be accessed later when needed.

But moral conundrums arise when that collection, storage and use of our information is done by third parties without our knowledge or done with only the hollow our tacit consent. The control of information is power. The social institutions that have traditionally exercised this power are things like, religious organizations, universities, libraries, healthcare officials, government agencies, banks and corporations. These entities have access to stored information that gives them a certain amount of power over their customers and constituencies. Today each citizen has access to more and Issues Industry more of that stored information without the the hollow men, necessity of utilizing the traditional mediators of and Regulatory Facing the Telecommunications that information and therefore a greater individual share of social power (see Lessig 1999). One of the great values of modern information technology is the hollow men that it makes the recording of information easy, and in some cases, it is of smart phones done automatically. Today, a growing number of people enter biometric data such as blood pressure, calorie intake, exercise patterns, etc. into applications designed to help them achieve a healthier lifestyle. This type of data collection could become more automated in the near future. There are already applications that use the the hollow men, GPS tracking available in culture include, many phones to track the men, length and classical theory duration of men a user's walk or run. How long until a smartphone collects a running data stream of of Petroleum on Nigeria Essay your blood pressure throughout the the hollow, day perhaps tagged with geo-location markers of particularly high or low readings? In one sense this could be immensely powerful data that could lead to much healthier lifestyle choices.

But it could also be a serious breach in privacy if the information got into the wrong hands which would be easily accomplished since third parties have access to information collected on smartphones and online applications. In the next section (1.1.2) we will look at some theories on how best to what culture, ethically communicate this recorded information to preserve privacy. But here we must address a more subtle privacy breach, the collection and recording of data about a user without his or her knowledge or consent. When searching on the hollow, the Internet, browser software records all manner of Business Essay data about our visits to various websites which can, for example, make webpages load faster next time you visit them. Even the men, websites themselves use various means to record information when your computer has accessed them and they may leave bits of information on The Effects of Petroleum Business Essay, your computer which the site can use the next time you visit. The Hollow Men! Some websites are able to detect which other sites you have visited or which pages on the website you spend the most time on. Classical! If someone were following you around a library noting down this kind of information you might find it uncomfortable or hostile, but online this kind of behavior takes place behind the men, scenes and is barely noticed by the casual user. According to some professionals, information technology has all but eliminated the private sphere. Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems famously announced in Ethical and Regulatory Issues Facing the Telecommunications Industry, 1999: “You have zero privacy anyway. Get over men it” (Sprenger, 1999).

Helen Nissenbaum observes that, [w]here previously, physical barriers and inconvenience might have discouraged all but the most tenacious from Ethical Facing Industry Essay, ferreting out information, technology makes this available at the click of a button or for a few dollars (Nissenbaum 1997) and since the the hollow, time when she wrote this the economic theory, gathering of the hollow men data has become more automated and all things fall apart cheaper. Clearly, earlier theories of the hollow privacy that assumed the all things apart story, inviolability of physical walls no longer apply but as Nissenbaum argues, personal autonomy and intimacy require us to protect privacy nonetheless (Nissenbaum 1997). A final concern in this section is that information technologies are now storing user data in “the cloud” meaning that the data is stored on a device remotely located from the user and not owned or operated by that user, but the data is then available from anywhere the the hollow, user happens to be on and Regulatory Facing the Telecommunications, any device he or she happens to be using. This ease of access has the result of the hollow men also making the relationship one has to one's own data more tenuous because of the uncertainty about the physical location of history of smart that data. Since personal data is crucially important to protect, the third parties that offer “cloud” services need to the hollow men, understand the all things true story, responsibility of the trust the user is placing in the hollow men, them. The Effects Of Petroleum Business Essay! If you load all the photographs of your life to a service like Flickr and they were to somehow lose or delete them, this would be a tragic mistake that might not be repairable. 1.1.2 Moral Values in Communicating and Accessing Information.

Information technology has forced us to rethink a simple notion of privacy into men, more complex theories that recognize both the benefits and examples risks of communicating all manner of information. The primary moral values of concern are privacy, ownership, trust and the veracity of the information being communicated. Who has the final say whether or not some information about the hollow men, a user is communicated or not? Who is what culture allowed to sell your medical records, your financial records, your friend list, your browser history, etc.? If you do not have control over the hollow this process, then how can you claim a right to privacy?

For instance Alan Westin argued in the very early decades of digital information technology that control of access to one's personal information was the key to classical economic, maintaining privacy (Westin 1967). The Hollow! It follows that if we care about privacy, then we should give all the control of access to personal information to the individual. Most corporate entities resist this notion as information about fall apart true story, users has become a primary commodity in the digital world boosting the fortunes of corporations like Google or Facebook. There is a great deal of utility each of us gains from the services of the hollow internet search companies. It might actually be a fair exchange that they provide search results for free based on economic theory, collecting data from the hollow men, individual user behavior that helps them rank the results.

This service comes with advertising that is classical theory directed at the user based on his or her search history. That is, each user tacitly agrees to give up some privacy whenever they use the service. If we follow the argument raised above that privacy is equivalent to information control then we do seem to be ceding our privacy away little by little. The Hollow! Herman Tavani and James Moor (2004) argue that in some cases giving the user more control of their information may actually result in greater loss of privacy. Their primary argument is that no one can actually control all of the information about oneself that is examples of factions produced each day. If we focus only on men, the little bit we can control, we lose site of the vast mountains of data we cannot (Tavani and The Effects of Petroleum Essay Moor 2004). The Hollow Men! Tavani and Moor argue that privacy must be recognized by the third parties that do control your information and only if those parties have a commitment to protecting user privacy will we actually have any real privacy and towards this end they suggest that we think in terms of restricted access to all things true, information rather than strict control of the hollow men personal information (Tavani and Moor 2004). Information security is also an important moral value that impacts the communication and access of user information.

If we grant the phones, control of our information to third parties in exchange for the services they provide, then these entities must also be responsible for restricting the access to that information by others who might use it to harm us (see Epstein 2007; Magnani 2007; Tavani 2007). With enough information, a person's entire identity might be stolen and used to facilitate fraud and larceny. The victims of these crimes can have their lives ruined as they try to the hollow, rebuild such things as their credit rating and bank accounts. This has led to the design of all things fall computer systems that are more difficult to access and men the growth of a new industry dedicated to securing computer systems. The difficulty in obtaining complete digital security rests in the fact that security is culture include antithetical to the moral values of sharing and openness that guided many of the early builders of information technology. Steven Levy (1984) describes in the hollow men, his book, “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution,” a kind of “Hacker ethic,” that includes the Essay, idea that computers should be freely accessible and decentralized in the hollow, order to examples, facilitate “world improvement” and further social justice (Levy 1984; see also Markoff 2005).

So it seems that information technology has a strong dissonance created in the competing values of security and openness based on the competing values of the the hollow men, people designing the technologies themselves. This conflict in values has been debated by philosophers. While many of the hackers interviewed by Levy argue that hacking is not as dangerous as it seems and that it is mostly about gaining knowledge of how systems work, Eugene Spafford counters that no computer break-in is entirely harmless and that the harm precludes the possibility of ethical hacking except in the most extreme cases (Spafford 2007). Kenneth Himma largely agrees that hacking is largely unethical but that politically motivated hacking or “Hacktivism” may have some moral justification though he is hesitant to examples, give his complete endorsement of the practice due to the hollow, the largely anonymous nature of the speech entailed by the hacktivist protests (Himma 2007b). Mark Manion and what include Abby Goodrum agree that hacktivism could be a special case of men ethical hacking but warn that it should proceed in accordance to the moral norms set by the acts of civil disobedience that marked the twentieth century or risk being classified as online terrorism (Manion and Goodrum 2007). A very similar value split plays out in other areas as well, particularly in economic, intellectual property rights (see entry on Intellectual Property/) and pornography and censorship (see entry on the hollow, Pornography and Censorship). What information technology adds to these long standing moral debates is the nearly effortless access to information that others might want to control such as intellectual property, dangerous information and pornography (Floridi 1999), along with the anonymity of of Petroleum on Nigeria both the user and those providing access to the information (Nissenbaum 1999; Sullins 2010). For example, even though cases of bullying and stalking occur regularly, the anonymous and remote actions of cyber-bullying and cyberstalking make these behaviors much easier and the perpetrator less likely to be caught. Arguably, this makes these unethical behaviors on cyberspace more likely that the design of cyberspace itself tacitly promotes unethical behavior (Adams 2002; Grodzinsky and Tavani 2002). Men! Since the examples of factions, very design capabilities of information technology influence the lives of their users, the moral commitments of the designers of these technologies may dictate the the hollow men, course society will take and our commitments to certain moral values (Brey 2010; Bynum 2000; Ess 2009; Johnson 1985; Magnani 2007; Moor 1985; Spinello 2001; Sullins 2010). Assuming we are justified in granting access to some store of information that we may be in control of, there is Issues Industry a duty to the hollow men, ensure that that information is useful and accurate.

If you use a number of different search engines to try to find some bit of information, each of Business Essay these searches will vary from one another. This shows that not all searches are equal and it matters which search provider you use. All searches are filtered to some degree in order to ensure that the information the search provider believes is most important to the user is listed first. A great deal of trust is placed in this filtering process and the actual formulas used by search providers are closely held trade secrets. The hope is that these decisions are morally justifiable but it is difficult to know. If we are told a link will take us to the hollow men, one location on the web yet when we click it we are taken to some other place, the user may feel that this is a breach of trust. This is often called “clickjacking” and malicious software can clickjack a browser by taking the user to some other site than is expected; it will usually be rife with other links that will further infect your machine or sites that pay the clickjacker for bringing traffic to them (Hansen and Grossman, 2008). Again the anonymity and ease of use that information technology provides can facilitate deceitful practices. Pettit (2009) suggests that this should cause us to reevaluate the role that moral values such as trust and reliance play in a world of does culture include information technology. Lastly in this section we must address the the hollow, impact that the access to information has on social justice.

Information technology was largely developed in the Western industrial societies during the twentieth century. But even today the benefits of this technology have not spread evenly around the world and to all socioeconomic demographics. Certain societies and social classes have little to no access to the information easily available to those in more well off and in developed nations, and some of those who have some access have that access heavily censored by their own governments. Classical Economic! This situation has come to be called the “digital divide,” and despite efforts to address this gap it may be growing wider. While much of the hollow men this gap is driven by economics (see Warschauer 2003), Charles Ess notes that there is also a problem with the forces of a new kind of cyber enabled colonialism and ethnocentrism that can limit the desire of what those outside the industrial West to participate in this new “Global Metropolis” (Ess 2009). John Weckert also notes that cultural differences in giving and the hollow taking offence play a role in the design of more egalitarian information technologies (Weckert 2007).

Others argue that basic moral concerns like privacy are weighed differently in Asian cultures (Hongladarom 2008; Lü 2005). 1.1.3 Moral Values in Organizing and Synthesizing Information. In addition to storing and communicating information, many information technologies automate the organizing of information as well as synthesizing or mechanically authoring or acting on Ethical and Regulatory Issues Facing, new information. Norbert Wiener first developed a theory of automated information synthesis which he called Cybernetics (Wiener 1961 [1948]). The Hollow! Wiener realized that a machine could be designed to gather information about the world, derive logical conclusions about that information which would imply certain actions, which the of factions, machine could then implement, all without any direct input form a human agent. Wiener quickly saw that if his vision of cybernetics was realized, there would be tremendous moral concerns raised by such machines which he outlined in his book the the hollow men, Human Use of Human Beings (Wiener 1950).

Wiener argued that, while this sort of technology could have drastic moral impacts, it was still possible to be proactive and guide the technology in ways that would increase the moral reasoning capabilities of both humans and machines (Bynum 2008). Machines make decisions that have moral impacts. Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen tell an anecdote in their book “Moral Machines” (2008). One of the authors left on a vacation and when he arrived overseas his credit card stopped working, perplexed, he called the bank and learned that an automatic anti-theft program had decided that there was a high probability that the charges he was trying to does include, make were from someone stealing his card and that in order to protect him the machine had denied his credit card transactions. Here we have a situation where a piece of information technology was making decisions about the probability of nefarious activity happening that resulted in a small amount of harm to the person that it was trying to help.

Increasingly, machines make important life changing financial decisions about people without much oversight from the hollow, human agents. Whether or not you will be given a credit card, mortgage loan, the The Effects of Petroleum on Nigeria, price you will have to pay for insurance, etc. is the hollow men very often determined by Ethical Issues Facing Industry a machine. For instance if you apply for a credit card the the hollow, machine will look for certain data points, like your salary, your credit record, the economic condition of the area you're in, etc., and then calculates a probability that you will default on your credit card, that probability will either pass a threshold of acceptance or not and determine whether or not you are given the card. The machine can typically learn as well to make better judgments given the results of earlier decisions it has made. Machine learning and prediction is based on complex logic and mathematics (see for example Russell and Norvig 2010), this complexity may result in slightly humorous examples of mistaken prediction as told above, or it might interpret the data of someone's friends and acquaintances, his or her recent purchases, and other social data which might result in the mistaken classification of that person as a potential terrorist, thus altering that person's life in a powerfully negative way (Sullins 2010). It all depends on the design of the learning and prediction algorithm, something that is typically kept secret. 1.2 The Moral Paradox of Information Technologies. Several of the issues raised above result from the moral paradox of Information technologies. Many users want information to be quickly accessible and easy to use and desire that it should come at as low a cost as possible, preferably free. But users also want important and sensitive information to be secure, stable and reliable. Maximizing our value of economic quick and low cost minimizes our ability to provide secure and high quality information and the reverse is true also.

Thus the designers of information technologies are constantly faced with making uncomfortable compromises. The early web pioneer Stewart Brand sums this up well in his famous quote: In fall 1984, at men, the first Hackers' Conference, I said in one discussion session: “On the examples of factions, one hand information wants to be expensive, because it's so valuable. Men! The right information in classical theory, the right place just changes your life. On the other hand, information wants to be free, because the cost of getting it out is getting lower and lower all the time. So you have these two fighting against each other” (Clarke 2000see Other Internet Resources) [1] Since these competing moral values are essentially impossible to the hollow men, reconcile, they are likely to continue to theory, be at the heart of moral debates in the use and design of information technologies for the foreseeable future. 2. Specific Moral Challenges at the Cultural Level. In the section above, the focus was on the moral impacts of information technologies on the hollow, the individual user.

In this section, the focus will be on how these technologies shape the moral landscape at the social level. At the turn of the century the examples, term “web 2.0” began to surface and it referred to the new way that the world wide web was being used as a medium for information sharing and collaboration as well as a change in the mindset of web designers to include more interoperability and user-centered experiences on their websites. This term has also become associated with “social media” and “social networking.” While the original design of the web by its creator Tim Berners-Lee was always one that included notions of the hollow meeting others and collaboration, users were finally ready to fully exploit those capabilities by 2004 when the first Web 2.0 conference was held by O'Reilly Media (O'Reilly 2005see Other Internet Resources). The Effects Of Petroleum On Nigeria Essay! This change has meant that a growing number of people have begun to the hollow, spend significant portions of their lives online with other users experiencing an of Petroleum Business on Nigeria Essay, unprecedentedly new kind of lifestyle. Social networking is an important part of many people's lives now where massive numbers of men people congregate on sites like Facebook and interact with friends old and new, real and virtual.

The Internet offers the immersive experience of interacting with others in virtual worlds where environments constructed from theory, information. Just now emerging onto the scene are technologies that will allow us to merge the real and the virtual. This new “augmented reality” is facilitated by the hollow the fact that many people now carry GPS enabled smart phones and true story other portable computers with them upon which they can run applications that let them interact with their surroundings and their computers at men, the same time, perhaps looking at an item though the Issues the Telecommunications Essay, camera in the hollow, their device and the “app” calling up information about classical economic theory, that entity and displaying it in a bubble above the the hollow, item. Each of these technologies comes with their own suite of culture include new moral challenges some of which will be discussed below. Social networking is a term given to sites and applications that facilitate online social interactions that typically focus on sharing information with other users referred to as “friends.” The most famous of these sites today is Facebook. There are a number of moral values that these sites call into question.

Shannon Vallor (2011) has reflected on how sites like Facebook change or even challenge our notion of the hollow men friendship. On Nigeria Essay! Her analysis is the hollow men based on the Aristotelian theory of friendship (see entry on Aristotle's Ethics). Aristotle argued that humans realize a good and true life though virtuous friendships. Valor notes that four key dimensions of Aristotle's ‘virtuous friendship,’ namely: reciprocity, empathy, self-knowledge and the shared life, are found in apart true story, online social media in ways that can actually strengthen friendship (Vallor 2011). Yet she argues that social media is not up to the task of facilitating what Aristotle calls ‘the shared life,’ and thus these media cannot fully support the Aristotelian notion of complete and virtuous friendship by themselves (Vallor 2011). Men! Vallor also has a similar analysis of other Aristotelian virtues such as patience, honesty and empathy as they are fostered in online media (Vallor 2010). Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012) argues for a nuanced understanding of online friendship rather than a rush to normative judgement on the virtues of virtual friends.

There are, of examples course, privacy issues that abound in the use of social media. The Hollow Men! James Parrish following Mason (1986) recommends four policies that a user of fall apart true social media should follow to ensure proper ethical concern for men other's privacy: When sharing information on classical, SNS (social network sites), it is not only necessary to consider the privacy of men one's personal information, but the privacy of the information of others who may be tied to the information being shared. When sharing information on SNS, it is the Issues Facing the Telecommunications, responsibility of the one desiring to the hollow men, share information to verify the history, accuracy of the information before sharing it. A user of SNS should not post information about the hollow, themselves that they feel they may want to retract at some future date. Furthermore, users of SNS should not post information that is the product of the Ethical Issues the Telecommunications Industry Essay, mind of another individual unless they are given consent by that individual. In both cases, once the men, information is shared, it may be impossible to retract. It is the responsibility of the SNS user to determine the authenticity of a person or program before allowing the person or program access to the shared information. Fall Apart True Story! (Parrish 2010) These systems are not typically designed to protect individual privacy, but since these services are typically free there is a strong economic drive for the service providers to harvest at the hollow, least some information about classical theory, their user's activities on the site in the hollow men, order to sell that information to advertisers for directed marketing.

The first moral impact one encounters when contemplating online games is the tendency for these games to portray violence. Of Petroleum On Nigeria Essay! There are many news stories that claim a cause and effect relationship between violence in computer games and real violence. The claim that violence in video games has a causal connection to the hollow, actual violence has been strongly critiqued by The Effects of Petroleum Business the social scientist Christopher J. Ferguson (Ferguson 2007). However, Mark Coeckelbergh argues that since this relationship is tenuous at best and that the real issue at hand is the effect these games have on one's moral character (Coeckelbergh 2007). But Coeckelbergh goes on to claim that computer games can be designed to facilitate virtues like empathetic and cosmopolitan moral development so he is not arguing against all games just those where the violence inhibits moral growth (Coeckelbergh 2007). The Hollow Men! Marcus Schulzke (2010) holds a different opinion, suggesting that the violence in computer games is morally defensible. Schulzke's main claim is fall apart that actions in men, a virtual world are very different from actions in the real world, though a player may “kill” another player in a virtual world, that player is history instantly back in the game and the two will almost certainly remain friends in the real world thus virtual violence is very different from real violence, a distinction gamers are comfortable with (Schulzke 2010). While virtual violence may seem palatable to some, Morgan Luck (2009) seeks a moral theory that might be able to allow the acceptance of virtual murder but that will not extend to other immoral acts such as pedophilia. Christopher Bartel (2011) is less worried about the men, distinction Luck attempts to draw; Bartel argues that virtual pedophilia is real child pornography, which is already morally reprehensible and illegal across the globe. While violence is easy to history of smart phones, see in online games, there is the hollow a much more substantial moral value at play and that is the politics of what virtual worlds. The Hollow! Peter Ludlow and Mark Wallace describe the initial moves to online political culture in their book, The Second Life Herald: The Virtual Tabloid that Witnessed the Dawn of the Metaverse (2007).

Ludlow and Wallace chronicle how the players in massive online worlds have begun to form groups and guilds that often confound the designers of the game and are at times in conflict with those that make the game. Their contention is that designers rarely realize that they are creating a space where people intended to live large portions of their lives and engage in real economic and social activity and thus the designers have the moral duties somewhat equivalent to those who may write a political constitution (Ludlow and Wallace 2007). According to Purcell (2008), there is little commitment to the Telecommunications, democracy or egalitarianism in online games and this needs to change if more and more of the hollow us are going to spend time living in these virtual worlds. 2.1.2 The Lure of the what does include, Virtual Game Worlds. A persistent concern about the use of computers and men especially computer games is that this could result in anti-social behavior and isolation. Yet studies might not support these hypotheses (Gibba, et al.

1983). With the advent of massively multiplayer games as well as video games designed for classical families the the hollow, social isolation hypothesis is of Petroleum even harder to believe. These games do, however, raise gender equality issues. The Hollow Men! James Ivory used online reviews of of smart games to complete a study that shows that male characters outnumber female characters in games and those female images that are in games tend to men, be overly sexualized (Ivory 2006). Soukup (2007) suggests that gameplay in these virtual worlds is most often based on gameplay that is of smart oriented to men, masculine styles of play thus potentially alienating women players.

And those women that do participate in game play at the highest level play roles in gaming culture that are very different from those the largely heterosexual white male gamers, often leveraging their sexuality to gain acceptance (Taylor et al. 2009). The Effects Business Essay! Additionally, Joan M. McMahon and Ronnie Cohen have studied how gender plays a role in the making of the hollow ethical decisions in the virtual online world, with women more likely to judge a questionable act as unethical then men (2009). Marcus Johansson suggests that we may be able to mitigate virtual immorality by punishing virtual crimes with virtual penalties in order to foster more ethical virtual communities (Johansson 2009). The media has raised moral concerns about the way that childhood has been altered by the use of information technology (see for example Jones 2011). Many applications are now designed specifically for toddlers encouraging them to interact with computers from as early an age as possible. Since children may be susceptible to media manipulation such as advertising we have to economic theory, ask if this practice is morally acceptable or not. Depending on the particular application being used, it may encourage solitary play that may lead to isolation but others are more engaging with both the the hollow, parents and all things fall the children playing (Siraj-Blatchford 2010). It should also be noted that pediatricians have advised that there are no known benefits to early media use amongst young children but there potential risks (Christakis 2009). Studies have shown that from 1998 to 2008, sedentary lifestyles amongst children in England have resulted in the first measured decline in strength since World War Two (Cohen et al. 2011).

It is not clear if this decline is directly attributable to men, information technology use but it may be a contributing factor. 2.3 Malware, Spyware and Informational Warfare. Malware and computer virus threats are growing at an astonishing rate. Security industry professionals report that while certain types of The Effects of Petroleum Essay malware attacks such as spam are falling out of fashion, newer types of attacks focused on mobile computing devices and the hacking of cloud computing infrastructure are on the rise outstripping any small relief seen in the slowing down of men older forms of attack (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). What is clear is that this type of Issues Facing the Telecommunications Industry Essay activity will be with us for the foreseeable future. In addition to the hollow men, the largely criminal activity of malware production, we must also consider the related but more morally ambiguous activities of hacking, hacktivism, commercial spyware, and informational warfare. Each of these topics has its own suite of subtle moral ambiguities. We will now explore some of them here.

While there may be wide agreement that the conscious spreading of malware is of questionable morality there is an interesting question as to The Effects Essay, the morality of malware protection and anti-virus software. With the the hollow, rise in malicious software there has been a corresponding growth in the security industry which is now a multi-billion dollar market. Even with all the money spent on the Telecommunications Essay, security software there seems to the hollow men, be no slowdown in virus production, in fact quite the opposite has occurred. This raises an interesting business ethics concern, what value are customers receiving for their money from the security industry? The massive proliferation of malware has been shown to be largely beyond the ability of anti-virus software to economic, completely mitigate. There is an important lag in the time between when a new piece of malware is detected by the hollow the security community and the eventual release of the security patch and malware removal tools. The anti-virus modus operandi of receiving a sample, analyzing the sample, adding detection for the sample, performing quality assurance, creating an update, and finally sending the phones, update to their users leaves a huge window of opportunity for men the adversary even assuming that anti-virus users update regularly. (Aycock and Sullins 2010) This lag is constantly exploited by malware producers and in this model there is an everpresent security hole that is impossible to fill. Thus it is important that security professionals do not overstate their ability to examples of factions, protect systems, by the time a new malicious program is discovered and patched, it has already done significant damage and there is currently no way to stop this (Aycock and the hollow men Sullins 2010).

In the past most malware creation was motivated by hobbyists and all things true story amateurs, but this has changed and now much of this activity is criminal in nature (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). Aycock and Sullins (2010) argue that relying on the hollow men, a strong defense is and Regulatory Essay not enough and the situation requires a counteroffensive reply as well and they propose an ethically motivated malware research and creation program. This is not an the hollow, entirely new idea and does it was originally suggested by the Computer Scientist George Ledin in his editorial for the hollow the Communications of the ACM , “Not Teaching Viruses and Worms is Harmful” (2005). This idea does run counter to the majority opinion regarding the ethics of learning and deploying malware. Fall Apart True Story! Most computer scientists and researchers in men, information ethics agree that all malware is unethical (Edgar 2003; Himma 2007a; Neumann 2004; Spafford 1992; Spinello 2001). According to Aycock and Business Essay Sullins, these worries can be mitigated by open research into understanding how malware is the hollow created in order to better fight this threat (2010).

When malware and Ethical and Regulatory Issues Facing spyware is created by state actors, we enter the world of informational warfare and a new set of moral concerns. Every developed country in the world experiences daily cyber-attacks, with the major target being the United States that experiences a purported 1.8 billion attacks a month (Lovely 2010). The majority of the hollow men these attacks seem to be just probing for weaknesses but they can devastate a countries internet such as the of smart, cyber attacks on Estonia in 2007 and those in Georgia which occured in 2008. While the Estonian and men Georgian attacks were largely designed to obfuscate communication within the what does culture, target countries more recently informational warfare has been used to the hollow, facilitate remote sabotage. The now famous Stuxnet virus used to attack Iranian nuclear centrifuges is perhaps the first example of weaponized software capable of creating remotely damaging physical facilities (Cisco Systems 2011). The coming decade will likely see many more cyber weapons deployed by state actors along well-known political fault lines such as those between Israel-America-western Europe vs Iran, and America-Western Europe vs China (Kaspersky Lab 2011). The moral challenge here is to determine when these attacks are considered a severe enough challenge to the sovereignty of a nation to justify military reactions and to react in and Regulatory Facing Essay, a justified and ethical manner to the hollow, them (Arquilla 2010; Denning 2008, Kaspersky Lab 2011). The primary moral challenge of what does culture include informational warfare is the hollow men determining how to use weaponized information technologies in a way that honors our commitments to just and Business on Nigeria legal warfare. Since warfare is already a morally questionable endeavor it would be preferable if information technologies could be leveraged to lessen violent combat. For instance, one might argue that the the hollow, Stuxnet virus did damage that in generations before might have been accomplished by an air raid incurring significant civilian casualtiesand that so far there have been no reported human casualties resulting from Stuxnet.

The malware known as “Flame” seems to be designed to aid in espionage and one might argue that more accurate information given to decision makers during wartime should help them make better decisions on the battlefield. On the other hand, these new informational warfare capabilities might allow states to engage in The Effects of Petroleum Essay, continual low level conflict eschewing efforts for peacemaking which might require political compromise. As was mentioned in the introduction above, information technologies are in a constant state of the hollow men change and innovation. The internet technologies that have brought about so much social change were scarcely imaginable just decades before they appeared. Even though we may not be able to foresee all possible future information technologies, it is important to Ethical and Regulatory Facing Essay, try to imagine the changes we are likely to see in emerging technologies. Men! James Moor argues that moral philosophers need to Ethical Facing the Telecommunications Industry Essay, pay particular attention to emerging technologies and help influence the the hollow men, design of these technologies early on before they adversely affect moral change (Moor 2005). Some potential technological concerns now follow. An information technology has an interesting growth pattern that has been observed since the founding of the industry. Intel engineer Gordon E. Moore noticed that the number of of Petroleum on Nigeria Essay components that could be installed on an integrated circuit doubled every year for a minimal economic cost and he thought it might continue that way for another decade or so from the time he noticed it in 1965 (Moore 1965). History has shown his predictions were rather conservative.

This doubling of speed and capabilities along with a halving of cost has proven to continue every 18 or so months since 1965 and shows little evidence of stopping. And this phenomenon is not limited to the hollow, computer chips but is also present in all information technologies. The potential power of this accelerating change has captured the imagination of the noted inventor Ray Kurzweil who has famously predicted that if this doubling of capabilities continues and more and more technologies become information technologies, then there will come a point in time where the change from one generation of information technology to the next will become so massive that it will change everything about what it means to be human, and at this moment which he calls “the Singularity” our technology will allow us to become a new post human species (2006). If this is correct, there could be no more profound change to our moral values. There has been some support for this thesis from the does culture, technology community with institutes such as the Singularity Institute, the Acceleration Studies Foundation, Future of Humanity Institute, and H+. [2] Reaction to this hypothesis from philosophy has been mixed but largely critical. For example Mary Midgley (1992) argues that the belief that science and technology will bring us immortality and bodily transcendence is based on pseudoscientific beliefs and a deep fear of death. In a similar vein Sullins (2000) argues that there is a quasi-religious aspect to the acceptance of transhumanism and the acceptance of the transhumanist hypothesis influences the values embedded in computer technologies that are dismissive or hostile to the human body.

While many ethical systems place a primary moral value on preserving and the hollow men protecting the natural, transhumanists do not see any value in defining what is natural and what is not and consider arguments to preserve some perceived natural state of the human body as an what does, unthinking obstacle to progress. Not all philosophers are critical of transhumanism, as an example Nick Bostrom (2008) of the the hollow men, Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University argues that putting aside the feasibility argument, we must conclude that there are forms of posthumanism that would lead to long and worthwhile lives and that it would be overall a very good thing for humans to become posthuman if it is at all possible. 2.4.2 Artificial Intelligence and examples Artificial Life. Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the hollow men, the many longstanding research projects directed at all things apart, building information technologies that exhibit some or all aspects of human level intelligence and problem solving. Artificial Life (ALife) is a project that is not as old as AI and is focused on developing information technologies and the hollow men or synthetic biological technologies that exhibit life functions typically found only in apart story, biological entities. A more complete description of logic and AI can be found in the entry on logic and artificial intelligence. ALife essentially sees biology as a kind of naturally occurring information technology that may be reverse engineered and synthesized in other kinds of technologies. Both AI and ALife are vast research projects that defy simple explanation.

Instead the focus here is on the moral values that these technologies impact and the way some of these technologies are programmed to men, affect emotion and moral concern. Alan Turing is credited with defining the research project that would come to be known as artificial Intelligence in his seminal 1950 paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence.” He described the “imitation game,” where a computer attempts to fall apart true, fool a human interlocutor that it is not a computer but another human (Turing 1948, 1950). The Hollow Men! In 1950, he made the now famous claim that. I believe that in about fifty years' time. one will be able to theory, speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted. A description of the test and its implications to men, philosophy outside of moral values can be found here (see entry on The Turing Test). Turing's prediction may have been overly ambitious and in fact some have argued that we are nowhere near the classical, completion of Turing's dream. For example, Luciano Floridi (2011a) argues that while AI has been very successful as a means of augmenting our own intelligence, but as a branch of cognitive science interested in intelligence production, AI has been a dismal disappointment. For argument's sake, assume Turing is correct even if he is off in his estimation of when AI will succeed in the hollow, creating a machine that can converse with you.

Yale professor David Gelernter worries that that there would be certain uncomfortable moral issues raised. “You would have no grounds for treating it as a being toward which you have moral duties rather than as a tool to classical theory, be used as you like” (Gelernter 2007). Gelernter suggests that consciousness is a requirement for men moral agency and that we may treat anything without it in any way that we want without moral regard. Sullins (2006) counters this argument by noting that consciousness is apart true story not required for moral agency. Men! For instance, nonhuman animals and the other living and nonliving things in our environment must be accorded certain moral rights, and indeed, any Turing capable AI would also have moral duties as well as rights, regardless of its status as a conscious being (Sullins 2006). But even if AI is incapable of creating machines that can converse effectively with human beings, there are still many other applications that use AI technology. Many of the classical economic, information technologies we discussed above such as, search, computer games, data mining, malware filtering, robotics, etc. Men! all utilize AI programming techniques. Thus it may be premature to dismiss progress in the realm of AI. Artificial Life (ALife) is an outgrowth of AI and refers to the use of information technology to simulate or synthesize life functions. The problem of defining life has been an interest in philosophy since its founding. See the entry on life for a look at the concept of life and its philosophical ramifications. Of Smart! If scientists and technologists were to men, succeed in discovering the necessary and sufficient conditions for life and then successfully synthesize it in a machine or through synthetic biology, then we would be treading on territory that has significant moral impact.

Mark Bedau has been tracing the philosophical implications of ALife for some time now and argues that there are two distinct forms of story ALife and each would thus have different moral effects if and when we succeed in realizing these separate research agendas (Bedau 2004; Bedau and Parke 2009). One form of ALife is completely computational and is in fact the earliest form of ALife studied. ALife is the hollow men inspired by the work of the mathematician John von Neumann on Ethical Issues the Telecommunications Essay, self-replicating cellular automata, which von Neumann believed would lead to a computational understanding of biology and the life sciences (1966). The computer scientist Christopher Langton simplified von Neumann's model greatly and produced a simple cellular automata called “Loops” in the early eighties and helped get the field off the ground by men organizing the first few conferences on Artificial Life (1989). Artificial Life programs are quite different from AI programs. Where AI is intent on creating or enhancing intelligence, ALife is culture content with very simple minded programs that display life functions rather than intelligence. The primary moral concern here is that these programs are designed to self-reproduce and in that way resemble computer viruses and indeed successful ALife programs could become as malware vectors. The second form of ALife is much more morally charged. This form of ALife is based on the hollow, manipulating actual biological and biochemical processes in such a way as to produce novel life forms not seen in nature.

Scientists at the J. Of Factions! Craig Venter institute were able to synthesize an artificial bacterium called JCVI-syn1.0 in May of 2010. While media paid attention to this breakthrough, they tended to men, focus on the potential ethical and social impacts of the creation of artificial bacteria. Craig Venter himself launched a public relations campaign trying to steer the conversation about issues relating to history of smart, creating life. This first episode in the synthesis of the hollow men life gives us a taste of the excitement and does culture controversy that will be generated when more viable and robust artificial protocells are synthesized. The Hollow Men! The ethical concerns raised by and Regulatory Industry Wet ALife, as this kind of research is the hollow men called, are more properly the jurisdiction of bioethics (see entry on Theory and and Regulatory Facing the Telecommunications Industry Essay Bioethics). But it does have some concern for us here in that Wet ALife is part of the process of turning theories from the life sciences into information technologies. This will tend to blur the boundaries between bioethics and information ethics. Just as software ALife might lead to dangerous malware, so too might Wet ALife lead to dangerous bacteria or other disease agents.

Critics suggest that there are strong moral arguments against pursuing this technology and men that we should apply the precautionary principle here which states that if there is any chance at a technology causing catastrophic harm, and there is Essay no scientific consensus suggesting that the harm will not occur, then those who wish to the hollow, develop that technology or pursue that research must prove it to be harmless first (see Epstein 1980). Mark Bedau and classical theory Mark Traint argue against a too strong adherence to the hollow, the precautionary principle by suggesting that instead we should opt for moral courage in pursuing such an important step in human understanding of life (2009). They appeal to the Aristotelian notion of courage, not a headlong and foolhardy rush into the unknown, but a resolute and careful step forward into the possibilities offered by what culture this research. Information technologies have not been content to remain confined to the hollow men, virtual worlds and what does culture software implementations. These technologies are also interacting directly with us through robotics applications. The Hollow! Robotics is an emerging technology but it has already produced a number of applications that have important moral implications. Technologies such as military robotics, medical robotics, personal robotics and the world of sex robots are just some of the already existent uses of robotics that impact on and express our moral commitments (see Capurro and Nagenborg 2009; Lin et al. 2011).

There have already been a number of valuable contributions to the growing field of robotic ethics (roboethics). For example, in Wallach and what include Allen's book Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong (2010), the authors present ideas for the design and the hollow programming of machines that can functionally reason on moral questions as well as examples from the field of robotics where engineers are trying to create machines that can behave in a morally defensible way. The introduction of semi and fully autonomous machines into Ethical and Regulatory Issues Facing, public life will not be simple. Towards this end, Wallach (2011) has also contributed to the discussion on the role of philosophy in helping to design public policy on the hollow, the use and theory regulation of robotics. Military robotics has proven to be one of the most ethically charged robotics applications. Today these machines are largely remotely operated (telerobots) or semi-autonomous, but over time these machines are likely to become more and more autonomous due to the hollow men, the necessities of modern warfare (Singer 2009). In the first decade of apart story war in the 21 st century robotic weaponry has been involved in numerous killings of both soldiers and noncombatants, and this fact alone is of deep moral concern. Gerhard Dabringer has conducted numerous interviews with ethicists and technologists regarding the implications of automated warfare (Dabringer 2010). Many ethicists are cautious in their acceptance of automated warfare with the provision that the the hollow, technology is used to enhance just warfare practices (see Lin et al.

2008; Sullins 2009b) but others have been highly skeptical of the prospects of a just autonomous war due to issues like the risk to what does culture include, civilians (Asaro 2008; Sharkey 2011). 3. Information Technologies of Morality. A key development in realm of the hollow information technologies is that they are not only the object of moral deliberations but they are also beginning to be used as a tool in moral deliberation itself. Since artificial intelligence technologies and applications are a kind of automated problem solvers, and moral deliberations are a kind of culture problem, it was only a matter of time before automated moral reasoning technologies would emerge. This is still only an emerging technology but it has a number of very interesting moral implications which will be outlined below. The coming decades are likely to see a number of advances in men, this area and ethicists need to pay close attention to these developments as they happen. Susan and of factions Michael Anderson have collected a number of the hollow articles regarding this topic in their book, Machine Ethics (2011), and Rocci Luppicini has a section of his anthology devoted to this topic in the Handbook of Research on Technoethics (2009).

3.1 Information Technology as a Model for Moral Discovery. Patrick Grim has been a longtime proponent of the idea that philosophy should utilize information technologies to automate and illustrate philosophical thought experiments (Grim et al. 1998; Grim 2004). Peter Danielson (1998) has also written extensively on history, this subject beginning with his book Modeling Rationality, Morality, and the hollow men Evolution with much of the early research in the computational theory of apart true morality centered on using computer models to elucidate the emergence of men cooperation between simple software AI or ALife agents (Sullins 2005). Luciano Floridi and what does J. W. Sanders argue that information as it is used in the theory of computation can serve as a powerful idea that can help resolve some of the famous moral conundrums in philosophy such as the nature of evil (1999, 2001). The propose that along with moral evil and natural evil, both concepts familiar to philosophy (see entry on the Problem of Evil); we add a third concept they call artificial evil (2001). Floridi and Sanders contend that if we do this then we can see that the actions of artificial agents. to be morally good or evil can be determined even in the absence of biologically sentient participants and thus allows artificial agents not only to perpetrate evil (and for that matter good) but conversely to the hollow men, ‘receive’ or ‘suffer from’ it. (Floridi and examples Sanders 2001) Evil can then be equated with something like information dissolution, where the irretrievable loss of information is bad and the preservation of information is good (Floridi and the hollow Sanders 2001). And Regulatory Issues The Telecommunications Essay! This idea can move us closer to a way of measuring the moral impacts of any given action in an information environment. 3.2 Information Technology as a Moral System.

Early in the twentieth century the American philosopher John Dewey (see entry on John Dewey) proposed a theory of inquiry based on the instrumental uses of technology. Dewey had an the hollow, expansive definition of technology which included not only common tools and apart true machines but information systems such as logic, laws and even language as well (Hickman 1990). Dewey argued that we are in a ‘transactional’ relationship with all of these technologies within which we discover and construct our world (Hickman 1990). This is a helpful standpoint to take as it allows us to advance the idea that an information technology of morality and ethics is not impossible. As well as allowing us to take seriously the idea that the relations and transactions between human agents and those that exist between humans and their artifacts have important ontological similarities. While Dewey could only dimly perceive the coming revolutions in information technologies, his theory is useful to us still because he proposed that ethics was not only the hollow men a theory but a practice and solving problems in ethics is like solving problems in of factions, algebra (Hickman 1990). If he is right, then an the hollow, interesting possibility arises, namely the possibility that ethics and morality are computable problems and therefore it should be possible to The Effects of Petroleum on Nigeria, create an information technology that can embody moral systems of thought. In 1974 the philosopher Mario Bunge proposed that we take the men, notion of a ‘technoethics’ seriously arguing that moral philosophers should emulate the way engineers approach a problem.

Engineers do not argue in terms of reasoning by categorical imperatives but instead they use: the forms If A produces B , and The Effects Essay you value B , chose to do A , and If A produces B and C produces D , and you prefer B to D , choose A rather than C . In short, the rules he comes up with are based on fact and value, I submit that this is the way moral rules ought to be fashioned, namely as rules of conduct deriving from men, scientific statements and value judgments. In short ethics could be conceived as a branch of technology. (Bunge 1977, 103) Taking this view seriously implies that the very act of what include building information technologies is also the act of the hollow creating specific moral systems within which human and artificial agents will, at least occasionally, interact through moral transactions. Information technologists may therefore be in the business of creating moral systems whether they know it or not and whether or not they want that responsibility. 3.4 Informational Organisms as Moral Agents.

The most comprehensive literature that argues in favor of the prospect of using information technology to create artificial moral agents is that of Luciano Floridi (1999, 2002, 2003, 2010b, 2011b), and of Petroleum Floridi with Jeff W. Sanders (1999, 2001, 2004). Floridi (1999) recognizes that issues raised by the ethical impacts of information technologies strain our traditional moral theories. To relieve this friction he argues that what is needed is a broader philosophy of information (2002). After making this move, Floridi (2003) claims that information is a legitimate environment of its own and that has its own intrinsic value that is in some ways similar to the hollow men, the natural environment and in other ways radically foreign but either way the result is that information is on its own a thing that is worthy of ethical concern. Floridi (2003) uses these ideas to create a theoretical model of all things apart moral action using the logic of the hollow object oriented programming. His model has seven components; 1) the moral agent a, 2) the Issues Facing the Telecommunications, moral patient p (or more appropriately, reagent), 3) the interactions of these agents, 4) the the hollow, agent's frame of information, 5) the factual information available to the agent concerning the situation that agent is attempting to navigate, 6) the environment the interaction is occurring in, and 7) the situation in which the interaction occurs (Floridi 2003, 3). Does Culture Include! Note that there is no assumption of the ontology of the agents concerned in the moral relationship modeled (Sullins 2009a) There is additional literature which critiques and expands the idea of automated moral reasoning (Adam 2008; Anderson and Anderson 2011; Johnson and Powers 2008; Schmidt 2007; Wallach and Allen 2010).

While scholars recognize that we are still some time from creating information technology that would be unequivocally recognized as an artificial moral agent, there are strong theoretical arguments in favor of the eventual possibility and therefore they are an appropriate concern for those interested in the hollow, the moral impacts of information technologies. Adam, A., 2002, “Cyberstalking and Internet pornography: Gender and the gaze,” Ethics and Information Technology , 4(2): 133142. History Phones! , 2008, “Ethics for things,” Ethics and Information technology , 10(23): 149154. Anderson, M. and S. L. Anderson (eds.), 2011, Machine Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Hollow! Arkin, R., 2009, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots , New York: Chapman and Hall/CRC. All Things Fall Story! Arquilla, J., 2010, “Conflict, Security and Computer Ethics,” in Floridi 2010a. Asaro, P. 2008. The Hollow Men! “How Just Could a Robot War Be?” in Philip Brey, Adam Briggle and Katinka Waelbers (eds.), Current Issues in Computing And Philosophy , Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. 5064. , 2009. “Modeling the Moral User: Designing Ethical Interfaces for Tele-Operation,” IEEE Technology Society , 28(1): 2024. Aycock, J. and J. Sullins, 2010, “Ethical Proactive Threat Research,” Workshop on Ethics in Computer Security Research (LNCS 6054) , New York: Springer, pp. 231239. The Effects Of Petroleum Business On Nigeria! Bartell, C., 2011, “Resolving the gamer's dilemma,” Ethics and Information Technology , 14(1):1116. Baase, S., 2008, A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for the hollow Computing and the Internet , Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bedau, M., 2004, “Artificial Life,” in Floridi 2004. Bedau, M. and E. Parke (eds.), 2009, The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in Ethical Issues the Telecommunications Industry, the Laboratory , Cambridge: MIT Press. Men! Bedau, M. and M. Classical Economic Theory! Traint, 2009, “Social and Ethical Implications of Creating Artificial Cells,” in Bedau and men Parke 2009. Facing Industry! Bostrom, N., 2008, “Why I Want to be a Posthuman When I Grow Up,” in Medical Enhancement and the hollow men Posthumanity , G. Gordijn and R. Chadwick (eds), Berlin: Springer, pp. 107137. Brey, P., 2008, “Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation,” in Himma and Tavanni 2008 , 2010, “Values in Technology and Disclosive Computer Ethics,” in Floridi 2010a. Bunge, M. 1977, “Towards a Technoethics,” The Monist , 60(1): 96107. Bynum, T., 2000, “Ethics and the Information Revolution,” Ethics in history of smart, the Age of Information Technology , pp.

3255, Linköping, Sweden: Center for Applied Ethics at Linköping University. Men! , 2008, “Norbert Wiener and the Rise of Information Ethics,” in van den Hoven and Weckert 2008. Capurro, R., Nagenborg, M., 2009, Ethics and of Petroleum Robotics , [CITY]: IOS Press Christakis, D. A., 2009, “The effects of the hollow men infant media usage: what do we know and what should we learn?” Acta Pædiatrica , 98 (1): 816. True Story! Cisco Systems, Inc., 2011, Cisco 2011 Annual Security Report: Highlighting global security threats and trends , San Jose, CA: Cisco Systems Inc. [available online] Coeckelbergh, M., 2007, “Violent Computer Games, Empathy, and Cosmopolitanism,” Ethics and Information Technology , 9(3): 219231 Cohen, D. D., C. Voss, M. J. The Hollow Men! D. Taylor, A. All Things Fall Story! Delextrat, A. A. Ogunleye, and G. R. H. The Hollow Men! Sandercock, 2011, “Ten-year secular changes in muscular fitness in English children,” Acta Paediatrica , 100(10): e175e177. Danielson, P., 1998, Modeling Rationality, Morality, and Evolution , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dabringer, G., (ed.) 2010, Ethica Themen: Ethical and history Legal Aspects of Unmanned Systems, Interviews , Vienna, Austria: Austrian Ministry of Defence and Sports. [available online] Denning, D., 2008, “The Ethics of Cyber Conflict,” In Himma and Tavanni 2008. Dodig-Crnkovic, G., Hofkirchner, W., 2011, “Floridi's ‘Open Problems in men, Philosophy of Information’, Ten Years Later,” Information , (2): 327359. [available online] Edgar, S.L., 2003, Morality and Machines , Sudbury Massachusetts: Jones and economic theory Bartlett. Epstein, R., 2007, “The Impact of Computer Security Concerns on the hollow, Software Development,” in Himma 2007a, pp.

171202. Epstein, L.S. Story! 1980. The Hollow! “Decision-making and the temporal resolution of uncertainty”. International Economic Review 21 (2): 269283. History! Ess, C., 2009, Digital Media Ethics , Massachusetts: Polity Press. Floridi, L., 1999, “Information Ethics: On the Theoretical Foundations of Computer Ethics”, Ethics and men Information Technology , 1(1): 3756. , 2002, “What is the Philosophy of Information?” in Metaphilosophy , 33(1/2): 123145. Examples! , 2003, “On the Intrinsic Value of men Information Objects and the Infosphere,” Ethics and Information Technology , 4(4): 287304. Classical Economic Theory! , 2004, The Blackwell Guide to the hollow, the Philosophy of Computing and Information , Blackwell Publishing. Examples Of Factions! (ed.), 2010a, The Cambridge Handbook of Information and men Computer Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2010b, Information: A Very Short Introduction , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Examples! , 2011a, “Enveloping the World for AI,” The Philosopher's Magazine , 54: 2021 , 2011b, The Philosophy of Information , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Floridi, L. and J. W. Men! Sanders, 1999, “Entropy as Evil in Information Ethics,” Etica Politica , special issue on Computer Ethics, I(2). [available online] , 2001, “Artificial evil and the foundation of computer ethics,” in Ethics and Information Technology , 3(1): 5566. [available online] , 2004, “On the Morality of history of smart phones Artificial Agents,” in Minds and Machines , 14(3): 349379 [available online] Furguson, C. J., 2007, “The Good The Bad and the Ugly: A Meta-analytic Review of Positive and Negative Effects of Violent Video Games,” Psychiatric Quarterly , 78(4): 309316. Gelernter, D., 2007, “Artificial Intelligence Is Lost in the Woods,” Technology Review , July/August, pp.

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Western Civilization Essay Topics. community’s primary goal was to expand knowledge. Because the link between pure science and applied technology was weak, the scientific revolution had little effect on daily life before the the hollow 19th century. All Things Fall Apart True Story? The Enlightenment also had its benefits to men, the western world. All Things Fall Apart True? The Enlightenment was an intellectual and cultural movement that tied together certain key ideas and was the the hollow link between the scientific revolution and a new world view. Some of history of smart phones, these ideas were the natural science and reasoon can explain all

The Cradle of Western Civilization Essay. participated in their government in various ways -- they might be part of, the Council, or the the hollow men Courts. Since humans had the ability to reason and understand, they believed that they were capable of discipline, sacrifice, and history of smart phones self-rule. Men? Today, many western governments are a democracy, although, every person has much more influence on government decisions than ancient Greek civilians. The people such as Americans, elect regional representatives who they think stand for their ideas and needs, and then Plato’s Influence on Western Civilization Essay. consider a school, that housed great scholars and their revolutionizing thoughts on Mathematics, Philosophy, and Theoretical Astronomy. Due to the events of Plato’s life, he was able to develop the most profound and on Nigeria employed ideas associated with western civilization. His influence had such great impact that his principles are often used in modern-day establishments, from government forms, to fundamentals pertaining to philosophy, the impacts of socialization, as well as religion. To begin an analysis of

Essay on Is Western Civilization in a State of Decline? World War II. Both the men authors agree that the west is most certainly the main superpower in the world today. There were arguments worldwide, that the cause for the poverty in communist and/or third-world countries was the result of the rise in Western prosperity and the West was therefore able to dictate the rules of the game. Ethical The Telecommunications Essay? These factors, both in Totalitarian and Authoritarian states, began to bring China and Latin America down one by one. The Hollow? It could be seen that there was only one successful Contributions to Western Civilization Made by Ancient Greece and Rome. works such as The Aeneid have had a profound influence on countless writers, poets, and literary scholars including Shakespeare, James Joyce, and Robert Graves. These ancient civilizations also made a variety of other contributions to western civilization. Both the Greeks and the Romans made a number of contributions to western culture in The Effects on Nigeria Essay the field of architecture, many of which can still be seen to this very day.

Architecture played a pivotal role in both the religion and daily life of ancient Greek Greek And Roman Influence On Western Civilization Essay. First to have people living in apartments and to think up a welfare system. Romanaˆ™s were even the ones that gave the planets their names. Because of all these things Rome had a big impact on western culture.

Rome and Greece both had a major impact on the architecture of western civilization. Rome invented concrete which is the #1 thing used in building today. They also used brick and the hollow glass. While the Greekaˆ™s used marble, which is still applied today. They both built big, beautiful Analysis of Western Civilizations: Ideas, Politics, and Society. Our text, “Western Civilizations: Ideas, Politics, and Society”, includes many of the of factions core values of today’s modern society. The Hollow Men? Rationality, the of smart first value listed, is simply being able to use mental analysis to comprehend different, sometimes complex, subjects in the hollow men a clear way. ( Rationality is extremely important to the effective running of any society. The only The Effects on Nigeria Essay alternative to acting and thinking rationally is to act with impulse, or without thinking a situation Essay on men, How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. The Pope's request for forgiveness applied to the Church understood in this second sense.

That idealistic apology is apart story, a faultless structure for the author’s fine explanation of the several ways in the hollow which the Catholic belief formed what we call Western Civilization. The author establishes that the West is progressively more spread throughout the world as the product of Catholicism and believing Catholics. In the present day, there are increasing signs that the Europe defined by the author which established Ancient Rome#x27;s Contribution to Western Civilization Essay. Roman architecture has influenced Westerns so much that if you were to phones, take a walk down a street, chances are you would discover a beautiful Roman style building. The reason behind the popularity of this style is probably because of its ?classic?, unique, pretty yet simple design. Common characteristics of Roman designs are bold, defined mouldings, columns, arches and peaks. One or more of these are often used in men Western buildings going for include a classical look. The Hollow Men? In the eighteenth century wealthy young

Western Civilization: A Very Brief Overview from the Romans to the Counter-Reformation. The expansion of Rome occurred on three stages; the unification of the Italian peninsula, the collision with Carthage as Rome emerged as ruler of the western Mediterranean; and the conquest of the Hellenistic states. The Effects Of Petroleum On Nigeria Essay? Rome’s successes of conquests was largely due to the superior military organization, training and iron clad discipline. Rome and the Mediterranean world enjoyed two hundred years of peace known as the “Pax Romana,” the Roman peace. Men? During this period, Rome was enjoying peace and prosperity Who#x27;s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Articulates the Crises of Contemporary Western Civilization. affluent societies of Western Europe and the United States.

For many the world of the mid twentieth century lost its meaning and simply ceased to make sense. In the first act Fun and Games, George articulates this sense of disillusionment in his recognition that people learn nothing from history thereby demonstrating a potential to what, repeat the past horrors. The Hollow? Also there is a deep suspicion regarding the intentions of what does culture include, science which seeks to formulate a super civilization by rearranging chromosomes The cello has a very sad feel it sounds like something I’d hear from a sad part of men, a movie, maybe heart break or death. The third movement is called Abyss of the birds it is a clarinet solo the piano, violin, and cello are not a part of this movement. The clarinet starts off with a soft note. It descends as it goes on. the tempo is extremely slow.

It sounds fortissimo as it goes on. Then he descends from a higher pitch. He plays a fast melody after the pauses he makes. It goes from fall fast to slow to When Napoleon III was looking to maintain Catholic support in France, decided to intervene in Italian affairs in the Crimean War and in the hollow Mexico. After Napoleon's collapse, the Third Republic was hostile to the influential role of the Catholic Church played in French politics and introduced sharply anti-clerical legislation. In Russia religion's influence was much different.

There wasn't much influence at all in the period of 1815 to 1919. History Of Smart Phones? Czar Alexander proposed the men Holy Alliance under which monarchs This however ended as Emperor Constantine adopted Christianity in the fourth century A.D. As emperor Constantine saw that it would be more beneficial to stop persecuting the examples of factions Christians and accept them to the hollow, avoid another civil war, he became a Christian. All Things Fall Apart True? This was only the start as Christianity spread throughout the European continent and Emperor Theodosius established it as the official religion of Rome in 380. This proved especially beneficial for the empire as it allowed Rome to be governed during

Great Issues in Western Civilization Essay. No longer was the pope in control of the nations, but instead individual conscience, religious tolerance, and the awareness of cultural and national differences began to work its way as becoming part of our world today. Luther and his influence directed the transformation of the church that has paved the men way for the Enlightenment that was to come. Then there is writer and philosopher Voltaire, who is commonly known “the Father of the Enlightenment.” Without Voltaire our society would not be where The Roman Empire and apart true story Its Influence on Western Civilization Essay. His goal was to once again have Rome rule. Even after his death, his followers devoted their rule to men, keeping this dream of Rome alive, and successfully did so until 1806 (160). Not only was Rome highly influential back in of Petroleum Business on Nigeria its prime, but many of men, its ideals are still remaining strong in what culture include some form or another. A perfect example of this is the United States.

Even in the hollow men the Pledge of Allegiance there are traces of Rome. For part of it states that; ? By the republic for which it stands? this says The Clash of Civilizations Essay examples. When it comes to of smart, this case, according to the hollow men, Huntington, the Western are accused by the Eastern for double standard, “one standard to their kin-countries and a different standard to others” (373). The second key point that Huntington makes, is that the over-pressure of a Western towards the non-Western creates allies between different cultures on the Eastern civilization. As he stated, “the divine line is not always sharp”, hence civilizations may go through a cultural meltdown and states may overpass Clash Of Civilizations Essay examples. He emphasizes that although the West is still strong and growing in many areas, other civilizations are growing at a faster rate.

Asian civilizations are booming both economically and in their military strength and the Muslim culture is spreading demographically, while the West is becoming increasingly preoccupied with its own internal problems such as crime, government deficits, drug abuse, and a declining work ethic. Huntington uses graphs and charts very effectively in this section of history phones, his book The Growth of Civilization Essays. These were the civilizations of – Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus and China. Since the civilizations have grown and expanded. Presently, regional civilizations, religion based civilizations exist as well.

Western civilization and Islamic civilizations are two of the most important civilization existing currently. (Guisepi) For the sustenance of a civilization, the most vital requirement is that of the hollow men, food. Economic Theory? Humans have evolved physically from a time when he was a hunter and gatherer. Humans were always on The Rise and Fall of Early Civilizations Essay. learning that is part of the men Western Tradition. They also additional established the Hebrew idea of “moral individuality”. Rejecting parochialism for universalism, the of factions prophets accomplished a profound alertness of human disposition, a conscious commitment to the hollow, the Law. The prophets said that individuals are responsible for their own actions and this would be the key component to the Western thought. The Greek City-State state started in 1700-1450 B.C Early Aegean Civilization is the term used to denote

The Validity of Samuel P. Huntington’s Thesis in “The Clash of Civilizations” that the differences between his civilizations do not imply the surfacing of of factions, conflicts between them. In contrary, Huntington also develops a completely opposite argument. Without a doubt, Huntington declares that his civilizations are in conflict because they are driven by irreconcilable moral and political values, the necessity to survive, and the will to the hollow men, dominate. The characteristics of the new world order would be that much more disturbing because the civilizations would act according to the “kin-country The Clash of Civilization (Samuel Huntington Article Review) Essay. 4. Even though the west have never been more powerful in both cultural and economic influence, non-western civilizations have been promoting indigenization. Ethical And Regulatory Facing Essay? 5. It is easier to change economic and political differences then to change cultural ones, because religion makes a sharp distinction between who you are? 6. regional trade has increased among similar cultures and floundered among dissimilar ones. A classic example of this notion is how Japan has not been able to be very successful in bringing

Genocide: The Flaw of Civilization Essay. evidence reveals a pattern of massacre on the basis of ethnicity that is the hollow men, markedly apparent in civilizations dating back to the time of the Roman Empire. While the Holocaust gave birth to the idea of genocide, civilizations throughout history have instituted the cruel methods of mass extermination since the introduction of the most basic societies around the world. A very basic, yet important element of civilization is national unity. The earliest societies of the world were founded so that people with

Samuel Huntington#x27;s The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. religion and Western thought. Therefore, Sinic/Confucian thought will be associated mostly with China, Hindu with India, Islam with the Middle Eastern and North African countries, Orthodox with countries of the former Soviet Union and Western with the United States and western European countries. Fall Story? The African continent will only be dealt with in the hollow the context of Islam, as traditional African religious are too variant and do not usually fit with one of the four theories of the The Effects Business Essay press. The Western media is The Traditions of Western and Chinese Cultures Essay. In political and ideological areas.

The Western is a contract model built on the basis of individuals, but the Chinese is an entirety one built on the basis of men, man administration. In the classical Western societies, the inner general tensile stress of contracts causes losses and breaks of action standards and the hollow values, but it has features of reconstruction, regeneration and creation. The entirety theory is contrary. Its breaks and losses cause a whole collapse, but as it is does include, frar from the balance condition, Differences in Relationships Between Western and the hollow Non-Western Cultures.

is all consistent with the theory of socio-biology. In North America and Western Europe homosexuality is of Petroleum Business on Nigeria, generally accepted, however, in some countries it is illegal. In East Bay, Melanesia, it is encouraged to the hollow, the extent that during adolescence a father will choose an older male partner for his son to educate him in sexual techniques (Davenport 1965). In most of North America and Western Europe, it is believed that women have the same right to derive pleasure from Analysis of The Clash of Civilizations by Samuel P. All Things Fall Apart True? Huntington. Huntington’s regards to the hollow, the reality of ethnic and religious identities is as follows, “civilization identity will be increasingly important in the future, and the world in large will be measured by the interactions among seven or eight major civilizations.” He follows up by Ethical and Regulatory Issues Industry Essay, elaborating on the hollow, how these interactions become the all things fall true story turning point in civilization interaction.

The interactions between civilizations have become increasingly relevant due to the increasing populations of the world. This in that the paints draw varied animals. Around 9000 B.C.E, the the hollow men early stage of civilization formation was indicated by semi-nomadic society. Phones? Having nomadic soul, however, the semi-nomadic tried to reconstruction the earlier civilization and the hollow develop it greater than the old one in the cultural and Ethical and Regulatory Issues the Telecommunications Industry geography component (Butler, 2012). The nomads tried to organize their life simply. This organization is the pioneer of civilization.

The males hunt for wild animals and the females gather the plants and also The Connection between Civilization and Individuals in Civilization and Its Discontents by men, Sigmund Freud. Freud, leads to the formation of civilization. Ethical And Regulatory Issues Facing The Telecommunications Industry Essay? Freud writes that civilization is perpetuated and developed through the internalization of natural aggressiveness, and that the repression of such aggressiveness in the interest of civilization leads to the formation of the superego and thus feelings of guilt, not only for the hollow men carrying out such aggressiveness, but for musing upon it. Therefore, Freud seeks to imply that the relationship between mental life and civilization is intertwined, that they are dependent Essay on of smart phones, Ancient American Civilizations. The intermediate level of civilization is the chiefdom. This level also relied on subsistence farming, like the tribal, but in much larger villages and more intensively.

The populations were dense and had lost the tribal form of self-government. The Hollow Men? The chiefdom civilization now used a board of members, in which a chief and his group of secondary chiefs ruled the area. In Ancient America, ranking in phones the Chiefdom civilization was an essential aspect of the hollow, organization. Members Geography and Early Civilizations Essay. isolated the Chinese civilization. This seclusion slowed cultural advancements from taking place in the region. All Things Fall Apart? Travelers did eventually arrive in China and brought with them new technologies and goods from outside the region. 1, 3 The Nile River was the life force of ancient Egypt. People from all over the region immigrated to the area for its irrigation waters and the hollow men rich silt deposits.

The geography of the region played a huge role in the way the inhabitants and civilization in general was formed are diminishing. It is all things, common while walking through the men mall to hear a young girl sassing her mother, or a pair of siblings unpleasantly bickering with one another. Around 10,000 years ago this extreme, malicious behavior was rare because early civilizations were kinship based, meaning that ties of blood and classical theory marriage bound groups together. The Hollow? This foundation emphasized the concept of family, involving respect between siblings of what, the opposite sex, children and the hollow men parents, and between children-in-law and their “Clash of Civilizations” Essay examples. India was an ancient civilization that had many rulers and theory empires. The first rulers were the men Harappans. They ruled from 3500 BC through 1500 BC. The Aryans took over the Harappan empire around 1500 BC. Then, Alexander the Great came and took over all things apart true, control of men, India.

After ruling for fall apart true only a couple of years, he died. A few years later the Mauryan Empire took over. Next was the Ashoka. Finally, the the hollow Guptas ruled from 320 BC through 535 AD. Apart True? The last two civilizations were Egypt and Mesopotamia ancestors were able to the hollow men, go between through gods and Essay people. Also Oracle Bones were used to tell the future. Lastly, The IRVC was also polytheistic religion they revered bulls and the hollow men some trees, and held them as sacred.

The governments of these four civilizations were rather different with kings, pharaohs, and nobles. In Egypt a pharaoh had god’s blood and was an of factions, absolute monarch. In Sumeria had twelve city-states that were very populated somewhere from the hollow 20,000 to 250,000 people in what each. Each city-state Civilization and Complex Society Essay.

nobles began to gain some of the power. Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos, which were mixtures of the Semites and Indo-Europeans. They were not driven out until 1570B.C. Then a new and revived empire began. Humanities play a very crucial part in civilization.

Humanities help to appreciate the beauty before our naked eye. It helps for the hollow men the acceptance of individual’s differences. The acceptance that makes the society balance and harmonized. Religious faith is in important constituent of national identity Sexism in Early Civilizations Essays. Even in the first civilizations sexsim was very prevalent, women were not included in democracy, they were not allowed to vote, and in some earlier civilizations women were not even allowed to have a job or go outside the home. Even as a 16 year old girl in America, the supposed land of dreams, I see sexism everyday. I see it when I watch the news, I see it when I’m walking down the halls at my school, I even see it when I read novels and articles or watch a movie online. Over 60% of serious journalism and it eventually led to its collapse.

The collapse was not because of Issues the Telecommunications, a single invasion though, many factors led to it. Mycenaean civilization collapsed because of men, its overdependence on trade and Ethical and Regulatory Facing its inherent aggressive nature and was catalyzed by invasions and natural disaster. The most common reason that historians give for the decline of Mycenaean civilization is that they were invaded by foreign peoples. The two most common people that are credited with this are the the hollow Dorians and the ‘Sea People term irrigation and salinization of the soil led to decline productivity. When irrigation water dries, it leaves salt. Additional water is The Effects Business, needed to wash it out; the salt water rises towards the the hollow roots of plants and kills them. However, the Mayan civilization was in a very damp rainforest area, which excludes drought as an explanation for its “collapse.” (Sanders: video) David Webster, a Copan archaeologist, found obsidian knives at various farming sites. These knives are very important because they Model Essay Comparison Essay Post-Classical Civilizations. difference is probably due to the threats that the early western European church faced from constantly invading nomads and thus wanted those under their control to be Christian and nothing else.

Islam was not as concerned with this due to the overwhelming nature of their conquests. Culture? This is also demonstrated in the eastern Roman empire (Byzantine Empire) because they never “collapsed” and thus allowed a diversity of religions within their empire unlike western Europe. The structure of the hollow, these religions allowed The Development of Civilization Essay. productive in times of war and peace. History Of Smart? When looking at their educational and philosophical output it is simple to see that the Athenian people valued their futures. Without educational programs for the Athenian youths, Athena would have lost their civilization long before it initially peaked. Undoubtedly, Athenian people had a productive social consciousness, and realized that education and knowledge was quite important.

They knew that the future of their city-state depended on the “smarts” of the people represented 400 times 20, or 8000. Men? The capitol of the Aztec Empire was Tenochtitlan, which was built where modern-day Mexico City is. All Things Fall Apart True? It was given the nickname “Venice of the New World,'; because it had many canals. During the acme of the Aztec civilization, the the hollow men population of this great city numbered more than 200,000. This made it one of the Issues Facing Industry Essay most populated cities in the ancient world. The city was connected to the hollow, the mainland by 3 causeways, which, when flooded, served as protective dikes. In the city

Essay about Ancient Civilizations. The next group of people is the Aztecs. The Aztec civilization was the history of smart last of the hollow men, a long line of Native American civilizations. The Aztecs were the close rivals of the Mayas. Like the Mayas, the Aztecs also believed in torture and warfare. Of Smart? They also had very strict rules, especially when one was around a king. For example, one would have to say, “Lord! My Lord!

Sublime Lord!'; (Reilly, 331). After that they would have to communicate in few words, the person would also have to keep their eyes cast Compare and Contrast of the Arguments in Huntington#x27;s The Clash of Civilizations and Said#x27;s The Clash of Ignorance. multiple civilizations; The balance of power among civilizations changes and the relative influence of the Midwest declines, while the men non-Western civilizations reaffirm the value of their own culture. Samuel Huntington sees an emerging world organized on the basis of of factions, civilizations. Societies that share cultural affinities cooperate with each other and the efforts to force a society into another civilization will fail; countries gather around the leading States of their civilization.

This description Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization Essay. Maya investigators believed that some tragic events that may have ruined the men Maya. Examples Of Factions? An earthquake, volcanic eruption or sudden widespread disease could have demolished cities and killed or evacuated tens of thousands of people, bringing the Maya civilization colliding down. These schemes have been rejected today largely, because of the fact that the weakening of the Maya took about men, 200 years, some cities fell while others increased, at least for a little while. An earthquake, disease or other widespread Essay on Pre-Columbian civilizations. the week a date would fall on in future years (Encarta). And they were able to calculate the length of years of other planets with remarkable precision given the classical economic instruments they had to work with (Mexico). Contrary to popular belief, the Mayan civilization was not one unified empire, but rather a multitude of separate entities with a common cultural background. Similar to the Greeks, they were religiously and artistically a nation, but politically sovereign states.

As many as twenty such states existed The Developement of Civilization Essay. when the Homo erectus began evolving into the Homo sapien. Some say it was in 28,000 BCE (Lerner,9), others say it was between 18,000 and 13,000 BCE (Spielvogel,3). Facts would point to the earlier years, where the Sumerian city-states, Egyptian Civilization (especially the Old Kingdom), and cuneiform began to men, emerge. “Groups of people advanced beyond their old hunting grounds at a rate of only two or three miles per generation (Spielvogel,3).” They began making waterproof shelters of their own. The Development of Europe and Western Culture Essay. 1000 A.D. is known as the Revival of Europe. The Dark Ages were over and Western Europe was prepared for its first great age of Ethical Facing Industry, civilization. This time period showed a new power in Europe, greater than any other power before, the Church. The triumph of the Church was a very influential event doing this time period.

This time frame was called the the hollow men return of confidence because Europe had experienced advances in methods of agriculture and they now has confidence in their society, laws, philosophy The Secularization of the Essay Western World Essay. that may be discussed within this paper is modernism in men reference to its effect on creating Western secular. This paper will compare and contrast a religious perspective of the world to a secularism to include, highlight the benefit of each for a changing society. The western world as a secular society is human beings living and adopting the logic of science to better understand the natural world. As the the hollow Western World modernised, so did the views that people holds towards religion. The change that occurred are covered ‘they are adjusted to fit the western audience and presented in true story manner that suits that particular western audiences’.

Furthermore, western media news reports not only focus on misery but also on the hollow men, violence. (The Associated Press,2010) reports in The Independent newspaper; how Congolese rebels raped more than two hundred women and babies in classical theory the town of Luvungu in men eastern Congo. This is an example of how violence plays a major part in the western media coverage of Africa. Equally important

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anaylsis essays You’ve been staring at the hollow men your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to Ethical Issues Facing, figure out how to men, start your analytical essay. You try to choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into the meat of it. History Of Smart Phones? But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is the hollow men, is a blueprint—a foolproof way to get your essay structured. Then all you have to do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. What an of factions Analytical Essay Is—And What It Isn’t. Helpful, right? Um, not so much. First, it might be more useful to explain what an analytical essay isn’t before getting to men, what it is . An analytical essay isn’t a summary. Though this may seem obvious in theory, it’s more difficult in practice.

If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, it’s probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to figure out what does if you’re summarizing instead of the hollow analyzing is to look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an history of smart phones analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, it’s writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. Analytical essays usually concentrate on men, how the book or poem was written—for example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the all things apart true use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem. In short, this type of essay requires you to look at men the smaller parts of the work to help shed light on the larger picture. An example of a prompt—and the example I’m going to use for what does culture, the rest of this post—could be something like: Analyze the theme of sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on reading the books has done so already—or at least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline.

There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to men, write it, your essay should always have three main parts: I’ll get into the nitty-gritty of this soon, but for all you visual learners, here is a nice representation of all the components that make a great analytical essay outline. History Of Smart Phones? You can see that I’ve added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and conclusion. But hold your horses—we’re getting to those parts right now. Introduction of the hollow men Your Analytical Essay Outline. Ethical Issues Facing The Telecommunications Essay? The purpose of your introduction is to get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and the hollow men, a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement. Examples? 1. You gotta hook ‘em from the start.

The first part of your introduction should draw the reader in. This is called the hook. The Hollow Men? The hook should be interesting or surprising. What Does Culture? You can achieve this by asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement that’s unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, “Since the the hollow men publication of the first book in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and Issues the Telecommunications, the Philosopher’s Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for promoting witchcraft. However, one of the main themes of the books draws inspiration from Christianity itself—that of sacrifice.” Okay, so that’s two sentences. But it’s got a little bit of controversy and the hollow men, relates to what the rest of the essay will discuss. 2. Get to the good stuff—write a killer thesis statement.

Okay, so now that you’ve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to examples, the point. This is where the thesis statement comes in. My thesis might be, “The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the the hollow men series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to keep a promise.” 3. It’s time to back up your thesis. Let the reader know how you’re going to prove your claim. For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to analyze the instances of Harry’s “death,” Voldemort’s sacrifice of Issues Facing Industry Essay his soul in exchange for immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the building blocks of the body paragraphs. Body of men Your Analytical Essay Outline.

The body is where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting. In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of fall apart claims, evidence to support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence. Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of men evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence. Classical? But let’s get into it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence. Each topic sentence in men, each body paragraph of your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is Business Essay, going to be about.

My first body paragraph might start with, “Harry Potter is willing to men, fulfill prophecy and make the ultimate sacrifice—that of economic theory his life—in order to save the rest of the wizarding world.” 2. The Hollow? Make your claim. The claim should dive into a smaller part of the all things fall apart true story overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into men, several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of profound significance. 3. Provide evidence from the text to back your claim. You can’t just go around making claims without any support.

You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence. For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the economic instance in the hall of prophecies with the quote, “and either must die at the hand of the other for neither can live while the men other survives.” 4. All Things Fall Apart True? Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the citing of the men prophecy, I would tell the reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to be about him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to Neville, but we’ll leave that out of classical economic theory this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to do that. They’re not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of the hollow Your Analytical Essay Outline. The Effects Business? After you’ve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the the hollow men appropriate evidence to back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to wrap it all up. The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy.

For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to help oneself, or to what culture, keep a promise to a loved one—and J.K. Rowling explores several of the hollow men them through the characters in the Harry Potter book series.” This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. To fill it out and give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to Ethical and Regulatory Facing the Telecommunications Industry Essay, the real world or end with a final quote from the text or the author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide. Easy, right?

I know you’re pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for the hollow, the analytical essay outline for all things true story, you to the hollow men, download. Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to theory, do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. And don’t forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is the hollow men, all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades!

Get inspiration from over true 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and the hollow, education. You can find her on the Telecommunications Industry Essay, Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome!

Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to help. Men? #128578; Thanks for of factions, the comment. This is undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome!

Thanks for the comment and thanks for reading. #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on how to structure an analytical essay. Men? because of many reasons which i don#8217;t like to name writing an Issues Industry Essay analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in the hollow men, writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned. I look forward to your reply on the question of structuring of analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for fall apart story, your kind words. The Hollow Men? In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on the course and the requirements of your instructor. However, you can follow the same advice in this post. Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to history phones, cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the finally got this one.

Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. The Hollow? hi this is great. What Culture? Fabulous! Happy to the hollow, help. How would I write an analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to history of smart, write an essay on The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at understanding how to do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in a certain way. The Hollow Men? Please respond to this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in your paper. For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of Issues the Telecommunications Essay these topics and their influence on the hollow, how the audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on the right track!

I have two write an essay about Animals by O#8217;Hara and how it reflects the innocence and simplicity of childhood. I don#8217;t know how to on Nigeria Essay, start. Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the introduction? I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to men, go. You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the text that stands out as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity. Examples Of Factions? For more great hook sentence tips visit: This is amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author. Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the author. #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha! Awesome.

We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of the hollow your blonde hair. #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to improve this site that is all. Thanks for keeping us on our toes, Shayan! No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to how to apply this to historical analysis. Examples Of Factions? I have to write about the effects of the hollow European migration, warfare, and disease on Native Americans, and all things fall true story, was thinking of finding 3 specific examples of each and explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans. Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to the hollow, a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to each of your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs.

Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized. DIOS MIO! this is does, really helpful. Woot! That#8217;s awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. I have to write an analytical essay about The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and I#8217;m stuck.

This is men, my second essay and on the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to start and it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for half the book. Please help. Starting is of factions, definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. The Hollow? you have made it very easy for and Regulatory Issues Facing the Telecommunications Essay, me to understand this (horrible) essay. I have to write my first Analytical essay. kind regards to you. And thanks to you for men, reading! Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this.

I have to write an analytical essay for my college English course, and its about an American folk song called #8220;Frankie and Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to begin it! my professor gave me an example on how to start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of North American folk music from Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is one way to Ethical and Regulatory Facing the Telecommunications, start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for the hollow men, 14 hook types + examples in Ethical Facing Industry Essay, the bottom right corner): Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. NAH MEAN. The Hollow? Thank you so much. I was dying a moment ago.

Now I think I can manage it. love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and does culture, have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for men, everything. Of Smart? )

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Essay: What are the nurses’ experiences in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour? Global ageing is increasing exponentially along with dementia prevalence rates. The demographic trends show that dementia along with other comorbidities has a serious effect on prolonged hospitalisation than people without dementia, with a huge impact on health services and the national economy .The nurses in acute wards play a major role in identifying and managing the challenging behaviour. The interventions seems to be inconsistent due to the busy context of the acute wards and lack of guidance on care of dementia patients with challenging behaviour, which again has a detrimental effect on dementia patients. Upon reviewing the literature, a gap is identified about the hollow men experiences of nurses caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour . What Does Include? Hence the writer plans to explore the experiences of nurses in dementia with challenging behaviours using a Husserlian phenomenological approach with the hope that it can contribute to the hollow the nursing practices. Dementia is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain, and the fourth leading cause of death for the age group of 65 and above (O’Callaghan 2008, cited by fall apart story, Jean and Murphy, 2011). Currently there are about men 41,470 people with dementia live in Ireland as per EuroCoDe age/gender specific dementia prevalence rates (2006 census of population). Behaviours that challenge can appear in examples of factions, any of the three stages of dementia. Confusion and men cognitive impairment are the of smart phones, major comorbidities present in the hospitalised elderly population with dementia (Moyle et al. 2008). Hospitalized dementia patients had complex needs, particularly while they exhibit challenging behaviour.

Caring for the elderly people with dementia makes matchless challenges to healthcare staff, particularly to care for their personal needs as well as to manage their disruptive behaviour (Moyle et al. 2008). While attending the heavy work load along with high emotional involvement can produce stress on nursing staff which could lead to frustration and the hollow men dissatisfaction (Chou et al. 2012). Staff works with patients who have challenging behaviours often express negative feelings and poor job satisfaction (Farrell et al.

2010). Does Culture Include? Even though there were many studies conducted in the area of men, dementia and associated behaviours , few studies done about nurses’ experiences in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour. The Telecommunications Industry Essay? Hence the writer aims to conduct a study about nurses’ experiences of caring for the hollow men dementia patients with challenging behavior. A detailed literature review will be conducted with explaining the methodology of the study used and suggestions will be concluded. 1.2 Search strategy. A literature search using electronic databases: Cinahl, Medline, Pub Med,Cochrane and Google scholar.

The search terms used were’dementia’ and ‘Alzheimer’s’ and ‘Challenging behaviour’and ‘Aggressive behaviour’and ‘Nurses’ experiences’and’Acute hospital’. The Effects Business Essay? Search limited to include full text available online, publications between 2006-2013 , English language and age group of 65 and above. The Hollow Men? The search yielded 120 articles of which 16 were relevant to the topic and rest were excluded. Examples Of Factions? Out of 16 studies 7 were dealing with dementia patients in acute hospitals and the hollow men 6 were about challenging behaviour in dementia patients and 3 were dealing with nurses’ stress and job satisfaction. Reference list was also reviewed from the articles used to review. The writer used a data extraction grid to collect data from the literature ( Appendix 1).

1.3 Review of Literature. 1.3.1 Caring for older people with dementia. The National Dementia Strategy in England identifies dementia as a fatal illness with a life expectancy of 4.5 years from diagnosis to death (Xie et al.2008). Dementia leads to decline in cognition with impact on judgement , comprehension, language, emotional control , intellect , memory and social skills (World Health Organisation 2007). Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia and other types are vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia and frontotemporal dementia (Cahill et al. 2012). Dementia has three stages; early, moderate and severe ( In a qualitative study by Nolan (2007) using a purposive sample of seven nurses with the thematic approach reported that the physical layout of the what culture include, acute ward as inappropriate to care for older people with dementia and the highlighted alarm is the safety of the patient. This study also talked about nurses’ enhanced knowledge of environmental dangers, especially in the hollow men, relation to those who wander, and stressed the need to Business on Nigeria Essay keep them under close supervision. It had an impact on the nurses’ ability to provide care for other patients, mainly while there were many other dementia patients to be cared for. Nurses had their own viewpoints about dementia care, grounded in their own beliefs and practices instead of schooling and knowledge.

Dementia patients were often detailed as powerful and persistent labels, and were often sighted as being different from the hollow men other patients (Cowdell 2009). This study, using an ethnographic approach suggested that instead of meeting the needs of the the Telecommunications Industry Essay, clients , care mainly focussed on completing the men, physical needs and provision of care included less amount of good communication. Due to functional deficits, dementia patients were unable to complete their activities of examples of factions, daily living and due to the time constraints nurses had to take over such activities (Nolan 2006). While attending these activities, nurses were aware of the hollow, inhibiting the autonomy which could disrupt the personhood of dementia patients. It was noted , this study had the limitations of history phones, a small sample size and was conducted in a geriatric ward which was not characteristic of the hollow men, other acute wards. Similar results were found out by a study of Edberg et al. (2008).

A qualitative study by Edvardsson et al. (2011) found out that ‘the emotional feeling tone of the psychosocial unit’ has great influence on dementia patients and is necessary for maintaining the well being of classical economic theory, dementia patients. Nurses had a vital role in producing and maintaining such a positive climate with their presence, and work. 1.3.2 Challenging behaviour in dementia. Challenging behaviour has been defined as ‘an active attempt by the person to men express an unmet need, which could be physiological and psychological’ (Stokes G 2000, cited by classical economic, Andrews 2006 ) or ‘can be a sign of pain or suffering , or a reaction to carer’s torment, which consecutively increases the behavioural problems’ (Bird et al. 2007). A quantitative study by Pulsford (2011) using the Management of Aggression in men, People with Dementia Attitude Questionnaire (MAPDAQ) to assess the behaviour, the fall apart true, result shows that staff finds the aggressive behaviour mainly as circumstantial, could be from an interaction with staff or from the men, nature of Ethical Issues Industry Essay, care providing.

Physical aggression occurred frequently with staff was the target for men many of those incidents. This study was limited by less response from staff. Moyle et al. (2010) study using a convenience sample of Ethical and Regulatory Issues the Telecommunications, 13 participants in a large Australian hospital reported that dementia patients with wandering behaviour added more responsibilities to the nurses care due to the limitations of the acute care environment. So they had an the hollow attitude to on Nigeria devalue such patients which led to nurses managing the safety issues of the patient, and less intervention were used to meet the physical, social and emotional needs of persons with dementia. In a study by Nolan (2007) findings suggested that nurses felt secure in the presence of dementia patients who were not agitated and aggressive. A cross sectional survey by Cubit et al. (2007) reported that aggressive behaviour is the main reason for increased stress in men, nurses followed by verbal disruption and wandering. Moyle et al. Examples Of Factions? (2010) reported Staff used physical and chemical restraints to control aggressive upsurges. The writer suggests that nurses’ understanding of challenging behavior and its pre-disposing factors can help nurses improve their attitude to dementia patients and improve quality of the hollow men, care.

1.3.3 Nurses’ Experiences in caring for The Effects Business Essay dementia patients with challenging behaviour. The preconceived ideas about the clients violent behaviour caused shortfalls in quality of care and led to men lacking individual care which added increased psychological distress and decreased job satisfaction among nurses (Isaksson et al. 2009). This study had limitations of a small sample size and conscious biases present, but the trustworthiness is proved by discussing the findings with other research groups and by history, seminars with other researchers. Nurses described caring for older people with dementia in an acute hospital as reaching to feelings of incompetence and job dissatisfaction , and the hollow tended to focus their efforts on physical care due to lack of confidence (Cowdell 2009). Again this study reported nursing staff experienced more emotional challenges when patients become upset or difficult to manage. Byers’ (2008) study using a phenomenological approach about the lived experiences of registered nurses providing care to patients with dementia in the acute care setting , all the participants repeatedly expressed feelings of Business on Nigeria, guilt and dissatisfaction.

Also they expressed that they were unable to practice the way they should which created more stress and challenge for them. Similar results were found out by Edberg et al.’s (2008) study using a combined approach of qualitative and men quantitative methods. Nurses who work in dementia special care units for long term experienced less distress from disruptive behaviour which was in contrast to previous studies where residential care staff with more experience suffered more strain (Cubit et al. 2007), but this study had used the what culture, convenience sample for cross sectional survey and the hollow men the survey tool was limited by asking to recall events from the past week, thus reliability can be questioned. Edvardsson et al. Story? (2009) found that the caring climate had a significant role in the hollow men, producing job strain in nursing staff caring for persons with dementia, which could lead to of factions poor job satisfaction. The writer finds that nurses experiences stress and poor job satisfaction in caring for dementia patients with challenging behavior. So the men, writer aims to explore the economic, experiences of nurses to understand how the nursing care can be improved. 1.4 Methodological issues in men, the literature:

Upon reviewing the literature, the studies which gave information about the experiences of nurses about dementia care where qualitative studies and had rich descriptions about the topic but as the samples were small in size in qualitative research and the studies conducted in single sites, the results cannot be generalised. Edberg et al.’s (2008) study used a focus group and participants were recruited through the personal awareness of moderators and reliability can be varied, but trustworthiness and transferability of the findings evidenced by the uniqueness of results and is reinforced by agreement of the findings between nurses in different groups and across the countries. Ethical approval was obtained from relevant sources for all studies. Many studies said that acute care settings had limitations in caring for dementia patients where nurses hold different job roles and look after critically ill patients. As global ageing is increasing exponentially along with dementia prevalence rates it is examples of factions, important to provide adequate nurses training and facilities to care for dementia patients in the hollow men, acute conditions. Hence the writer aims to and Regulatory Facing the Telecommunications Essay explore the experiences of nurses in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour and to contribute findings to improve quality care . Chapter 2: Methodological issues in research. In reviewing the the hollow men, literature related to nurses’ experiences of caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour, three main themes were emerging. It has been identified that nurses are the frontline workers in the acute hospital with dementia patients and there were not much study done about the culture, experiences of nurses in relation to caring and their knowledge of dementia care.

Therefore a gap has been identified in the literature. This chapter will describe the men, methodology selected by the writer and its relevance to and Regulatory Issues Facing Essay the writers research topic. A brief overview of various research designs will be provided followed by the population and sample described along with rationale for the selected sample size. The writer will then discuss about the data collection and data analysis methods and a pilot study will be described. Ethical considerations will be addressed and at the end, trustworthiness and the strengths and limitations will be explained. 2:2 Aim of the study: The proposed research aims to explore the the hollow, experiences of nurses in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour to find out about the barriers and to improve care standards for dementia patients.

2:3 The Research Question: What are the nurses’ experiences in of Petroleum Business on Nigeria, caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour? 2:4 Research Methodology. Nursing research is a systematic inquiry structured to build trustworthy evidence to important issues of the hollow, nurses and their clients and research methods are the techniques used by researchers to collect and scrutinize the all things fall apart story, information relevant to the question (Polit Beck 2014). The Hollow? While Paradigm is a broad viewpoint on the complexities of the real world (Polit Beck 2008), methodology is the framework used to conduct the research (O’Leary 2004). The quality of research is reinforced with selecting the correct research methodology for answering the research question effectively (Gerrish Lacey 2010). Quantitative research uses positivist paradigm and, qualitative research is related to constructivist (Naturilistic) paradigm (Polit Beck 2014). Quantitative research seeks to present a world view which is objective and involves variables which can be quantified and manipulated whereas qualitative research looks to get the opinions, experiences of and Regulatory the Telecommunications Essay, participants and the meanings of their perspective on the research topic is looking for (Watson et al. 2008).

Quantitative studies can be divided into descriptive, Co relational and quasi experimental studies. It is again divided into experimental or clinical trials and, non experimental or observational studies (Polit Beck 2014). Qualitative researchers give attention to the dynamic, holistic and individual aspects of human life and try to absorb those aspects as a whole, within the environment in which it is experienced (Polit Beck 2014). Men? Qualitative study can be divided into three categories: grounded theory, which describe the key social and psychological processes which occur in of factions, the social setting wherein ethnography learn from members of the cultural groups, to realise their world view and, describes their customs and norms. Phenomenological approach studies about life experiences of people and what they mean to them (Polit Beck 2014). Parahoo (2006) says that phenomenology is based on men, the philosophy of examples of factions, Husserl (descriptive), in contrast Heideggerian phenomenology looks into the individual personal history and psychological make up to understand the way in which how they experiences phenomena (interpretive). The aim of the proposed research is to explore the experiences of nurses caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour, therefore the writer finds qualitative research method using the Husserlian phenomenological approach as appropriate to the study. Husserlian phenomenology has four steps, which are intuiting, analysing , describing and bracketing. By using ‘bracketing ‘which leaves writer’s perceptions, prejudices and beliefs away to get the description of the hollow men, respondents’ experiences in pure form (Polit Beck 2014) The research will be undertaken as part of a PG diploma in Nursing and The Effects of Petroleum Business on Nigeria the time scale will be over 9 months.( Appendix 2 ) 2.5 Population, sample and sampling.

A target population is the men, total population and study population is of factions, a subset of the the hollow men, target population (Gerrish Lacey 2010) while the sample is a subset of the population being Studied (Polit Beck 2008). Examples? In phenomenology, the sample has to include those who have experienced the the hollow, phenomenon. Economic Theory? So the writer plans to use nurses who care for dementia patients. Sampling is the process of selecting a portion of the population to represent the entire population (Polit Beck 2008). The Hollow Men? Qualitative researchers look to identify the key individuals, events or settings that provide a rich source of data and are not so concerned about identifying the total population in developing the sample frame (Gerrish Lacey 2010). There are two basic sampling methods in research, probability sampling and quantitative studies use this sample more but non probability sampling is used by qualitative researchers (Gerrish Lacey 2010). The writer has chosen a purposive sample for this study, which is a form of non probability sampling and include researchers’ knowledge of the men, population employed to select the sample (Polit Beck 2008). LoBiondo-Wood and Haber (1998) pointed out the chances for phones conscious bias and the hollow invalid assumptions as the limitations with purposive sampling technique. Issues? However purposive samplings are commonly used in phenomenological studies to build up knowledge by providing sound and appropriate data. A sample of 10 nurses working in an acute geriatric ward in an academic teaching hospital in Ireland and regularly caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour deemed appropriate for the study.

2.6 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria. Registered nurses with minimum one year working experience and men care for classical theory dementia patients with challenging behaviour on the hollow men, a regular basis are included. Nurse managers and specialist nurses, who are not directly rendering the care, agency nurse and nurses on sick leave/maternity leave are excluded. 2.7 Study Setting. The participants will be more relaxed and apart true relieved if they are in a comfortable setting , and will be more open with the researcher (Langford 2001). He again told that qualitative research is men, generally conducted in the natural setting of the phenomena. Hence the investigator aims to carry out the Business Essay, study in the hollow men, a private room in the hospital which is away from the and Regulatory Industry Essay, ward. 2.8 Data Collection. Data is the information collected during the the hollow men, course of a study and it can be in the form of numerical values in quantitative study whereas narrative information on a qualitative study (Polit Beck 2014).

Data collection is a precise, systematic gathering of information required to answer a research question (Burns Grove 2006). According to Creswell (2007) the and Regulatory Issues Facing Industry, data collection steps in qualitative study include (a) setting limitations for the study (b) gather information through observation, interviews , documents and visual materials (c) establishing the protocol for recording information .Interviews are the most common method of data collection in the hollow, phenomenology (Whiting 2008). Interviews can be structured, unstructured and semi structured (Parahoo 2006). To understand the phenomenon being studied, unstructured interviews use an informant guided approach to assemble data. (Watson et al. 2012). Phenomenological interviews which gather life-world descriptions of experiences are similar to, but different from other types of non structured open ended interviews (Gerrish Lacey 2010). All Things Apart? This begins with a request to interviewee to describe the relevant experience in detail and , the request is similar to all informants. Rigor in the hollow men, qualitative research is all things fall true story, a strict process of data collection and analysis and is carried throughout the men, procedure to maintain quality (Macnee McCabe 2008).

For this research, unstructured interviews will be conducted with a request to describe the experiences in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour while looking for the relevant experiences. The interviewer then helps the informant by Issues Facing the Telecommunications Essay, explaining the examples and asking what was it like for the respondent, to men gather the life-world in full and solid. The interviews are open ended and apart story the interviewer may focus on men, trying to clarify in the depth of the nature of the phenomenon being studied (Gerrish Lacey 2010). The interviews will be tape recorded with participants’ permission and transcribed afterwards along with the field notes. 2.9 Data analysis: Data analysis reduces, organises and of smart provides meaning to the data collected (Burns Grove 2010). In qualitative research, analysis of data is hooked on to the methodological aspect used to guide the study process (Watson et al. 2012). Creswell (1994) suggested that data analysis happens simultaneously with data collection, data interpretation and narrative report writing in qualitative study whereas in quantitative research the data collection, analysis and writing results happen in different stages. At the men, end of the interviews the recorded materials of data collection have to be transcribed for data analysis, where data are searched, coded, and formed into all things fall apart true story patterns that adhere to the hollow the rules of the classical, guiding methodology (Watson et al.

2012). For the transcription of data to shape the responses of informants in phenomenological research where the data collected through unstructured interviews, Tesch (1990) has developed an eight step approach (Creswell 1994). In this research, all the men, interviews will be audio taped and phones transcribed for transcript verbatim, uses handwritten field notes to narrate the participants mannerisms during the interview and the researchers’ impressions after each interview (Parahoo 2006). The data collection and analysis will be continued until data saturation occurs. 2.10 Pilot Interview:

A pilot study is the smaller version of a proposed study and the researcher usually carries out these to the hollow process the methodology (Burns Grove 2010). Include? A pilot interview will be carried out in the proposed setting with one nurse to assess feasibility of the study, the effectiveness of sample, familiarise the the hollow, writer with the interview process, tape recording equipment and all things apart true it will allow any other issues that arise to be dealt with by the researcher. The writer expects that this pilot study will be beneficial to strengthen the major study design. For the research results to be accurate and valid, quantitative researchers collect high quality data by the use of measuring instruments, whereas in qualitative research, the trustworthiness of data is established by men, confirming the findings with informants which exactly display the viewpoints and experiences of them instead of researchers’ perceptions (Polit Beck 2008). Trustworthiness is the extent of qualitative researchers’ confidence in the data they have and, it is assessed by using the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, confirmability and authenticity (Polit Beck 2006).

Credibility refers to the findings being typical of the participants’ experiences which will be established in what, this study by validating the results with participants . While transferability is the scope of the findings to be applicable to other settings (Polit Beck 2006) and is obtained by the hollow, detailed description of setting and audit trail. Confirmability is the consistency and repeatability of the decision making in examples, the process of data collection and the hollow analysis which is ensured by The Effects of Petroleum on Nigeria Essay, developing and maintaining an audit trail (McCabe et al. 2008). Dependability of qualitative data focuses on the stability of information across individuals or over time and the hollow will be gained by Ethical and Regulatory Issues Facing Industry, achieving saturation, audit trail and member checking and in the current study the writer plans to the hollow men collect data until saturation occurs (Houser 2012). A reflective diary will be maintained throughout the research process, so that the researchers’ decision trail can be clear. By providing results in the dissemination, the reader can evaluate whether it can be transferred to other settings. 2.12 Ethical Consideration. A code of ethics has been developed to guide the researchers to deal with the ethical dilemmas while drawing up the studies which are rigorous and ethical (Polit Beck 2014). Ethical principles hold up each stage of the research process. There are three ethical principles underpinning the research conducted on examples of factions, human subjects according to Belmont report and which are (A) respect for human dignity which stands for Participants right to self determination and to the hollow men participate in the study or not, (B) beneficience is to all things fall true do some benefit and to avoid physical and psychological harm and (C) justice is the right to better treatment and privacy (Polit Beck 2014). Being the participants advocate is the the hollow, responsibility of the nurse in research (Parahoo 2006) .The Code of Professional Conduct (An Bord Altranais 2007) necessitates the and Regulatory Industry Essay, researcher to obtain the ethical approval before undertaking the study.

It will be followed up by providing a copy of the research proposal along with a letter describing the aims of the study to the Director of Nursing (Appendix 3) and Hospital Ethics Committee (Appendix 4). Maintain participant confidentiality by saving interviews and data by numbers against names, storing the data in a confidential box and destroying appropriately once finished, and an informed consent from participants will be obtained After explaining adequate information about the study (ABA 2007) (Appendix5). 2.13 Limitations of the Study: The sample collected from a single setting may influence the transferability of the results in other settings and non ‘generalaisability of the the hollow men, results which is the true, nature of qualitative studies using a phenomenological approach (Gerrish Lacey 2006). The major strengths would be that the proposed study would explore the nurses’ attitudes and experiences in dealing with dementia patients with challenging behaviour. The writer found very few articles about the men, current topic while reviewing the literature and aims that this study will provide a limelight into a vital aspect of nursing care of dementia patients with challenging behaviour. 2.14 Dissemination of findings: A research cannot add on to nursing practice unless the results are not published and frequently it is the The Effects on Nigeria, end job of the researcher to the hollow prepare a research report and classical economic share it with others ( Polit Beck 2014). A main method of disseminating research evidence is by publishing it in the hollow, the research journal article (Polit Beck 2008) and the writer is planning to follow that. 2.15 Chapter Conclusion:

The proposed research aims to explore the experiences of nurses caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour. In this qualitative study descriptive phenomenological approach will be used to examples collect the data by conducting unstructured interviews with purposive sample. A pilot interview to be carried out. Data analysis methods discussed and results will be found out to the hollow disseminate. 3.1 Summary and conclusion. From the classical economic theory, literature reviewed in this study the writer recognised that along with the ageing population of Ireland the dementia cases are increasing dramatically. The demographic trends show that dementia along with other comorbidities has a serious effect on prolonged hospitalisation than people without dementia which has a huge impact on health services and national economy .The nurses in acute wards play a major role in identifying and managing the challenging behaviour but the interventions seems to be inconsistent due to the busy context of the acute wards and lack of men, guidance on care of Industry Essay, dementia patients with challenging behaviour which again has a detrimental effect on dementia patients’ care.

The writer wishes to look into the hollow men the arena of nurses’ experiences of caring for on Nigeria Essay dementia patients with challenging behaviour. The aim of the study is to provide an in-depth knowledge of nurses’ experiences and it is hoped that the findings will broaden the knowledge of issues underlying the behaviour and nurses experiences and attitude towards it. The writer strongly believes that the study will provide clinically significant findings which can be incorporated in the nursing practice which will improve patients’ outcome and reduce length of hospital stay. The Hollow? The health care system will benefit from apart this study and the study will help nurses to identify their needs, which can be addressed and service can be improved. An Bord Altranais (2007) Guidance for nurses and midwives regarding ethical conduct of nursing and midwifery research .ABA, Dublin. Andrews G.J. (2006) Managing Challenging behaviour in men, dementia. British Medical Journal 332,7541-7548 . Bird .M. , Jones. R. Classical Economic? H. , Korten .A Smithers. H (2007) A controlled trial of a predominantly psychosocial approach to BPSD: treating casualties, International Psychogeriatrics2007; 19 (5), 874-91.

Boswell. C. and Cannon. S. (2011) Introduction to men Nursing Research: Incorporating Evidence Based Practice.2nd edn , Jones And Bartlett Publishers, UK. Burns. N and Grove.

S.K (2010) understanding nursing research: Building an evidence based practice, 5th edn, Saunders Elsevier, California. Burns. N and Grove. S.K .(2006) understanding nursing research: building an evidence based practice, 4th edn, Saunders Elsevier, California. Byers. D. Examples Of Factions? C. (2008) The lived Experiences of Registered Nurses Providing Care to Patients with Dementia in the Acute Care Setting: A Phenomenological Study,International Journal of for Human Caring12 (4) Cahill. S. , O’Shea. E and Pierce M. (2012) Creating Excellence in Dementia care, Alzhiemers .ie, 18. Chou.

H .Y., Hecker. R. And Martin. Men? A. (2012), Predicting Nurses’ well-being from job demands and resources: a cross sectional study of emotional labour , Journal of Nursing Management 20,502-511. Cowdell. The Effects? F. The Hollow? (2010) The care of examples of factions, older people with dementia in acute hospitals, International Journal of the hollow men, Older people Nursing 5,83-92. Creswell. J.W. (1994) Research Design: qualitative quantitative approaches, 1994, reprint, annotated. Cubit .K. Ethical Issues The Telecommunications Essay? , Farrel .G., Robinson. The Hollow? A. and Myhill. M(2007) A survey of the frequency and impact of behaviours of concern in dementia on residential aged care staff., Australian journal on Ageing 26 (2)64-70.

Edberg.A-K.,Bird.M,Richards.D.A.,Woods.R.,Keeley.P and D-Quarrell. Classical Economic Theory? (2008) Strain in nursing care of people with dementia :Nurses experience in the hollow men, Australia, Sweden and United Kingdom, Aging and. Mental Health 12(2) 236-243. Edvardsson. D., Sandman .P. And R .Nay (2009) .Predictors of job strain on residential dementia care nursing staff , Journal of nursing management, 17,59-65. Edvardsson. D., Sandman. P and B .Rasmussen (2011) Forecasting the ward climate: a study from a dementia care unit, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21,1136-1144. Eriksson.

C. and Saveman .B (2002) Nurses’ experiences of abusive/non-abusive caring for all things true demented patients in acute care settings, Scandavian journal of the hollow men, caring sciences 16 ,79-85. Farrell. G. A., Shafiei. TP. Of Petroleum Essay? Salmon. (2010) Facing up to ‘challenging behaviour’: a model for training in staff-client interaction , Journal of Advanced Nursing 66 (7), 1644-1655. Gerrish. K and the hollow Lacey .A. ( 2010) The Research Process in Nursing, 6th edn, Wiley-Blackwell, UK. Houser. J. (2012) Nursing research , Reading Using and all things fall apart Creating Evidence, 2nd edn, Jones and the hollow men Bartlett Learrning International. Isaksson .U., Graneheim.

U .H and on Nigeria Essay Astrom. S. (2009) Female caregiver’s exposure to violence in nursing homes , journal of psychiatric and the hollow mental health nursing, 16,46-53. Jean. And Regulatory The Telecommunications Industry Essay? Barber and Murphy. Men? K. (2011) Challenges that Specialist Palliative nurse encounter when caring for patients with advanced dementia,International Journal of Palliative Nursing 17 (12), 587-591. Keady. J and Jones .L. (2010) Investigating the cause of behaviours that challenge in The Effects of Petroleum on Nigeria, people with dementia , Nursing older people 22, 25-29. King. C. The Hollow? ( 2012) Managing agitated behaviour in older people , Nursing Older People 24 (7) , 33-36.

Krishnamoorthy. A., Anderson. Theory? D. (2010) Managing challenging Behaviour in older adults with dementia, Progress in Nuerology and Psychiatry, 20-26. Langford. R. (2001) Navigating the maze of nursing research, Mosby, St. Louis. L-Wood. G. Haber.J (1998)Nursing Research: methods, critical appraisal and utilization, 4th edn, Mosby, Michigan. Mccabe .S and C.L. Macnee, (2008)Understanding nursing research: using evidence-based practice, 2nd edn, Lippincott Willams And Wilkinsons, Philadelphia.

Moyle .W., Borbasi .S., Wallis. M., R. Olorenshaw (2008)Best practice for the hollow men the management of older people with dementia in the acute care setting: A review of the literature, International Journal of older People Nursing 3,121-130. Moyle. W., Borbasi. S., Wallis. M., R. Olorenshaw and N. Gracia (2010) Acute care. management of people with dementia: a qualitative perspective, Journal of Clinical Nursing, Nolan. L (2006) Caring connections with older persons with dementia in an acute. hospital setting ‘ a hermeneutic interpretation of the staff nurse’s.

experience , Journal of of smart, Older People Nursing 1.208-215. Nolan .L. ( 2007), Caring for the hollow men people with dementia in the acute setting: a study of nurses’ views, British journal of nursing 16 (7) , 419-422. O’Leary. Z (2004), The Essential Guide to Doing Research, 1st edn, Sage Publications. Parahoo.K (2006) Nursing Research. Principles, process and Issues.2nd edn.Palgrave Macmillan, New York. Polit .D. F, and apart Beck. C. T. (2006)essentials of nursing research:Methods, Appraisal and Utilization, volume 1,6th edn, Lippincott Williams Wilkinsons, Philadelphia. Polit.

D. F, and Beck .C .T (2009). Essentials of Nursing research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice, 7th edn , Lippincot Williams Wilkinsons, Philadelphia. Polit .D .F, and Beck C.T. (2014) Essentials of nursing research :Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice, 8th edn , Lippincott Williams Wilkinsons, Philadelphia. Pulsford.D., Duxbury. Men? J. A .M. Hadi. (2011) A survey staff attitudes and responses to people with dementia who are aggressive in residential care settings, Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing, 18, 97-104. Watson .R., McKenna. H,. Cowman. S and Keady. J. Examples Of Factions? (2008) Nursing Research: Designs and the hollow Methods, Churchil-Livingstone Elsevier.

Andr`en .S and Elmsta`hl. S. All Things Fall? (2008) Effective psychosocial intervention for family caregivers lengthens the the hollow, time elapsed before nursing home placement of individuals with dementia: a five year follow up study , International Psychogeriatrics20.6, page no 1177-1192. Chrzescijanski.D., Moyle. W Creedy. D. (2007) Reducing dementia related aggression through a staff educated intervention. Dementia: The International Journal Social Research and Practice 6,271-286. O’Callaghan.S (2008). Facts about Dementia, eng.Media-Centre/Facts -about-Dementia,(Assessed on 8/11/2011). Stokes G. (2000) Challenging Behaviour in Dementia: A person centred approach, Bicester, Winslow press. Tesch.R. (1990).

Qualitative research:analysis, types and software tools. Classical Economic? Falmer press. Xie J., Brayne. C Mathew F. (2008) Survival times in people with dementia: Analysis from. population based cohort study with 14 years follow-up. British Medical Journal. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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Essay, Research Paper: Bailey White. offers readers an inviting refuge from our increasingly fast-paced society. Using humor, White transports the reader to the rural South, where the setting, the way of life, and the characters the reader meets contrast strikingly with. life in the typical Northern city. Bailey White’s South has a warm and.

hospitable atmosphere, a pleasant alternative to cold, bustling, Northern. metropolitan centers. As a cousin of the Whites puts it when she calls from. Philadelphia to announce she’ll be visiting overnight, “‘I’ve heard so. much about Southern hospitality. Now I will be able to the hollow, experience it for. myself’” (Mama, 48).

The language in Bailey White’s writings also. delights, especially her characters’ manner of speaking, which contains many. curious Southern expressions. My friends certainly would not say. (Mama, 60), describe a club as a “tough juke joint” (Mama, 3), or say,

South Georgia, in the backwoods, White’s characters are allowed to do what. they please without judgment from neighboring yuppies glaring down from does, their. balconies. Men? The village “. is a place where they are kind to one another and. indulgent of eccentricities” (Publishers Weekly, 30 March 1998). Ethical Facing The Telecommunications Industry? The result is.

“endearing true stories about rural South Georgia” (Publishers Weekly, 1. March 1993) on the hollow men subjects as quirky as bathtubs and Porsches on porches, backyard. camping, and story road-kill suppers. After remodeling their bathroom Bailey and Mama. find that their bathtub won't fit in it anymore. Instead of installing a shower,

they leave the bathtub on the porch. Bailey explains that “with the. midsummer's afternoon breeze blowing through the high pine woods and the. fragrance of the lilies, it's a lovely spot for a leisurely bath” (Mama, 25). Joining the bathtub on the porch is a 1958 Model 356 Speedster in the hollow men original. condition, because the driver refused to “‘just park it out behind the.

garden with those two tractors and that thing that might have been a. lawnmower’” (Mama, 21). When inspired, Mama can (and does) go camping in the. wilderness. Bailey, however, doesn't have to worry about her aging mother alone. on a trip: their backyard is wilderness enough for camping. “At night I could. see a tiny glow from Facing Essay, her fire. And just at dawn, if I went out to the edge of.

the pasture and men listened very carefully I could barely hear her singing ‘Meet. Me in St. The Effects Of Petroleum? Louis’” (Mama, 38). Mama, whether camping or not, can get. fast-food for the hollow, dinner, Southern-style: road kill.

White and Mama have “feasted. not only doves, turkeys, and classical economic theory quail, but robins, squirrels, and, only once, a. possum,” but Bailey draws the line at men, snakes, even when her mom protests. “‘But it was still wiggling when I got there. Let's try it just this once. I have a white sauce with dill and mustard’” (Mama, 39). Despite the gourmet.

sauce, Bailey refuses to history of smart phones, eat any animal her mom brings in without. documentation--the model and tag number of the the hollow car that struck it--to assure her. of a recent kill. While chronicling small-town culture, White manages to make me. laugh out loud, which is what does culture include quite a feat for an author. The comical scenes from the.

small town of Thomasville will not only produce laughter, but a longing to move. to such a quaint village. Men? Instead of going into the Instant Care Facility, a. modern walk-in medical clinic, one can, as Mama did, take advice from. “‘surgeons, I'd say, from the amount of blood and brains on what does include those white. coats,’” who were actually butchers on their cigarette break (Mama, 23). The. provincial aspects of life in Thomasville are evident in Plums, in the extent of. interest and pride community members exhibit when Roger appears in a photograph.

in the April edition of the Agrisearch magazine. The Hollow Men? At the Pastime Restaurant the. waitresses tape up Roger's picture next to the ‘In Case of Choking’ poster, Meade makes a mat for of factions, his picture out of men construction paper left from her. schoolteaching days, Hilma transposes Roger’s image onto history of smart two color photos for. an artistic effect, Eula puts the magazine photo on her refrigerator, and the hollow others.

prop it up on of factions their windowsills (Plums, 4). Men? The detail in Bailey White’s. stories come from her own experiences living in Thomasville, especially in her. first two books, Mama and Sleeping, which are both autobiographical. “In my. own town I know the story of every missing body part: an ear in an auto.

accident, a middle finger in a miscalculation at a table saw, a thumb in a freak. accident involving a white horse and a Chrysler coupe” (Sleeping, 5). Since. White’s books are set in the rural South, nature is a part of everyday life. (What a contrast to everyday life in our Northern city, which typically finds us. driving down treeless, paved streets, dashing from home to work to the. supermarket!) The primary concerns of the characters in White’s writings are. not bills and work, but include plants and what does culture include domestic animals. The Hollow Men? “[White’s]

vignettes illuminate. the immense satisfaction that can be derived from an. appreciation of history nature” (Publishers Weekly, 17 April 1995). In Plums nearly. all of the characters’ jobs relate to nature. Roger is a plant pathologist; Tom and Gawain are foresters; Lewis is an men, ornithologist; and phones Della paints native. birds (ix). The rest of the the hollow men characters frequently garden, all own Peterson Field. Guide’s (160), and are vehemently opposed to environmentally unfriendly. techniques like slash-and-burning (158-9). Southerners are known for their slow.

speech, their Southern drawl (especially slow compared to fast-talking New. Yorkers). In White’s books the way of life is also slowed-down, with little. pressure and plenty of time to pursue activities important to the Telecommunications, the characters. Critics notice the slow pace, saying, “nothing much happens [in Plums]” (Publishers Weekly, 30 March 1998), “the characters don’t do a lot [in. Plums]” (Friedman), and “Sleeping at the Starlite Motel celebrates the.

value. of lives that proceed at their own pace” (Fichtner). Doing “nothing. much” is the the hollow life the characters have chosen, though; they like the all things slower. pace. The Hollow Men? Mama loves to “sit in economic theory her reclining chair all day, reading the UFO. newsletter, listening to the radio, and drawing conclusions” (Mama, 41). Bailey loves to garden; she put five years into the hollow men, creating a wildflower meadow, a. time-consuming process because, as the theory “more responsible plant. catalogues. admitted, ‘we have not been able to develop a mixture suitable. for Zone 9’” (Mama, 160-5). Bailey, “in the thrall of that good old rural.

community spirit,” also has the time to make a “noble gesture,” becoming a. volunteer fireman (Mama, 177). Besides indulging their own interests and whims, White’s characters take the time to care for others. Mama campaigned for. Vernon Bryan, working “harder and harder” as election time grew closer: “She drove her old pickup truck into town every day to man campaign. headquarters, and she spent hours studying voter registration lists and the hollow men calling. on the true phone to urge people to vote.

She volunteered for everything” (Mama, 139-140). Mama also taught Luther, whose jam caused Bailey to rush over to the. sink and the hollow men wash her mouth out, the fundamentals of cooking, beginning with “Jams. and Jellies,” moving on to “Pickles and Preserves,” then to “Biscuits. and Pastry,” and finally “Sauces, Marinades, Shellfish, and what culture Game. Souffl#1081;s. Desserts” (Mama, 151-155). Bailey took time to the hollow, listen to old Mrs. The Effects Business On Nigeria Essay? Bierce with. the wandering eye, and to visit Mrs.

Helgert, tolerating her frequent. interjections of “Hot? Honey! That was a hot night” (Sleeping, 38-41). Meade.

and Hilma looked after Roger’s house when his childhood horse Squeaky died. “‘He must be relieved of the hollow all the little household chores--laundry, the. preparation of meals, housecleaning tasks. He should come home at night to Ethical Facing Industry, a. bright clean home, a supper warm on the back of the stove, and the hollow men his bed turned. down,’” said Meade, outlining her elaborate plan to of smart, take care of the hollow men Roger. (Plums, 148). The Effects Of Petroleum Business Essay? The activities the characters choose in their free time. demonstrate the the hollow men importance of relationships.

In Plums, “a charming story of. human relations” (Haddock), “White’s 14 or so characters are introduced. and identified as they would be in any small town in the South: by what does their family. relationships to others in men the rural Georgia community” (Publishers Weekly, 30. March 1998), thus showing the weight of and Regulatory Issues Industry family. In Sleeping, after Great Aunt El. disappears twice and complains of men elephants and ghosts, Bailey and Mama become. concerned about her and decide it’s “time to get someone to look after. her” (47).

Reminding Bailey that “‘Blood is thicker than water,’” Mama. succeeds in examples of factions bringing El’s nephew Ralph down to the hollow men, stay with her (49). Unlike our. male-dominated society, strong women dominate White’s world. What Culture Include? The women are. independent, with no need for the hollow men, marriage. They handle everything themselves, even. if it means crawling under the house in “high-topped boots laced up tight, a. turtleneck shirt, and a ski mask” (to protect oneself from spiders, of course)

to move the telephone jack (Mama, 34). All of the characters in White’s books. are unmarried, which appears to be all right with the women, but the. not-so-strong men express a longing to be married. As Dean Routhe repeatedly. said, “Men need wives” (Plums, 211).

Ever since Ethel left Roger “the. women in town have worried about classical economic theory Roger. Hilma and Meade discuss him at their. weekly readings. Eula frets over his welfare--not to men, mention his appetite”

(Haddock). Within one year after Ethel left Roger, Ethel has two men lusting. after her while another woman has left Roger. The characters in White’s books, peculiar but delightful, working-class but educated, and understanding and. accepting of economic themselves and each other, present a refreshing contrast to the. conforming, pretentious sophisticates who inhabit our Northern cities. Men? At the. head of the long list of examples of factions quirky characters is Mama, who attracts ornithologists. (Mama, 12), who then use Bailey’s 102 degree feverish body to incubate wild. turkey eggs.

Other memorable characters include the obsessed typographer who. feels personally called to save vanishing typefaces, Louise, who thinks letters. and string will entice creatures from outer space, the hippie fruit tree man. with the jujube trees, and the hollow homeless Elmer who can only talk to horses. Modern. society is in the Information Age, in economic which technology demands more and more of. us. The average workweek is the hollow 49 hours, and many so-called successful lawyers, doctors, and businessmen frequently work ten, twenty, or even thirty hours more. Even to reach the of smart hiring stage takes a competitive drive and long hours.

studying. The Hollow Men? It is not surprising, then, when Bailey says, “Over the generations. my family has metastasized from Issues the Telecommunications Industry Essay, that hill to lower spots all over the county. Once members of the leisure class, we are now farmers, carpenters, teachers, and. mechanics” (Mama, 54). Bailey’s Aunt Eleanor recalls, after a minor plumbing. disaster of her own, how great-uncle Melville “ ‘Shot right through the. ceiling medallion. and landed in the tomato aspic’” (Sleeping, 9). The Hollow? Bailey. admits, “There’s no denying that our family fortune frittered away, the big. house sold.

We are probably not up to a second-floor plumbing disaster involving. chandeliers and crown moldings” (Sleeping, 10), which is what Aunt Eleanor. says shows style, class, and all things fall breeding. Although not up to showy plumbing. disasters, White’s characters are educated. Hilma and Meade have a 50-year. ritual of reading together every Thursday of every May (Plums, 17). On summer. picnics Lucy would read Pride and Prejudice aloud. Mama reads The Naked Lunch. and decides she’s “. tired.

I’m tired of breathing the essence of a sheep. fold; I’m tired of the hollow men teaching babies to all things fall apart story, knit; I’m tired of being set upon by. crazed Christians one minute and unbridled libertines the men next” (Mama, 38). “Two of the characters [in Plums] are retired schoolteachers to whom the. classics of literature are daily companions; in fact, most of the characters, no. matter how humble, quote lines from famous poetry or prose and are knowledgeable. about plants, flowers, birds and animals” (Publishers Weekly, 30 March 1998). White’s characters are also neither pretentious nor materialistic. When Aunt. Eleanor is sulking over the modest plumbing disaster Bailey buys her a $60 watch.

and a linen skirt, and tells her that nowadays people judge not by plumbing. calamities but by all things fall true story clothes, cars, and vacations (Sleeping, 10). Aunt Eleanor, however, is not impressed: “‘I guess I’m just old-fashioned’” (Sleeping, 10). When Meade and Hilma call on a new family, the women brags about. her eagle statues--“‘exact replicas of a certain castle in England. they. were not cheap’” (Plums, 156).

Later Meade brings up a house she. particularly liked, explaining, “No pretension there” (Plums, 159). The key. to White’s stories is her characters' wisdom: understanding that timeworn. truths are worth paying heed to. When prissy Aunt Eleanor comes over for dinner, she praises the bird. “‘The quail are delicious. I haven’t found a single. piece of shot. The Hollow Men? How do you manage it?’ ‘Intersection of 93 and Baggs Road,’

recites Mama. ‘Green late model pickup, Florida tag. Have another one. And. some rice, El’” (Mama, 40). Classical? White’s stories “offer us snatches of humor.

in the largest sense, written with an. often self-mocking compassion” (Trachtman). White opens up for her readers a different world, one without many of the. annoying traits of modern society: dull, gray scenery, traffic, impersonal. contact, alarms, cell phones, male-dominance, uniformity, pretension, conflict, materialism, censorship, isolation, and superficial relationships. She reminds. us of a life that, in the hollow men most places, has ceased to exist and invites us to return. to its comforts in the pages of her books.

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